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GJIEAT BRITAIN, with 15 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Second Edition. 1890. 10 marks. 

'London and its environs, wltU a Maps and 15 Plans. 

Seventh Edition. 1839. 6 marks. 

BELGIUM AND HOLLAND, with 13 Maps and 20 Plans. 

Tenth Kdition. 1891. 6 marks. 

THE RHINE from Rotterdam to Constance, with 36 

Slaps and 22 Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1889. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 35 Maps and 54 Plans. 

Tenth Edition. 1890. 8 mark.s. 

SOUTHERN GERMANY and AUSTRIA, with 15 Maps and 

3U Plans. Seventh Edition. 1891. 8 marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarun High- 
lands, Tyrol, Salzkammergut , etc. witu 3'j Maps, 

12 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. Seventh Edition. 1891. 8 marks. 

GREECE, with 6 Maps, 14 Plans and a Panorama of Athens. 
1889. 10 marks. 

NORTHERN ITALY, including Florence and the Island 

or Corsica, and routes to Italy turodgh France, Switzerland, 
etc., v.ith 19 .Maps and 33 Plans. Eighth Edition. 1389. 6 marks. 

CENTRAL ITALY and ROME, with lu Maps, 31 Plans, and 

a Panorama of Home. Tenth Edition. 1890. 6 marks. 

SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY, and Excursions to the 
LiPARi Islands, Tunis (Carthage), Sardinia, Malta, and 

Corfu, with 26 Maps and 16 Plans. Tenth Edition. 1890. G marks. 

NORWAY AND SWEDEN, with 23 Maps and 13 Plans. 

Fourth liditiun. 1889. 9 marks. 


TO Paris. With 11 Maps and 31 Plans. Tenth Kdition. 1891. marks. 

NORTHERN FRANCE, with Maps and 25 Plans. 1889. 

7 marks. 

SOUTHERN FRANCE, with 14 Maps and 19 Plans. 1891. 

9 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, akd the adjacent Parts of Italy, 

Savoy, and the Tyrol, with 39 Maps, U Plans, and 12 Panoramas. 
Fourteenth Kditiun. 1891. 8 marks. 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Peninsula of Sinai, with IG 

Maps, 30 Plans, and 7 Views. Second I'.dition. 1885. 16 marks. 

UPPER EGYPT, WITH Ni iua as far as the Second Cata- 
ract, and the Western Oases. With ii Jiaps and 2GPian.s. 

1892. 10 marks. 

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CONVl-lRSATION DICTIONARY in four languages: Eng- 

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And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call 
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The present volume forms the secoutl part of the Edi- 
tor's Handbook for J^gypt, the first part of which has reached 
a second edition in 1885. 

The materials upon which this Handbook to Upper Egypt 
is chiefly founded were contributed principally by Professor 
Georg Ehers of Leipsic, and Professor Johannes Dumichen of 
Strassburg, and their work, which was mainly finished in 
1877, has been revised, augmented, and brought xip to date 
in all practical details by Professor August Eisenlohr of 
Heidelberg, who has twice visited Egypt for this express 
purpose. To Prof. Ebers the editor is indebted for the account 
of the Nile-voyage as far as and including Phil* ; Prof. Dli- 
michen contributed the descriptions of the temples of Den- 
derah and Edfu, of the town ofKeneh, and of the caravan- 
routes thence via the quarries of Hamamat to Koser on the 
Red Sea ; while the routes in Lower Nubia and to the Western 
Oases are wholly from the pen of Prof. Eisenlohr. 

The practical introduction to the first volume , and the 
sections on the geography, history , and art of Egypt, there 
published , apply of course also to the districts of Upper 
Egypt. The special introduction to the present volume deals 
chiefly with the Nile voyage and the necessary preparations 
for it, preceded by a brief survey of the chief steamer-routes 
between Egypt and Europe and a note on the new Egyptian 
monetary system, in-troduced since the publication of the 
Handbook to Lower Egypt. A list of works on Egypt is 
added , and , to obviate the necessity of too frequent re- 
ferences to the first volume , also a chronological list of the 
rulers of Egypt down to the close of the Ptolemaic period, 
and a selection from the royal cartouches of most frequent 
occurrence in Upper Egypt. Fiually the Arabic Alphabet 
is given, showing the system of transliteration adopted in 
this Handbook. 

The Maps and Plans have been an object of especial 
care. The former are based upon the large maps of Kiepert, 
Lepsius, and Linant; the latter chiefly upon the plans of 
Lcpsius, though with the necessary additions and corrections, 
while some have been specially prepared by Prof. Eisenlohr. 


Heights above the sea-level and other measurements are 
given iu English feet or miles. 

Though nearly every page of the Handbook has been 
compiled from personal observation and experience , and 
although the conservative East is not nearly so liable to 
changes as the more progressive West, the Editor makes no 
claim to absolute accuracj^ in every detail; and he will feel 
indebted to any traveller who, from personal experience, 
may be able to indicate errors or omissions in the Handbook. 
The same remark applies equally to the Prices and various 
items of expenditure mentioned in the volume. The expense 
of a tour is much more directly affectcMl by the circumstances 
of the moment and the individualitj' of the traveller in the 
East than in Europe ; though it may here be added that the 
arrangements of Messrs. Cook and' Gaze (pp. xiv, xv), of 
which most visitors to Upper Egj^pt will avail themselves, 
oifer a comparative immunity against extortion. A carefully 
drawn up contract will similnrly protect those who prefer to 
hire a dhahabtyeh for themselves. 



Introduction. ^"^'^ 
I. Steamer Routes between Europe and Eevut 

II. Monetary System ... syp . . . . xi 

III. The Nile Voyage .......' 

IV. "Works on Egypt 

y. Chronological List of the ancient rufers of Egypt ' xxyI 

ArTT ST'"^1^ 'f *''''""§ "^™es «f Egyptian Kings . . xxxi 

VII. The Arabic Alphabet xxxviii 


1. From Cairo to Assiut a 

a. By Railway , 

b. By the Nile ! 

The Pyramid and Mastabas of Medu'm 9 

Ahnas el-Medineh (Heracleopolis) t 

From Benisuef to the Fayum t 

Convents of SS. Anthony and Paul r 

Behnesah ... ° 

Wadi et-Ter ..*.'.' " ' 5 

From Mi£yeh to Benihasan .' ." n 

Ashmunen (Hermopolis Magna) '. in 

Beni 'Adin ... j,^ 

2. The Fayum .....'.".".'.'.■.■.";; 3I 

Situation and History of the Fayilm ok 

^^l"^^°''«/^0'a Medinet el-Faytim. Bihamn.' Ebgig." ." ' 38 

Pyramid of Hawarah. The Ancient Labyrinth ^ «• " • ^° 

Lake Wceris ... ■! " oj 

Pyramid of el-Lahun. ' Garob ." f? 

Birket el-Kurun and Kasr Kuriin 19 

d. From Assiut to Belianeh ', '. . In 

Kau el-Kebir (Antpeopolis) . ;,7 

The Red and the White Co'nv'ents . /,o 

Akhmim (Khemmis) . . . ?o 

4. Abydos ^9 

Memnonium of Seti I. . ks 

Sepulchral Temple of Ramses 11." ! 07 

Necropolis of Abvdos ... . • • • ■ d( 

5. From Belianeh to Keneh (Denderah) '. '. 70 

Diospolis Parva -f, 

Kasr es-Saiyad (Chenoboskion)' ." .' -rV 

Tabenna (Tabennesus) . 70 

o. Routes through the Eastern Desert .......' 73 

From Keneh to Myos Hormos ... 73 

From Keneh or Kuft to Koser via Wadi Hamamfit .' " ' ' 71 

^rom Koser to Laketah via Wadi Kash .' . ' ' 77 
From Keneh or Redesiyeh to Berenike - • • 
The Emerald Mines of the Gebel Zabarah . • • • • • 

'. Denderah .... " ' ' 79 


Route Pago 

8. From Keneh to Thebes (Luxor) 98 

9. Thebes' 101 

A. The East Bank at Thebes 109 

10. The Temple of Luxor 109 

11. Karnak 115 

L The Great Temple of Ammon 116 

a. General View. The First Main Pylon IIB 

b. The Great Peristyle Court and its Additions .... 118 

c. The Great Hypostyle Hall 125 

d. The North Exterior Wall of the Hypostyle 127 

e. The Older E. part of the Temple of Ammon .... 131 

f. The S. side of the Temple of Amnion 141 

IL The Northern Buildings 143 

HL The Southern Buildings 144 

IV. The Temple of Khunsu 148 

V. The Small Temple of Apet 150 

Excursion to Medamut 151 

B. The West Bank at Thebes 152 

12. The Colossi of Memnon 153 

13. The Ramesseum 158 

14. The Tombs of Kurnet-Murrai 168 

15. Medinet Habu . 171 

a. Pavilion of llanises III 172 

b. Large Temple of Ramses III 174 

c. Small Temple of Medinet Habu 184 

16. Tombs of the Queens 186 

Tomb of <iuoen Titi IcST 

Tombs of Queen Isis, Tuattent Apt, Bant anta, and Amen-Meri I8S 

17. Der el-Medineh ' 188 

18. The Tombs of Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah 190 

Tomb of KLa-em-liat 190 

Stuart's Tomb. Tomb of Rekb-nia-ia 191 

Tombs of Sen-nefer, Amuzeh, and Amou-em-heb .... 192 

Tombs of Pehsu-kber, Piuar, Amen-em-hat, and Anna . . 193 

Tombs of Uoremhcb, Tenuna, Amenophis, and Zanuni . . 194 
Tombs of Eamenkhepcrseneb, Amenemha, Entefakcr, Am- 

khent, Imaiseb, and Neferhotep 195 

19. The Mortuary Temple of Seti I. at Kurnah 196 

DraU Abu'l Neggah '. 199 

20. Biban cl-Muluk. Tombs of the Kings 199 

a. West Valley of the Tombs of the Kings 202 

Tombs of Amcnhotep III. and Al 202 

b. East Valley of the Tombs of the Kings 203 

Tombs of Hamses VII., Ramses IV., Ramses XIII., Ram- 
ses IX 203-205 

Tombs of Ramses II. or XII. and Merenptah 1 207 

Tomb of Ramses VI 209 

Toml)S of Anionmescs and Ramses III 212 

Tomb of Siptab. Tauser, and Seti Nekht 215 

Tombs of Seti 11., Merenptab II., and Seti 1 217 

Tombs of Ramses X. and Ra-mcses Mentu-her-Khopeshf , . 220 


Route Page 

21. From Biban el-Muluk to el-Asasif and Der el-t)ahri . . . 221 

Shaft of the royal mummies 228 

22. From Ttebes to Edfu 230 

Esneh 231 

Convent of Ammonius 235 

Pyramid of el-Kulah 236 

El-Kab (Eileithyia) 236 

Kom el-Ahmar 243 

23. Edfu . . .■ 243 

24. From Edfu to Gebel Silsileh 253 

Temple of Redesiyeh 254 

Inscriptions near el-Hosh 254 

Shaft er-Regal . . . ' 255 

Monuments and Inscriptions at Grebel Silsileh 256 

25. From Gebel Silsileli to Kom Ombo 260 

26. From Kom Ombo to Assuan 265 

Tombs on Mount Grenfell 269 

27. The Island of Elephantine 271 

28. From Assuan to Phila; 273 

a. Passage of the First Cataract 273 

b. From Assuan to Philas by land 274 

1. The Ptolemaic Temple 274 

2. The Arab Cemeteries 275 

3. The Quarries (Ma'adin) 276 

4. The Ancient Road and the Brick Wall 277 

c. Route through the Desert, partly beside the Cataract . 278 

Descent of the Cataract in a small boat 279 

29. The Island of Phih-e 281 

The Temple of Isis 284 

The Chapel of Hathor. The Kiosque 296 

The Cataract Islands 297 

Lower Nubia^from Philse to Wadi Halfah. 

Introduction 299 

History 300 

Population and Language 303 

30. From Phihe to Kalabsheh 304 

Debot . . . ■ 304 

Kertassi 305 

Tafeh 306 

Kalabsheh 307 

iat el-Walli 309 

31. From Kalabsheh to Dakkeh 312 

Dendur 312 

Gerf Husen . 314 

Dakkeh " 316 

The Gold-mines in Wadi 'Olaki 321 

32. From Dakkeh to Abu-Simbel 322 

The Temples of Ofedinah (llaharakah) and Sebu'ah .... 322 

Korusko ' ;; 324 

Desert-routes to Abu Hamed. Temple of 'Amadah .... 325 

Derr .' 328 

Ibrim and Kasr Ibrim 329-330 


Route Page 

33. The Rock-Temples of Abu-Simbel 331 

The Great Temple 332 

The Smaller Temple 337 

The Temple of Thoth-Harmachis 339 

34. From Abu-Sirabel to the Second Cataract 339 

The Temple of Feraig 339 

From Wadi Halfah to Semneh and Kummeh 342 

35. The Western Oases 343 

I. Oasis of Jupiter Ammon, now Siwah 844 

II. Oases of Bahriyeh and Farafrah 348 

III. Oasis of elKhargeh 348 

-^ IV. Oasis of Dakhel 354 

Index 357 


1. Skktch-Mai" of the Nile Dlstkicts, before the Title Page. 

2. Map ok the Nile from Cairo to Feshn, between pp. 2, 3. 

3. Map of the Kile fkom Feshn to Lcxok, between pp. 8, 9. 

4. Sketch-Map of Abidos, p. 54. 

5. Map of the Nile fkom Keseh to Pemhid, between pp. 98, 99. 

6. Sketcu-Map of Thebes, between pp. 102, 103. 

7. Sketch-Map of the Necuopolis of Thebes, between pp. 152, 153. 

8. Sketch-Map ok the Tombs of ShEkh 'Abd el-Kdknah, between 

pp. 196. 197. 

9. Map ok the First Cataract from Assuan to Piiil.«, between pp. 274, 275. 

10. Map of the Island of Phil«, p. 282. 

11. Map ok the Nile from DemhId to the Second Cataract, between 

pp. 304, 305. 

J. Memnonium of Seti I. at Abtdos, p. 55. 

2. Temple of Hathok at Dendeuah, p. 80. 

3, 4, 5. Crtpts of the Temple at Uenderah, pp. 96, 97. 

6. Temple of Luxor, p. 110. 

7. Sketch-Plan of Karnak, p. 116. 

8. Temple of Ammon at Karnak, p. 117. 

9. Temple op Khunsu at Karnak, p. 150. 

10. The Kamesselm, p. 15S. 

11. Temples of MedInet Habu, p. 172. 

12. Tomb of Queen Titi, p. 187. 

13. Mortoari Temple of Seti I. at Kubnah, p. 196. 

14. Tomb of Amenhotep III., p. 202. ' 
16. - - Ramses IV., p. 204. 

16. - - Ramses IX., p. 206. 

17. - - Merenptah II., p. 208. 

18. - - Kamses VI., p. 210. 

19. - - Ramses III., p. 213. 

20. - - Siptah and Tauser, p. 216. 

21. - - Seti I., p. 218. 

22. Temple of Horus at Edfu, p. 244. 

23. Temple op Isis on I'hil^;, p. 283. 

24. Temple op Oerf IIusfiN, p. 314. 

25. Temple of Uakkkh, p. 317. 

26. Great Temple of Abu-Simbel, p. 332. 


1. Section of Tombs and Coldmns of Benihasan, p. 13. 

2. IlvpoSTVLE Hall of Karnak, p. 125. 

3. Source of the Nile on Piiil.t., p. 294. 

are used as marks of commendation. 


I. steamer Routes between Europe and Egypt. 

Fuller details as to the steamers in the Mediterranean are given 
in the first volume of the Handbook (pp. 7-10). The following re- 
sume of the principal routes embodies the most recent alterations. 
A. From England direct. Steamers of the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steam Navigation Co. (T. &0.'), leaving London every 
week, for India or Australia, sail via Gibraltar, Malta, and Brindisi 
(see below) in 12-13 days to Port Sa'td (fares 1st cl. 19i., 2nd cl. 
iil., return-tickets 29i., ill.') and Isma'Uiyeh [20l., i2L, return 
30^., 18i.), whence a special train is run to Cairo on the arrival of 
the steamer. Passengers for Alexandria change at Brindisi to the 
fortnightly steamer thence (see below; fares from London, 18^., 
iOl., return 27«., 10^.}. The steamers from London touch fortnightly 
at Naples (see p. xii). Return-tickets are valid for 3 months. 

Steamers of the Orient and Pacific Co. ('Orient Line'), leaving 
London every alternate week, sail via Gibraltar and Naples to Is- 
ma'Uiyeh. Thence by rail to Alexandria (fares ist cl. 2il., return- 
ticket, valid for 6 months, 33i.) or to Cairo (20l., return 32^.). 

Steamers of the Papayunni Line, Moss Line, Anchor Line, and 
Ocean Line sail from Liverpool to Alexandria at irregular intervals 
(fare about 15Z.). 

Overland Routes fkou London to Mediterranean Poets. Brindisi 
may be reached from London in about 59 hrs., either via, Paris and Mont 
Gems (fares 1st cl 12« 8«. Gd. , 2nd cl. 9i., 1^.). or via Bale and the 
St. Gotthard (fares 121. 5s. 6d., 81. 17s. 6a.), or in 49 hrs. by the P. & O. 
Express leaving London every Frid. afternoon (fare, including sleeping 
berth, 16/. 18,s-. ; tickets obtainable only of Sleeping Car Co 122 Pall 
Mall, S.W., or the P. & O. Co., 122 Leadenhall St., E.G.). - Genoa is 301/4 hrs. 
from London via Paris and Turin (fares 71. 16s., 51. 16s.), or 36 hrs via 
Bale and the St. Gotthard (fares 81. 2s., 51. 19s,). — Venice is 42 hrs. from 
London either via Paris and Mont Genis (fares 9i. is. , 61. Us ) or via 
Bale and the St. Gotthard (fares HI. 15s., 61. 8s.). — Marseilles is 25-28 hrs. 
from London, according to route selected between London and Paris (fares 
Ist cl. 51. Ids. Id. -11. 6s. dd., 2nd cl. Al. 9s. id. -51. 10s. Gd.). A 'Medi- 
terranean Express' leaves Paris for Marseilles etc. three times a week in 
winter, once a week in summer; passengers from London by this train 
pay il. Os. id. in addition to the ordinary 1st cl. fare. 

B. From Mediterranean Ports. P, & 0. Steamers, in con- 
nection with the P. & 0. Express (see above), leave Brindisi every 
Sun. evening for Port Sa'id (fares 1st cl, iOl. , 2nd cl. 7Q and 
Isma'Uiyeh (fares iil., 8l.). — Steamers of the same company leave 


Venice every alternate Frid. at 2 p.m., for Ancona (weather per- 
mitting) and Brindisi (arriving on Sun.). They leave Brindisi on 
Mon. at 2 a.m. (in direct connection with Sun. morning express 
from Bologna) and reach Alexandria on Tues. morning (72hrs. from 
Brindisi). Return from Alexandria every alternate Mon. at 3 p.m. 
Fares from Venice or Ancona, 1st cl. lOi., 2nd cl. 7^., from lirin- 
disi , 9l., &l. ; return-ticket from Venice to Alexandria, valid for 
3 months, 15^., ill. — P. & 0. Steamers also leave Naples every 
alternate Sat. for Port Said (lOZ., 7i.) and Isma'iliyeh (lit., Si.). 

'Orient Line' Steamkrs leave Naples every alternate Sun. at 
midnight for Port Sa'td ; returning thence every alternate Wednesday. 

The steamers of the Messageries Maritime.s leave Marseilles 
every alternate Frid. at 4 p.m. for Alexandria dire(-t (no longer touch- 
ing at Naples), arriving on Wed. morning. Return from Alexandria 
every alternate Saturday. Fares, 1st cl. 300, 2nd cl. 210 francs. 

The steamers of the Societa Florio-Rub.\ttino (Navigazione 
Generale Italiana) leave Genoa every Mon. at 9 a.m., touch at Leg- 
horn, Naples (leaving Wed. 7.30 p.m.), and Messina, and reach 
Alexandria at midnight on Monday. Return from Alexandria every 
Sat. at 3 p.m., waiting, however, for the steamer from Massowah. 

The North German LLOvn steamers sail from Genoa every al- 
ternate Mon., from Brindisi the following Wed., reaching Port Sa'id 
on Saturday. Return from Port Sa'id every alternate Saturday. 
Fares: from Genoa, cl. 400, 2nd cl. 240 marks; from Brindisi, 
240 or 175 marks. 

The Austria-Hungarian Lloyd steamers from Trieste to Ale- 
xandria now sail via Brindisi, and no longer via Corfu. Leaving 
Trieste every Frid. at midday, they reach Brindisi on Sat. at 9 p.m. 
or sooner, proceed thence on Sun. at 6 a.m. , and reach Alexandria 
on Wed. at f) a.m. Fare from Brindisi, 1st cl. S8, 2nd cl. 59 florins 
in gold. The 'Thalia' and 'Euterpe' are the best ships on this line; 
some of the others are poor. Second-class passengers have to sleep 
in the saloon. 

All the steamers now lie beside the quay at Alexandria, so that 
landing in small boats, as described in our first volume, has now 
become a thing of the past. 

II. Monetary System. 

The information as to the Egyptian monetary system given on 
pp. 4, 6 of our (Irst vol., has] to be supplemented by the statement 
that the Egyptian Government has recently issued new silver coins 
and some gold coins, and that the-^e now form the only legal cur- 
rency tiiroiighout tiie whole country, where their value is uniform. 
The unit of reckoning is still the Piastre. (Arabic Ghirsli ., plur. 
Ghrush). Tiio Egyptian Pound is (livided into IdO piastres or 
1000 Milli'emes. 


Arabic Name. 

Value in 



Value in 

Value in 

Value in 

Gold Coins. 

Gineh Masri (Egypt, pound :£'E.) 
NussehMasvi (half an Egypt, pd.) 

Silver Coins. 

Riyal Masri 

Nusseh Riydl 

Rvh'a Riydl 

Ohirshen (double piastre) . . . . 
Ghirsh (piastre) 

Nickel Coins. 

Nusseh Ghirsh 

2 MilUhme 

1 MilUime 





In Copper there are also pieces of 1/2 and '/< Millieme (called also 
2 Fara and 1 Para pieces, from the old system), but these are used only 
for bakshish by tourists. 

The difi'erence between Tariff-piastres and Curretit-piastres has been 
legally abolished ; but it still lingers among shopkeepers , 30 that pur- 
chasers should he careful to ascertain in which reckoning the prices of 
goods are stated. 

The Pound Sterling (Gineh inglisi) is worth 97 piastres 5 millieme; 
the French Twenty Franc piece {Bint, d^ived from Napoleon Bonaparte) 
77 pias. IV2 mill.; the Turkish Pound (<§& T. ; ilejidiyeh) Sl^/t piastres. A 
'purse' is equivalent to 500 piastres or about iOis. 

Before starting on the Nile-juurney travellers are recommended to 
provide themselves with at least 40 or 50 francs' worth of small Egyptian 
coins (especially '/z piastres, 1 and 2 millieme-pieces, and copper). Even 
in Cairo a commission is charged on the exchange. 

III. The Nile Journey. 

The ascent of the Nile may be made either by Steamer or by 
DhahaMyeh. The f mer is recommended to those who have not 
more than three or f nr weeks to devote to a visit to the Nile valley 
and the monuments of the Pharaohs; and in fact for the immense 
majority of travellers , especially for those who do not belong to a 
party, the steamers are the only practicable means of making the 
journey. Travellers, however, who desire to make a closer acquain- 
tance with the country, who have abundance of time (to Assuan and 
back at least 7-8 weeks), and who are indifferent to a considerable 
increase of expense, should hire a dhahabiyeh (p. xix). 

The company met with on board the steamers is generally un- 
exceptionable, though, of course, it is always wise to use some little 
exertion to secure an agreeable and sympathetic cabin-companion. 
The trunks to be taken into the cabins should be small and handy, 


for the accommodation is somewhat limited. Greater care is required 
in the choice of companions for the dhahabiyeh-voyage, for the close 
and constant intercourse in rather narrow quarters and for per- 
haps two months at a time is apt to produce somewhat strained re- 
lations between those who are not originally sympathetic. The 
'dhahabiyeh devil', indeed, is famous in Egypt for causing those 
who have embarked as friends to disembark as foes. In especial trav- 
ellers with scientific aims should avoid travelling with those who 
have no particular interest in the gigantic remains of antiquity, and 
who are thus constantly wishing to push on hurriedly from sheer 
ennui. In all cases it is prudent to distribute the various cabins 
and seats on the ilivan by lot before starting. 

A government tax of 100 pias. (20«. 6cf.) is levied upon all visitors to 
the monuments of Upper Egypt, to be devoted to the maintenance of such 
monument;:. The tax may be paid and cards admitting to the temples etc. 
obtained at the Museum of Gizeh or at Cook''8 or Gaze''8 Office. 

A. Thb Steamhoat Voyage. 
The steamers belonging to Messrs. Thomas Cook & Son (offices, 
see p. xv) are the best on the Nile, as well in point of comfort and 
cleanliness, as in point of organization and attentive service. Cook's 
TouEisT Stkamers between Cairo and Assuan start every alternate 
Tuesday from the middle of November till the end of December, 
and every Tuesday from that date until the middle of March, spend- 
ing 20 days on the voyage to Assuan and back. Extra-steamers 
are also run at the most crowded time; while two special excursions 
are organized in the course of the season , allowing four weeks for 
the double voyage. The three-weeks service is carried on by the 
steamers Rameses the Great, Rameses, Prince Mohammed Ali, 
Tewfik, and Prince Abbas, of which the two tirst are the best. The 
fare is bOl., or for occupants of the two superior cabins, specially 
adapted for invalids, 6iU. The four- weeks steamer is named Sethi; 
fare OSi. The fares include provisions (wine etc. excepted), all 
necessary travelling expenses, donkeys, English saddles for ladies, 
boats to cross the river, the services of dragomans and guides, and 
bakshish to guides. The donkey-boys, however, usually look for 
a small bakshish from tln^ traveller, who is also expected to bestow 
a gratuity upon the attendants on board the steamer. The tax 
levied by the Egyptian Government (see above) is also not included 
in the fares. Each traveller is entitled to ship 200 lbs. of personal 
luggage not exceeding 2 cubic metres in measurement. A physician 
Is carried on each steamer, whose services, if required, are paid for 
in addition to the fare. A deposit of iOl. must be paid on taking 
a ticket at Cook's offices in Europe. The name, sex, and nationality 
of the passenger must l)e inserted at the time of booking. Tickets 
are not transferable except with Messrs. Cook's consent. If a trav- 
eller be prevented by ex(;eptional circumstances from joining the 
steamer for which lie has booked he may proceed with the following 


steamer if tliere is a berth free. After that, however, the ticket he- 
comes invalid, without any recourse against Messrs. Cook. 

In 1889-90 Messrs. Cook also organized a Mail Steamer SERAacE 
between Assiiit, the railway terminus, and Assuan (4 days up, 
3 days down), starting: from Assivit on Wed. and Sat. mornings in 
connection with the day-trains leaving Bulak ed-Dakriir on Tues. 
and Frid. mornings; and returning from Assnan on Mon. and Thurs. 
afternoons in connection with the train leaving Assivit for Bulak 
ed-Dakrur on Frid. and Mon. evenings. The names of the mail- 
steamers are Cleopatra. , Nefertarl , Amenartas , and Hatasoo. In 
1891 a mail-steamer also sailed every Sat. direct from Cairo via 
Assiut to Assuan, in some respects to be jireferred to the others. 
This steamer touches at Benihasan (visit to the tombs), reaches 
Assiut on Tues. evening, and proceeds thence on Wed. morning (as 
above). The fare from Cairo is 23l. to Assuan and back (14 days, 
or 18 days if the direct steamer from Cairo be taken) and 20^ to 
Luxor and back (11 days), including 1st cl. fare from Cairo to 
Assiut, transfer of baggage at Assiut, provisions on board the 
steamers, and 3-4 days' hotel accommodation at Luxor. Incidental 
expenses for sight-seeing, donkeys, guides, etc. are not included in 
these fares. About i^/^ day is spent at Assuan, and on the return- 
voyage 3 hrs. are spent at Edfu and 23'4 hrs. at Keneh-Denderah. 
Kom Ombo, Esneh, and Luxor are night-stations, and travellers who 
desire to visit the temples at these places must do so by torch-light. 
Passengers may also spend additional time at any of the stations en 
route continuing their journey by later steamers, and paying the 
fare from stage to stage (to Luxor 2.94i.E. , to Assuan 5i.£.) together 
with 10s. per day for food on board the steamers. These mail- 
steamers enable travellers to visit the chief points in Upper Egypt 
at a less expenditure of time and money than the tourist steamers. 
No one should omit the voyage to Assuan, while Sakkarah may be 
visited from Cairo. The life on hoard these vessels is often lively ; 
and the scenes at the numerous landing-places are frequently 
highly entertaining. The mail-steamers touch at the following 
stations: Ahufig, Nekheleh, Sedfeh, Temeh, Mesldch, Tahtah, Mara- 
ghah , Shendawin, Sohag , Aklirnim, Mensluyeli , Girgelt ^ Belidneh, 
Abii Shusheh, Shckh Amran, Farshut , Kasr es-Saiydd^ Deshneh, 
Keneli, Kus, Nakddeh, Kamuleli^ Luxor, Erment, Esneh, BasaUyeh, 
Edfu, Sebu'ah, Kom Omlo, Daraivi, and Assuan. 

Detailed information as to all these steamers, as well as the dhata- 
biyelis mentioned on p. xix, will be found in CooVs Programme, pub- 
lished annually, Gd. post free, and olitainable at any of Cook's offices : 
London, Ludgate Circus; Alexandria, Place Mehe'met Ali; Cairo, Cook's 
Pavilion, next door to Shepheard's Hotel. 

The well-equipped Steamers of the Theirfikleh Nile Navigation Co. 
(managing director, Rostoivitz-Bcij^ afford another excellent means 
of ascending the Nile. Messrs. Henry Gaze & Son (London, 
142 Strand; Alexandria, Place de TEglise; Cairo, opposite Shep- 


heard's Hotel) are the sole agents. The tourist-steamers Memphis^ 
Et-Khedevie^ and El-Kahireh leave Cairo every alternate Wed., for 
Assuaii and back (21 days ; fare ¥11.'), on conditions similar to those 
of Messrs. Cook. Special thirty-days expeditions are organized 
twice during the season (fare 55i.). The company also owns the 
/S/jei^ai (26 berths) , Luxor ('25 berths), /Tarna/v (19 berths) , Den- 
derah (14 berths), Edfou, FhUce, and Elephantine (8 berths eai;h) for 
smaller parties. Messrs. Gaze & Son have also arranged a series 
of seventeen-day tours, starting (by train) from Cairo every fourth 
day from the end of November to the end of March, and proceeding 
by steamer from Assiut to Assuan and back; fare from Cairo and 
back, including 4 days' hotel accommodation at Luxor, 26i. 
Dbahabiyehs belonging to the Thewfikieh Co., see p. xix. 

Daily Itinerary of Cook's Three- weeks Steamers. 

Passengers who prefer to proceed by rail from Cairo to Assiut (not 
recommended) are provided on request with a 1st cl. railway ticket by 
Messrs. Cook. 

1st Day. Leave Cairo at 10 a.m., starting from the landing- 
stage above the iron-bridge near Kasr en-N7L At midday Bedrashen 
is reached, where donkeys are in readiness to convey passengers to 
the site of Memphis: the Step-Pyramid of Sakkar.ah, Serapuum, 
Mastaba of Ti, and Pyramid of Unas ; in all about 3 hrs. (comp. 
Baedeker s Lower Egypt, pp. 371 seq.). In the evening the steamer 
proceeds to Kafr el-'Aydt (3(5 M. from Cairo). 

2nd Day. Steam to (106 M.) MaghCighnh, where there is one 
Q of tlie Iiirgest sugar factories in Egypt (comp. p. 6), lighted by gas. 
Sugar manufacturing begins about the beginning of January. 

3fd Day. Steam to Benihasan (p. 12), whence the Speos Arte- 
midos and the tombs of Ameni-Amenemha and Khuumhotep are 
visited (p. 14). — Thence to (182 M.) llOdah. 
4th Day. Steam to (250 M.) As.sntt (p. 31). 

6th Day. Visit Assiut and neighbourhood. In the afternoon 
steam to (294 M.) El-MaraghCd (p. 48). 
O 6th Day. Steam past Belidneh (Abydos is visited on the return 
journey) to (388 M.) JJesUneh (p. 72). 

7th Day. Steam to Kcneh, whence the Temple of Denderah(j^. 79^ 
is visited. Thence to (450 M.) Luxor (p. 101), which is reached 
about 5 p.m. 

8tli Day. Visit the Temple of Kurnah, the Tombs of the Kings, 
and the Temple of Der el-bahri (pp. 196 seq.); 8 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 

9th Day. Excursion to Karnak (3hrs. ; p. 115); in the after- 
noon, the Temple of Luxor (p. 109). 

lUth Day. Visit tiii^ Kaniesscum (p. 158), the Tombs of Shekh 
'Abd el-h'urnah (p. 19U), (lie Temple of Dcr el-Medlneh (p. 188), and 
the Pavilion and Temple of Med met Jlubu (p. 171), where lunch is 
served about noon. Return via the Colossi of Memnon (p. 153). 

11th Day. Steam to (4iy2 hrs.) Esneh (p. 231), where a short 


visit to the temple is paid, then (4 hrs. more) to (515 M.) Edfu 
(p. 243), where the temple is visited. 

12th Day. Steam via Gebel Silsileh (p. 255) and Kom. Omho 
(V2 hr.'s halt; p. 260) to (583 M.) Assuan (p. 266), which is 
reached about 4 p.m. Visit to the island ot Elephantine (-p. 27 i^ 
hefore dinner. 

13th Day. Assuan, its bazaars, etc. Expedition to the tombs on 
Mount Grenfell (p. 269) recommended. 

14th Day. Expedition into the desert on donkey or camel. 
Then cross to the island of Philce (p. 281), where lunch is served. 
Passengers afterwards descend to the First Cataract in a small boat, 
and ride back to Assuan on donkeys from the Nubian village of 
Mahadah. Or they may shoot the cataract (p. 279). 

15th Day. The return voyage is begun, Luxor being reached 
before dark. 

16th Day. Karnak may be revisited ; or the travellers may in- 
spect the Necropolis of Thebes at their own expense. Arrangements 
should be made the day before with the dragoman or manager. 
The steamer starts again at noon, and reaches Keneh (p. 72) in 
the evening. 

17th Day. Steam to Belianeh, where donkeys are in readiness 
to convey travellers to Abydos (p. 53). 

18th Day. Assiilt is reached in the afternoon. Train thence to 
Cairo if desired. 

19th Day. Steam to Gebel et-Ter (p. 7), sometimes visiting the 
sugar-factory at Rodah (p. 18). 

20th Day. Arrival at Cairo. Passengers may remain on board 
until after breakfast on the following morning. 

The Four Weeks' Tour (usually in the beginning of Jan. and 
the beginning of Feb.) is much preferable to the above hurried 
visit. About 1/2 day is devoted to Bedrashen, Memphis, and Sakka- 
rah (instead of 8 hrs.), 1/2 ^^V ^^ Benihasan (instead of 4 hrs.), 2^/2 
days to Assiiit (instead of 1/2 day), 1/2 day to the Coptic Convents 
oSDer el-Abyad and Der el-Ahmar, several hours to Akhnumand to 
Keneh, 1 day to Denderah (instead of 1/2 day), 51/2 days to Thebes 
(instead of 31/2 days), several hours to Esneh, 5 hrs. to el-Kdb, 1/2 
day to Edfu, Y2 day to Gebel Silsileh, 1/9 day to Kom Ombo (where 
a night is spent), 3 days (instead of 2) to Assuan, Elephantine, and 
PhilcE, 1 day to Abydos (instead of 3/^ day), and a morning to Tell 
el-Amarnah. The steamers, being smaller, have the advantage of 
conveying a less numerous party. Timely application for a berth is 
strongly recommended. The itinerary is as follows : — 

1st Day, To Bedrashen as on p. xvi. Excursion to Afemphis (see 
Vol. I.). 

2nd Day. To Benisuef (p. 5) or Feshn (p. 6). 

3rd Day. To Benihasan (p. 12). 

4th Day. Excursion to the Speos Artemidos and tlie tombs of Ametii, 
Khnumhotep, etc. — In the afternoon to Gehel Abu Fcdah (p. 28). 

5th Day. To AssiHt (p. 31), arriving about noon. 

Baedeker's Upper Egypt. b 


6th Day. To 8oMg (p. 48). 

7th Day. Excursion to the Coptic convents of Dtr el-Abyad and Dir 
el-Ahmar (p. 49). In the afternoon to Girgeh (p. 52), with a short halt at 
Akhinim (p. 49). 

8th Day. To Keneli (p. 72). 

9th Day. Excursion to Dendevah (p. 79), lunching in the temple. 

lUlh Day. To Luxov (p. 109), visiting the temple in the afternoon. 

11th Day. Excursion to Kurnah (p. 196), the Hamttstum (p. 158), Der 
el-bahri (p. 223), and the Toinbs of the Kings (p. 199), as on the 8th Day 
of the three weeks' four. 

12lh Day. Xo settled programme; comp. Day 10, p. xvii. 

13th Day. Excursion lo m/u'kJi' AM el-Kiiniah (p. 190), I)fr el-Medineh 
(p. 188). Medinet Ildhu (p. 171), the Colossi of Memiion (p. 153); as on 
Day 10, p. xvi. 

14tU Day. Visit to Karnak (p. 115), lunching in the temple. 

15tli Day. Steam to Efneh (p. 231), visiting the temple in the evening. 

16th Day. To ICl-Kab (p. 236) and in the evening to Ed/u. 

17th Day. Visit to the temple of Ed/u (p. 243), then to Gebel ,Sil- 
sileh (p. 255). 

IStli Dav. Visit the <|uarries in the morning, then steam to Assti&it 
(p. 266), making a short halt at KOm Ombo (p. 200). 

19th Dav. No settled programme. 

20th Day. I'hikv (p. 281) and the First Cataract (p. 273), a.s on Day 
14, p. xvii. 

21st Day. Elephantine (p. 271), and Tombs of ilekhti, Sabtn, RanubJcau- 
nekht, and Si Ucnput (p. 269); or to I'hilce again, on previ(iu.s arrangement 
■with the manager. — In the afternoon steam to Koin Ombo (p. 260). 

22nd Day. To Luxor (p. 101), arriving about 4 p.m. 

23rd Dav. Excursions in Thebes to suit the travellers' tastes. 

24th Day. To Delidneh (p. 53). 

25lh Day. Excursion to Ahydos (p. 53); lunch in the temple. 

26th Day. To AssiHt (p. 31). 

27th Day. Excursion to the tombs on the hill of ^ls«i«?f (p. 32); in] the 
afternoon, steam to liagg el-Kandil (p. 22). 

28th Day. Excursion to the caves of Tell el-Amarnah (p. 22). In the 
afternoon steam to Minyeh (p. 9) and visit to the sugar-factory there if the 
river is high enough. 

29th Day. Arrival in Cairo. 

Holders of Cooks' tickets may broak their journey at l>uxor or 
Assuaii either on the way up or the way down (after previous ar- 
rangement with Cooks' manager in Cairo), and proceed by a sub- 
sequent steamer, if there are vacant berths. The mail-steamers, 
usually less crowded than the others, may be used in descending 
the stream. In all these di-viations from the usual tonrs, very strict 
adherence to the terms of the special arrangement is exacted. Trav- 
ellers arc strongly recommended to time their voyage so as to ar- 
rive at Luxor 3-4 days before full moon ; for moonlight adds a pe- 
culiar charm to a visit to the ruins here atid at Assuan. 

Passengers by steamer should beware of the risk of catching 
cold by leaving the windows of their cabin open. They should also 
avoid placing themselves too near the edge of tlie deck ; and it is 
well to remember {e.g. when shaving) that the steamers frequently 
run aground, especially above Luxor. Liability to delay through 
this last fact, makes it impossible to bo sure of reaching Cairo in 
time to make connection with the ocean-steamers. 

Korthf JIail .'md Tcmrist Sliaincrs between the First and Second Cataract 
Philie to Wadi Halfah), see p. 299. 


b. The Dhahabiyeh Voyage. 

Though the voyage in a Dhahabiyeh demands much more time 
and money than the steamboat-voyage, on the other hand it offers 
the only means of a satisfactorily close examination of the country 
and its monuments. A party of 4-5 persons will be found advisable, 
especially as the expense is not much more than for 1-2 persons. 

A large selection of good dhahubiyehs is to be found at Cairo, 
on the left bank of the Nile both above and below the new bridge 
at Bulak. Travellers who take the train from Cairo to Assiiit should 
despatch their boat from Cairo about a fortnight in advance, for 
there are no good dhahabiyehs either at Assiut or farther iip at 
Luxor andAssuan. In Cairo the best dhahabiyehs are those belong- 
ing to Messrs. Cook& Son ('/sis', '0.s^ris^ '■Horus', 'Hathor\ ^Neph- 
this% and '■Ammon-Ra', costing 130l. per month) or Messrs. Gaze & 
Son (^^Sesostris', ^Cheops', '£ferodotM/, and 'l/opc^ llOi. per month). 
Other good craft, with the monthly hire, are as follows : '■Diamond' 
(lOOi.), 'Eva' (SOL), 'Admirar {S5i:), 'Timsah' {QOl.), 'London', 
'Luxor\ 'PhilcE' (each 75i.), 'India'' (85i.), 'Alma'', 'Nuhia\ 'Ze- 
nobid', 'Gamila' (each 90i.), 'Lotus' (70L), 'Meermin', 'Manhattan' 
(each 75;.), 'Gr'>f(in' (80i.), 'Zingara' (65f.), and 'Vittoria' (55i.). 

These prices include the hire of the dhahabiyeh and its full 
equipment and the wages of the re'is or captain and the crew. For 
the services of a dragoman, cook, and attendant, and for provisions, 
saddles, and all the incidental expenses of excursions (excluding 
bakshish), the price per day and per pers. is calculated thus : — 

Cook Gaze Dragoman 

Party of 2, each pers. 




- - 3 - - 




- _ 4 - - 




- - 5 - 




- 6 or more, 




Thus for a voyage of 60 days from Cairo to Assuan and back, 
including the payment of a dragoman and all provisions (except 
wine, etc.). Cook charges 5901. for a party of 5 (i.e. iiSl. each pers., 
or 39s. id. each per day). For smaller parties, the cost per head is 
considerably more. A three months' voyage in the 'Manhattan' (the 
property of a dragoman) costs 4S5Z. for a party of 4 (i.e. Gl. lOs. 
per day, or 32s. 6d. each pers. per day). The inclusive charge for 
Cook's excellent steam-dhahabiyeh 'Nitocris' (5 berths) is 400i. per 
month, a sum that will not appear exorbitant when the time saved 
by steaming is taken into account. 

Tliosp. who employ Cook's or Gaze's dbahabij-elis are relieved from 
all trouble in tlie matfcr of engaging a dragoman (quite indispensable to 
the traveller who speaks no Arabic) or purchasing provisions. And there 
are the additional advantages that the stores of meat, fowls, vegetables, 
and fruit can be replenished en route from the steamers, and that, in case 
of head-winds, the small Steam Towing Launches belonging to these firms, 
may be hired for 6-8z. per day. 



The fliarteriug of a private dliahabiyeh is much cheaper though 
much more troublesome. The first step is to engage a Dragoman^ 
not without a careful enquiry as to his reconl at the consulate and 
from the hotel-keepers, and an examination of the testimonials from 
previoxis travellers. Tliere are about 90 dragomans in Cairo, all 
more or less intelligent and able, but scarcely a half of the number 
are trustworthy. Most of them speak English or French, and a few 
speak Italian. 

The following are well spoken of: Uassaii Speke, Ahmed Ramadan, 
Ibrahim Solent, Ahmed Abderrahim (owner of the Jlanhaltan, p. xix), Ifasan 
Bibars, Salim tSadJar. Hishai Awad, Abdullah AbUelkhalik (all these Egyp- 
tians); Suleh (a Nubian); Afichael Gait, Anton iSapien:a (Maltose); MansUr, 
Lewiz Mans'&r, Dueyhis FadtU, Elias Telliany, and Elias Abushdya (Syrians). 
It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the traveller that it is essential 
for him to show from the very beginning that he is and intends to re- 
main the master. Even the best dragomans are inclined to patronize their 
clients, a tendency which must at once be quashed. 

The next step is to select a suitable dhahabiyeh assisted by the 
dragoman. A contract is then made with the dragoman, either en- 
trusting him with the entire preparations, or assigning to him only 
the duty of engaging and paying the re'is and crew, while the trav- 
eller retains the commissariat department in his own hands. The 
re'is or steersman is a most important functionary upon whose skill 
during the often stormy passage the safety of the vessel depends. 
The crew number from 8 to 12 according to the size of the dhaha- 
biyeh. The vessel is either hired by the day (for 2 pers. 5-6i., 3 
or 4 pers. 6-7L) or chartered for the whole return-voyage to Assuan 
(for 2 pers. 300-350^., 3 or 4 pers. 350-400L). In the former case 
the dragoman will try to travel as slowly as possible to protract his 
engagement; in the latter case he will press on, so as to save 
boat-hire and board. The latter arrangement is preferable, but the 
right of halting for 15-20 days in the course of the journey should 
carefully be stipulated for. The dragoman must also provide don- 
keys and camels for the excursions. Farther details are indicated 
in the following draft-contracts, in which it is believed that nothing 
of importance has been overlooked. The contract must he signed at 
the traveller's consulate, either with the dragoman alone if he has 
undertaken the whole of the arrangements, or with the dragoman 
and re'is, when the traveller has hired the dhahabiyeh and paysboard 
to the dragoman. 

Contract with the Dragoman. — Mr. X. and his travelling companions 
on the one hand, and the Dnigoman Y. on the other, have mutually 
entered into the following conlr.act: — 

(1) The l) Y. binds^ himself to conduct Mr. X. and his party 
from Cairo to Assuan (or Wadi ITalfah), and back, for the sum of 
. . . .pounds sterling. 

(2) The Dragoman Y. shall exclusively defray the whole travelling 
expenses of the party, including the hire of the dhiihabiych, sufficiently 
manned, ami equipped to the satisfaction of Mr. X., the entire cost of 
food, service, lighting, pilotage, watching the boat, and all charges for 
donkeys, dunkcy-hoys, camels, and guides. 

(3) The Dragoman Y. shall provide a good bed with moustiquaire 


(raosquito-cnrtains) for each member of the party, with all necessary bed 
and table linen, table-equipage, and implements in good condition. Each 
person shall have two clean towels every four days, a clean table-napkin 
every second day, and clean sheets once a week. 

(4) The Dragoman Y. undertakes the entire provisioning of Mr. X. 
and his party. The following meals shall be served daily : 1. Breakfast, 
consisting of tea, coffee, or chocolate (at the travellers' option), bread, 
butter, biscuits, eggs, marmalade (or whatever the traveller is accustomed 
to); 2. Lunch, consisting of. ... 3. Dinner, consisting of . . . . [The trav- 
eller may adjust the bill of fare to his taste, but it may be remarked 
that Kile-voyagers usually enjoy an excellent appetite, and that a choice 
of several dishes afl'ords an iigreeable variety without adding much to 
the cost. For lunch 2-3 courses are usually demanded, and for dinner, 
soup, 3 courses, and desert.] All the dishes shall be well-cooked and 
properly served. Fresh bread shall be baked every second day. For each 
guest invited by the travellers to breakfast the dragoman shall receive 
3 fr., for each guest at dinner 4 fr. 

(5) A lighted lamp shall be affixed outside the dhahabiyeh at night. 

(6) A small boat in good condition shall accompany the dhahabiyeh, 
and shall be at all times at the disposal of the travellers, with the ne- 
cessary crew. Two or more sailors shall accompany the travellers when 
the latter desire to land, and shall serve as watches or porters when 

(7) The dhahabiyeh shall be maintained in a good and efficient con- 
dition. The deck shall be washed every morning. 

(S) The Dragoman Y. is responsible for the maintenance of order 
among the crew; and he shall take care that both the crew and the atten- 
dants are quiet at night so as not to prevent the travellers from sleeping. 

(9) When the wind is unfavourable, the dhahabiyeh shall be towed 
on the way upstream or rowed on the way downstream. 

(10) The Dragoman Y. is alone responsible for any damage that may 
occur to the dhahabiyeh or the small boat. 

(11) No passenger or goods shall be received on board without the ex- 
press permission of Mr. X. 

(12) The travellers reserve to themselves the right of halting for 
15-20 days in the course of the voyage, without extra charge, at such 
times and places as they may select. Halts of less than 2 hrs. shall not 
be reckoned; but the travellers will not avail themselves of this exception 
oftener than once a day. 

(13) The travellers shall have the right of halting for more days than 
are stipulated for in paragraph 12, on condition of paying 20 fr. each 
pers. for each extra day, in addition to the boat-hire. Thus if the dha- 
habiyeh has been hired for 301. per month or 25 fr. per day, a party of 
3 pers. would pay for each extra day 3x20-(-25=85 fr. 

(14) If the dhahabiyeh reaches a spot during the night, at which 
the Dragoman Y. has been instructed to stop, a halt must be made; and 
the day's halt to be reckoned to the traveller shall not begin until sunrise. 

(15) The Re'is shall have the right of halting for 24 hours on two 
occasions for the purpose of baking bread for the crew. These periods 
(48 hrs.) shall not be reckoned against the traveller; nor shall any other 
halt not expressly commanded by Mr. X., whether due to bad weather or 
any other cause, be so reckoned. The halt for baking shall be made at 
Assiut, and not at Girgeh (comp. p. 52). 

(16) One-third of the stipulated price shall be paid to the Dragoman 
Y. before the commencement of the voyage; one-third during the voyage; 
and the remaining third on its completion. [Or one-half before the voyage 
is begun and one-half on its completion.] 

(17) In the event of disputes or differences in carrying out this con- 
tract, Mr. X. and the Dragoman Y. bind themselves to submit uncon- 
ditionally such disputes or diiferences to the arbitration of the consul, 
before whom it has been signed. 

(18) The voyage shall begin on such and such a day. 

Then follow the signatures of the traveller and the dragoman. 


Contract with the Re'is. Mr. X. on the one hand, and the Re'is Y. 
on the other have mutually entered into the following contract: — 

(1) The Re'is V., owner (or captain) of the dhahabiyeh named Z., now 
anchored at Kulak (or Kamleh), agrees to hire that vessel with all ne- 
ces8ary equipments in good condition to Blr. X. for a voyage to Upper 
E;jypt, for the price of n pounds sterling for the first month, and n pounds 
sterling for each day thereafter. [If the traveller desires to pass the 
cataract as described on p. 273, he must ascertain whether the dhahabiyeh 
Is fit for the passage, and in that case add to paragraph 1: The Re'is Y. 
declares the dhahabiyeh fit for passing the' first cataract. Mr. X. shaU in 
no wise be responsible for any damage sustained by the dhahabiyeh in 
passing the cataract.] 

(2) The Re'is Y. binds himself to present the dhahabiyeh in the best- 
possible condition for sailing. The mast, sails, and rudder shall be strong 
and in good condition. The crew shall consist of (at least) 6-8 able-bodied 
and experienced sailors and a second re'is or steersman. 

(3) A good and efficient small boat (fellukab) shall accompany the 
dhahat)iyeh, and shall at all times be at the disposal of Mr. X., with at 
least threo sailors as crew, cither for excursions, for hunting, or other object. 

(4) When the wind is favourable the voyage shall be continued during 
the night, when Mr. X. desires it. When the wind is unfavourable, the 
dhahabiyeh shall be towed from sunrise to sunset. 

(5) The Re'is Y. shall cause the dhahabiyeh to halt or to start at 
such times as Mr. X. shall direct, lie binds himself to select safe and proper 
anchorages. Mr. X.\s express permission must be obtained before any of 
the sailors shall be allowed to quit the dhahabiyeh for some hours, either 
to go to market, to visit their friends, or for any other purpose. 

(G) The dhahabiyeh shall be washed daily , special care being be- 
stowed upon the after-deck, on which Mr. X. travels. A good and efficient 
awning adapted to shade the after-deck shall be provided, and shall be 
rigged on Mr. X.'s request, unless the state of the wind prevents it. The 
Re'is shall cause a liglited lamp to be hung outside the dhahabiyeh at night. 

(7) No p;issengers or persons other than the crew, and no gonds .shall 
be received on board the dhahabiyeh without the express permission of 
Mr. X. Mr. X. has the right of receiving on board as many companions 
and as much luggage as he chooses. 

(8) When the traveller desires to spend some time on shore (e.jr. at 
Thebes or Phila-), the Re'is shall direct at least two sailors to act as 
guards over the tent, or temple, or other place where the traveller may 
spend the night. 

(9) The Re'is and crew shall at all times be obliging and respectful 
to Mr. X. and his party. Two sailors shall be at all times at the disposal 
of the travellers to accompany them on shore and to carry provisions, 
books, boxes, a ladder, or whatever shall be required. 

(10) During the absence of the travellers from the dhahabiyeh, the 
Re'is binds himself to mainlain it in good condition, and to take charge 
of any possessions left by the travellers on board. lie binds himself also 
to indemnify the travellers for any of their possessions that may be stolen 
or injured while under his charge. 

(11) Tlie travellers shall be responsible for all damage done to the 
dhahabiyeh through tlicir fault, but they shall on no account be liable for 
damage arising from any other cause whatever. If the Ke'is is prevented 
by any cause, not due to the fault of the travellers, from continuing the 
voyage, the travellers shall pay only for as many days as the voyage has 
actually lasted. 

(12) Fees charged for the pa.ssagc of the bridge at Cairo and the first 
cataract, by the dhahabiyeh shall be paid by the hirer. IThese fees arc 
fixed by I'.gyptian officials according to the size of the dhahabiyeh.] 

(13) 3Ir. X. and the Ke'is Y. bind themselves to submit all disputes 
which may arise as to the carrying out of this contract to the arbitration 
of the consul in whose presence it has been signed. 

Travellers who know some Arabic or who are already acquainted 


with Egypt and its people may dispense with a dragoman, engaging 
only a Camp-Servant (about Al. a month, with l-2l. bakshish) and 
a Cook (5-6J. a month and i-2l. bakshish). The former, who must 
understand some European language as well as Arabic, will assist 
in the search for a good dhahabiyeh ; and the advice of the hotel- 
keeper will also be found of use. The hire of the boat will be at 
least loi. per month, and the wages of the Re'is and about 12 
rowers 20-2ii., vdth 40-50s. bakshish, in all 3Q-38L 

The Contract with the Servant may be as follows : The Servant Y. 
binds himself for a payment of — , to accompany Mr. X. on his journey 
to Nubia (or elsewhere) in the capacity of camp-servant (or cook), and 
farther binds himself to discharge willingly and attentively the services 
that may be demanded of him by Mr. X. and his party. 

Provisions. The following firms may be recommended from the 
writer's personal experience to those travellers who attend to their 
own commissariat: Walker (.f Co . , Ezbekiyeh 16-20, for preserved 
meats and other eatables ; Nicola Zigada^ beside Shepheard's Hotel, 
for eatables and wine ; E. J. Fleurant, opposite the Cre'dit Lyonnais, 
for French and Austrian Avine. The following list of articles taken 
by a party of three for two months voyage, will assist the traveller 
to select his fare. 

2[/b lbs. of tea in tins 

ID lbs. of coffee 

1 bag of green coflfee 

1 tin of cocoa 

i doz. tins of condensed niilk 

1 tin of tapioca 

2 tins of Julienne soup 
7 lbs. of maccaroni soup 
11 lbs. of maccaroni 

45 lbs. of rice 

1 pot of extract of meat 

1 bottle of ket soup 

2 tins of condensed vegetables 
4 tins of green peas 

6 tins of French beans 

6 tins of white beans 

1 tin of arrowroot 

11 lbs. of biscuits 
13 lbs. of bacon 
15 lbs. of ham 

2 tins of ox-tongue 

3 tins of preserved meat 

1 bottle of Worcester sauce 

1 bottle of pickles 

IS small boxes of sardines 

12 large boxes of sardines 

2 bottles of olives 

7 llis. of dried apricots 
10 lbs. of plums (in tins) 
1 box of figs 

IV2 lb. of candied lemon-peel 
21/5 lbs. of Malaga raisins 
1 lb. of sultana raisins 
2'/'2 lbs. of currents 

1 bag of maize flour 

2 casks of flour 

48 lbs. of salt (in tins) 
2 bottles of essences 
1 packet of spice 

1 tin of pepper 

2 bottles of vinegar 

3 bottles of salad-oil 
1 bottle of mustard 

1 bottle of French mustard 

2 packets of gelatine 
2 barrels of potatoes 

1 Cheshire cheese 

2 Dutch cheeses 
11 lbs. of syrup 

15 lbs. of loaf-sugar 

15 lbs. of butter in V-i It)- tins 

17 lbs. of butter in 1/2 lb. tins 

20 packets of candles 

1 bottle of lamp-oil 

1 barrel of paraffin-oil 

1 box of toilet-soap 

4 bars of soap 
1 tin of soda 

1 packet of starch 
Blacking and blacking-brushes 

3 packets of paper 

2 packets of matches 
Wood and charcoal 

2 knives for opening tins 
1 tin of knive-powder 
String and rope 

Wine, etc. 
60 bottles of Medoc at 2 fr. per bot. 
36 - - Medoc sup^rieur at 3 fr. 


35 bottles of red Viislauerl ,«./ ,. 1 bottle of whiskey 

25 - - white - |-"^/2l'-- 1 . . vermuth 

20 - - beer A little champagne for festivals and 

1 bottle of brandy 1 bottle of cognac the reception of guests. 

A hanging-lamp, bought in the Muski for 20 fr., suspended over the 
saloon-table, and a pack of playing-cards were found very convenient. 

The above stores, purchaseil for 28i., not only were amply suf- 
flcient, but 70s. worth was returned to the dealers at the end of the 
voyage. For no one should omit to make an arrangement entitling; 
him to return unused stores (at a reduction of about 10"/o o" the 
original price) and to have the agreement entered on tlie invoice. 

Other stores, such as eggs, fresh beef, buffalo -meat, mutton, 
poultry, oranges, lemons, etc., are taken only in small supplies, it 
being easy to replenish the larder en route, either from the steamers 
or still better from the markets on the banks, where prices are mo- 
derate. The cook makes the purchases and submits his accounts. 

Average prices. Fowl, 4-9 piastres, according to quality; fat turkey, 
45-G2; hen-turkey 22-36; pair of pigeons 4-8; sheep 128-350; 16 eggs, 5-8; rotl 
(about 15 oz.) of butter 9-13; rotl of beef, "i-S; rntl of mutton 4-5 piastres. 

Various kinds of provisions, including some delicacies, are to be ob- 
tained from the bakkals or small dealers of Minyeh, AssiHt, Keneh, Luxor, 
Esue/i, and A.'ssiian. 

Tobacco for chibouques may be obtained in the bazaars, also 
at Assitit, Keneh, and Esneh ; the best mixture is 1/2 (^fbeli and 
I'o Kitrdni. The best Turkish tobacco (Stambuli) and cigarettes 
may be bought iti Cairo from Nestor Gi'inachis and E. Zalichi <V" Ja- 
conomu in the Muski, Vollerrn Freres at the post-offlce, and Cortessi, 
Ezkebiyeh, next the Cafe de la Bourse. Good cigars are also kept 
by Cortessi; those to be obtained en route are bad. 

Medicine. Conip. Vol., I. pp. 15,473. Some Antipyrine, 50gr. 
of (luiiiinc, soHKi laudanum, a supply of zinc or other eye-wash, 
rliubarb, etc. should not be forgotten. 

Clothing and Equipment, Clothes such as are worn in autumn 
at home are the best for the Nile. Boots must be stout and water- 
tight. Slippers, bathing-shoes for the clayey Nile baths, both thick 
and thin sto'kings, flannel shirts, a broad-brimmed hat, a warm 
overcoat, and a substantial rug should not be forgotten. A sun- 
umbrella and kufiyeh. a silk handkerchief or muffler, blue or grey 
spectacles, and a leathern cushion stuffed with horse-hair will also 
bo found useful. Saddles, which may be hired in Cairo, should bo 
taken, especially if ladies are of the party, for the donkeys hired at 
the various points do not always have sa<ldles. — Explorers should 
provide themselves with a long and strong ladder; as well as a 
magnt'siiim lamp or magnesium-wire (to hv obtained ii\ Cairo). — 
Photographic apparatus should be brought from home, for chemicals 
are either not obtainable or very dear in Egypt, and good dry plates 
are scarcely to be obtained. Thct plate should not be more than 8 to 
10 inches at the largest. The traveller should superintend the cu- 
stom-house examination in person. 


Fowling-pieces and ammunition (including Lefaucheux cartridges) may 
be bought in Cairo, but not higher up, wbere only coarse gun-powder can 
be obtained. 

Letters. The letter-post, even in Upper Egypt, is both rapid and 
punctual. From Cairo to Thebes letters take three days, being forwarded 
to A-siut by rail and thence by steamer. Passengers going beyond Cairo 
should instructi the porter of the hotel to forward letters to some fixed 
point. Cook's manager does this for Cook's tourists. The post goes on 
even beyond Assuan. 

IV. Works on Egypt. 

A good selection of books is one of the necessities of the traveller 
in Egypt. The steamer sometimes steams for an entire day without pass- 
ing anything of special interest; and the dhahabiyeh-traveller, when his 
vessel is being slowly towed against an adverse wind, will gladly fall back 
upon reading when he is tired of walking along the bank with a gun on 
the chance of a shot. A considerable number of the chief books upon 
Egypt have been mentioned in Vol. 1., pp. 201,202; a few more are named 
here; while other .special works are referred to in the descriptions of some 
of the principal monuments (e.g. pp. 83, 95, 244, 255, etc.). For authorities 
on the Western Oases see pp. 344, 348. 

Historical, Descriptive, and Scientific Works. 

Bell, C. F. Moberley., From Pharaoh to Fellah; London, 1888. 
i-~, Brugsch, H..^ Kgypt under the Pharaohs, transl. from the German by P. 
Smith, 1874; condensed and revised ed., by M. Broderick, London, 1801. 

Dor, V. £., L'instruction publique en Egypte; Paris, 1872. 

Dilmichen (J.) and Meyer., Geschichte des Alten ^Egyptens ; Berlin, 1877 
(specially useful for.the ancient geography). 

Klunzinger, C. B , Vpper Egypt ; its people and products; London, 1877. 

Lane, Account of the Slanners and Customs of the modern Egyptians ; 
new ed., London, 1872. 

Zane- Poole, Stanley, Social Life in Egypt; London, 1884. 

Marielfe-Bey, The Monuments of Upper Egypt; transl. Alexandria, 1877. 
— » Maspero, G., Egyptian Archaeology, transl. by Amelia B. Edwards ; 
London, 1887. 

Sandwith, F. M., Egypt as a winter-resort ; London, 1889. 

Travels in Egypt. 

Du Camp, Maxime., Le Nil, Egypte, et Nubie; 4th ed., Paris 1877. 
^ Edwards, Amelia B., A Thousand Miles up the Nile; London, 1877. 
^ Edwards, Amelia B., Pharaohs, Fellahs, and Explorers; London, 1891. 

Lepsins, R., Discoveries in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sinai, transl. by K. 
R. H. Kennedy; London, 1852. 

Loftie, W. J., A Ride in Egypt from Sioot to Luxor; London, 1879. 

Oxiey, W., Egypt and the Wonders of the Land of the Pharaohs, 1884. 

Rliind, A. H., Thebes, its Tombs and their Tenants; London, 1862. 

Rhorii, A., L'Egypte a petites jourmies; Paris, 1877. 

Stuart, JI. Villiers, Nile Gleanings ; London, 1880. 

Stuart, H. Villiers, Egypt after Ihe War ; London, 1883. 

Taylor, Bayard, Life and Landscape from Egypt to the Negro King- 
doms of the White Nile, 2nd ed., London, 1855. 

Warner, Clias. Dudley, My Winter on the Nile; new ed., London, 1881. 

Classical scholars visiting E:iypt should provide themselves with the 
2nd book of Herodotus, the 17th book of Strabo, and the first book of 
Biodorus Siciilus. 

A very complete bibliography of Egypt will be found in Pritice Ibra- 
him-Hilny^s Literature of Egypt and the Soudan from the earliest times 
to the year 1885 inclusive; 2 vols, fol., London, 1886-87. 








L. 3639. 

V. Chronological List of Rulers of Egypt to the end 

of the Ptolemaic period. 

The Primaeval Monarchy. 

I. DYNASTY (Thinites). 
Mena, Greek (in Manetlio) Menes. 

Atet, Gr. Athotis. 
Ata, Gr. Uenephcs. 
Hesep-ti, Gr. Usaphaidcs. 
Mer-ba-pen, Gr. Miebidos. 
Sam-en-ptah, Gr. Semempses. 
Keh-hu, Gr. Bieneches. 

II. DYNASTY (Thinites). 
But'au, Gr. Boethos. 
Kakau, Gr. Kaiechos. 
Bannutru, Gr. Binothris. 
Ut'nas, Gr. Tlas. 
Sent, Gr. Sethenes. 
Neferkara, Gr. Ncphercheres. 
Sokar-nefer-ka, Gr. Sesorhris. 
Hat'efa, Gr. Cheneres. 

III. DYNASTY (Memphites). 
T'at'a'i, Gr. Necherophes. 

T'eser, Gr. Tosorthros. 

T'escrteta, Gr. Tosertasis. 
Ahtes, Gr. Aches. 

IV. DYNASTY (Memphiten). 
Snefru, Gr. Soris. 
Khufu, Gr. Cheops. 

Khafra, Gr. Chephren. 
Menkaura, Gr. Mykerinos. 

V. DYNASTY ( Elephantines , according to Lepsins 

Uscrkaf, Gr. Uscrchcres. 

Sahnra, Gr. Scplire.s. 

L. 3338. 

L. 3124. 
W. 24{JO. 

L. 2840. 


L. 274i. 

L. 2522. 

L. 2423. 


L. 2380. 
W. 20;0. 

L. 2136. 


/Neferkhara, Gr. Nephercheres. 

Ra-en-user An, Gr. Rathures. 

Men-kan-hor, Gr. Menclieres. 

Assa Tetkara, Gr. Tancheres. 

Unas, Gr. Onnos. 
VL DYNASTY (Memphites). 

Teta, Gr. Othoes. 

jPepi I., Gr. Phios. 

jMentu-em-saf, Gr. Methusuphls. 
iPepi IL 
\Neferkara, Gr. PMops. 

Neitakrit, Gr. Nitocris (Queen). 

VII. DYNASTY (Memphites). 

VIII. DYNASTY (Memphites). 

IX. DYNASTY (Heracleopolites). 

X. DYNASTY (Heracleopolites). 

XI. DYNASTY (Diospolites, Thebans). 

Antef-sa — Ra-ha-hor-apu-ma. 
Antef — Ra-tat-liar-hi-ma. 
Mentuhotep I. — Ra-net)-hotep. 
Mentuhotep II. — Ra-neb-taul. 
Mentuhotep III. — Ra-neh-kher. 

The Middle Monarchy. 

XII. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 
Amenemha I. — Ra-sehotep-ab. 
Usertesen 1. — Ra-kheper-ka. 
Amenemha II. — Ra-nub-kan. 
Usertesen II. — Ra-kha-kheper. 
Usertesen III. — Ra-kha-kau. 
Amenemha III. — Ra-en-mat. 
Amenemha IV. — Ra-ma-kheru. 
Sehek-neferu (Queen). 

XIII. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 


Sebekhotep I. — Ra-sekhem-uat'-taui. 


L. 1684. 



Ra-smenkh-ka. ^ 

Sebekhotep II. — Ra-sekhem-uat -taui. 
Neferliotep — Ra-kha-sekhem. 
Sebekhotep III. — Ra-kha-nefer. 
Sebekhotep IV. — Ra-kha-hotep. 
Sebekhotep V. — Ra-kha-ankh. 
Aniih — Ra-men-khau. 
Sebekerasaf I. — Ra-sekhem-uat'-khau. 
Sebekemsaf II. — Ra-sekhom-se-sheti-taui. 
Rahotep — Ra-sekheni-uah-kha. 

XIV. DYNASTY (Khoites). 

XV. DYNASTY (Hyksos). 

XVI. DYNASTY (Hyksos). 
Set-aa-peh-ti — Nubti. 
Apepi I. — Ra-aa-user. 
Apepi II. — Ra-aa-ab-taui. 

XVII. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 
Raskenen I. — Tau-aa. 
Raskenen II. — Tau-aa-ken. 
Karnes — Ra-uat'-kheper. 

XVIII. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 
Ahmes — Ra-neb-pehti. 
Ahmes iieferatri. 

Amenhotep (Amenophis) I. — Ra-sar-ka. Queen : 

Tutmes I. — Ra-aa-kheper-ka. 
Tutmes II. — Ra-aa-kheper-en. 
Hatasu-Khnumt-ameii — Ramaka (Queen). 
Tutmes III. — Ra-moii-kheper. 
Amenhotep II. — Ra-iia-kheperu. 
Tutmes IV. 

Amenhotep III. — Ra-ma-neb. Queen : Tii. 
Amenhotep IV. — Kliu-en-aten. 

Ameii-tut-ankh — Ua-khopcru-nob. 
Ai — Ra-ma-ar-kheperu. 
Horemheb Amonmeri — Ra-sar-khoperu,sotep-en-Ra. 

XIX. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 
Ramses I. — Ha-men-pehti. 
Seti I. — Ra-ma-men. 

Ramses IF. — Ifa-userma-sotep-en-Ra. 

Morenptali — llotep-hi-ma. 

Seti II. — Ra-user-khepcru. 

Siptah — Khu-en-ra. Queen: Ta-usert. 



L. 1276. 
W. 1200. 

L. 1091. 
W. 1035. 

L. 961. 
W. 990. 

L. 787. 
W. 818. 

L. 729. 

L. 716. 
M. 715. 
W. 714. 


The New Empire. 

XX. DYNASTY (Diospolites). 
Set-nekht — Ra-user-khau. 
Ramses III. hak-an — Ra-userma-meramen. 
Ramses IV. to XIII. 

XXI. DYNASTY (Tanites). 
Si-Meiitu, Gr. Smiiides. 
Pisebklianiiu I. 
Pisebkhannu II. 

Pluozem I. 
Pinozem II. 

XXII. DYNASTY (Buhastites). 
Sheshenk I., the Sesoncliis of the Greeks. 
Osorkon I., Gr. Osorthon, the Zerah of the Bible. 
Takelut I. 

Osorkon II. 
Shesheiik II. 
Takelut II. 
Sheshenk III. 
Sheshenk IV. 

XXIII. DYNASTY (Tanites). 
Osorkon III. 

Piankhi, King of Ethiopia, conquers Egypt, 

XXIV. DYNASTY (Sdites). 
Bek-en-reuf, Gr. Bocchoris. 

XXV. DYNASTY (Ethiopians). 

Shabaka, Greek Sabacon, the Soa of the Bible. 

Taharka, Gr. Tarkos, the Tirhakah of the Bible, Tar- 
ku-u of. the Assyrian inscriptions. 

XXVI. DYNASTY (Sdites). 
Psammetikh (^Psamtik) I. 
Nekho, Egyptian Nekau. 

Psammetikh II., Gr. Psammis, or Psamranthis. 
Uahbra, Gr.UaphrisorApries,theHophrah of the Bible. 
Aahmes II., Gr. Amasis. 
Psammetikh III. 

XXVII. DYNASTY (Persians). 

Darius I. 
Xerxes I. 
Artaxerxes I. 
Darius II. Nothos. 
Artaxerxes II. Mnemon. 






323-30 B.C. 





44 30. 

Aniyrtteus, Egyptian Ameu-rut, 

XXIX. DYNASTY (Mendesites). 
Nepherites L, Egypt. Naifaurut. 
Achoris, Egypt. Hakar-khnumma. 
Psanimuthis, Egypt. Psiiuut. 

XXX. DYNASTY (Sehennytes). 
Nektaiiebus I., Egypt. Nekht-hor-heb. 
Teos or Takho. 

Nektaiiebus II., Egypt. Nekht-nebf. 
XXXL DYNASTY (Persians). 

Artaxcrxes 111. Ochiis. 

Darius III. Codomannus. 

Pbilippus Aridaeus. 

Alexander II. 

Period of the Ptolemies. 

Ptolemy I. Soter, Son of La^us (consort Berenice I.). 

Ptolemy II. Piladephus (consort Arsinoe). 

Ptolemy III. Euergetes (Berenice II.). 

Ptolemy IV. Pbilopator. 

Ptolemy V. Epipbanes (Cleopatra I.). 

Ptolemy VI. Eupator. 

Ptolemy VII. Philometor (Cleopatra II.). 

Ptolemy VIII. 

Ptolemy IX. Euergetes IL , Pbyskon (Cleopatra II. 

and III.). 
Ptolemy X. Soter II., Lathyrus (Cleopatra IV. and 

Ptolemy XI. Alexander (Berenice III.). 
Ptolemy XII. Alexander II. (Berenice III.). 
Ptolomy XIII. Neos Dionysos, Auletes (Cleopatra V. 

Ptolemy XIV. and 

Cleopatra VI. (mistress of Ciesar ami Antony). 
Ptolemy XV. 
Ptolemy XVI. Ctesarion. 
OcTAViANus comiuors I'^gypt and makes it a Roman 



VI. Frequently recurring Names of Egyptian Kings, t 

Selection hy I'rof. Ebers in Leipsic. 

Khufu Khafra Men- Tat-ka- 

Hena. '"f™ (Cheops) (Che- J-- , 

(Menes). _ ^- V^'^'^'^'i- rinus) 4. (Tanohe- Assa. 5. 


O r^ 



II I nil 

k-^ LJ v_^ 

Teta. G. 


I I I 

res) 5. 



v^ L_^ 

„ , „ Eameri. „ . . Nefer- Antef . , ^ ,„ 

Teta. b. g Pepi. b. kara. 6. 11. Amenemna I. 12. 


r^ r^ 






^ D 

I AA/W.^ 

L-^ V ^^ ^ 

Usertesen I. 12. Ameneniha II. 12. Usertesen II. 12. Usertesen III. 12. 

Amenemha III. 12. Amenemha IV. 12. 







V Z 


H'vksos.' Hyksos. 

(SalatiAJ. (Aphnbis). 




t The numbers placed after the names are those of the dilTerent dynasties. 



Rasqe- Aahmcs (Amo- Amenhotcp (Ame- Tutmes (Tuth- 

nen. sis). IS. ' nopliis) I. 18. mosis) I. 18. 

Hata^. IS. Tutmes ni. IS. Amenliotop 11. 18. Amenhotep 111. 18. 

, u ... , 

Hor-em-heb (Horus) 
Amenhotep IV. 18. Seti I. (favourite of Ptah) 

(Khu-en-aten) 18. .^ ^ ^ Ramso.s I. 19. 19. 











Kamscs II., favourite of Amnion, and bis father Seti I., 
the Sesohtris of the Greeks. 

n\\\ ^E^ ] j 


Q (Sesostris.) 

C p p-^ ^ ] 


Mereiiptah I. (Menephthes). 19. 

I Seti II. (Merenptah). 19. 

1 AAA^^A "^ A l\ 

Ramses III. 20. 



1 A 


Samsps IV. 20, Ramses V. 20. Ramses VI. 20. Ramses V II. 20 . 

ry\ r-:^rr\ n\r:\ r\r~^ 






X. 17TTT nn Kamses IX. (Leps. Ramses X. (Leps. Ramses XI. (Xeps. 

Ramses VIII. 20. Ramses XI.) 20. Ramses IX.1 20. Ramses XII. 1 20. 

:. (Leps. 
il.) 20. 




1 — I 





V I 

^ PI 

1 — '• 






1 1 

I AA^VW\ . _ ..... 

Sheshenk IV. 23. 


o ' 


D — A 

O I 

Ramses XII. (Leps. Sheshenk (Sesoncliis) I. 2 2. 
Ramses XIII.) 20. 



1 111111 *f T T ^•^■'^^'•''^ \ /"""^ ^1 

(j^g J(fflMTj 




Osorkon I. 22. 



Bokenranf (Bocchoris). 


Takelut (Tjglath) I. 22. 

^ J^ ^ 

S hahak (Sabaco). 25. 

Baedekek's Upper Egypt. 


Taharka. 25. 


ra A 


Psammctikh I. 26. Nekho26. Psainmctikh IT. 20. 

Quee n Anieniritis. 






T\ahphrahet (Ua- Kambatet Ktariush rish 

phris. lIoi)hrab). AahmesII. (Ania- (Cambyses) (Dariu.s). Darius. (Xerxes). 
2G. .sis). 26. 27. 27. 27. 27. 

V- ^V -^ 



I \\ I 


k-^ v_y v_y 

Amenrut Nekht-nebf Alexander I. / I'''"''?; I Ptolmis (Ptolemy I. 

(Amyrtocus). „ , - u ^ on or. Pus An- c- » x oo 

28. (Nectanebus). 30. 32. dau's. 32.1 Soter). 33. 





o ^ 



°<«~. I I ' H 









Ptolemy II. Philadclphus I. 33. 

Queen Arsinoe. 33. 

n _£ 



Ptolemy III. Euerge- Qieen ptolemy IV. Philopa- Ptolemy V. Epl- 
tes I. 33. TT ?!?! tor I. 33. phanes. 33. 

II. 33. 

Ptolemy IX. Euerge- 

tes II. (Physcon). 


Seven Ptole- 
maic prin- 
cesses of 
the name 
of Cleo- 
patra occur. 

Ptolemy X. Soter II 

or Pliilometor II. 
usually known as La- 

tl'vrus. 33. 

tra VI., 
of C£e- 
sar and 

D ^ 


Cleopatra VI., with Ctesarion, lier son by Csesar, and 
nominal co-regent. 33. 





and her son 










s ^ 

and her son 


Caius Ca- Claudius, 

ligtila. (Tibe- Nero. Vespasian. 

M. This). 34. 31. 3^. 

Autocrator (abso- 
lute monarch! and 

Kisaros fCsesar). 

Epithets of all the 

emperors. 34. 

-^(2 A 

^ A 

Ca-'sar Au- Tiberius, 
gustnv 34. 34. 

Domi- Trajan, 

tian. 34. 34. 











^ w 

Aurelius. Commo- Severus. Antoninus. Geta. Decius. 
34. du.<!. 31. 34. (Caracalla). 34 34 







VII. The Arabic Alphabet. 









Ze, Zen 





































































accomiianies an initial vowel, and is not 
Iironounced except as a hiatus in the 
1 middle of a word. 
> as in English. 

as th in 'thing', but generally pronounced t ots. 

in Syria and Arabia like the French^ (some- 
times also like the English j), but i)ro- 
nounccd o (hard) in Egypt. 

a peculiar guttural //, pronounced with em- 
phasis at the back of the palate. 

like ch in the Scotch word 'loch', or the 
harsh Swiss German ch. 

as in English. 

as th in 'the', but generally pronounced cl or 2. 
like the French or German r. 

\ as in Englis 

emphasised s. 

l)oth emphasised by pressing the tongue 
firmly against the palate. 

an emjdiatic z, now pronounced like No. 11 

or No. 15. 
a strong and very peculiar guttural. 

a guttural resembling a strong French or 

German i*. 
as in English. 

emphasised guttural k\ reidacod by the na- 
tives of Lower Egypt, and particularly 
by the Cairenes, by a kind of hiatus or 
repression of the voice. 

in English. 

1. From Cairo to Assiut. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 2, 8. 
a. By Railway. 
229 M. The railway-station, BiUdk ed-Dakrftr, which is also the start- 
ing-point of the direct line to Teh el-Barud and Alexandria, is situated 
on the W. bank of the Nile, 3 31. from Cairo (connection with main 
railway-station in prospect). Carriage from the hotel to the station 4 fr. ; 
for heavy luggage a second carriage is necessary, as the baggage-waggons 
cannot be implicitly relied on. Passengers should be at the station early, 
as the processes of ticket-taking and luggage-weighing are by no means 
expeditious. The first-class carriages are, of course, the most comfortable 
from a European point of view, and first-class passengers are allowed to 
take with them in their compartment all their smaller articles of baggage 
and even trunks. The natives almost invariably travel second-class, and 
those who wish to make a nearer acquaintance with the country and the 
people should, perhaps, select a second-class compartment, in spite of its 
offering less resistance to the incursion of the yeliow desert sand (comp. 
Baedeker^s Lmoer Egypt, p. 371). — Fares to Assiut: 1st class 171.8 piastres 
(Turkish), 2nd class 111..'!) pias., 3rd class 57'/2 pias. Payment at the station 
may be avoided by previously buying vouchers at the agencies of either 
Cook or Gaze, and exchanging them at the railway-station through the 
dragoman of the agency. The trains start (1891) at 8.30 a.m., 3 p.m. (for 
Wastah and intermediate stations), and 7 p.m. (Tues. & Frid. only). Those 
who wish to go on at once by steamboat from Assiut should take the morn- 
ing train on the preceding day (see Introduction, p. xvi; and comp. Cook's or 
Gaze's Tourists' Programme). The journey to Assiut takes nominally lOhrs., 
but the trains are generally late. A time-table showing the names of stations 
in French and Arabic and giving distances in English miles is published 
by Penasson of Alexandria and may be bought at the ticket-offices. Trav- 
ellers should provide themselves with a supply of meat, bread, and wine, 
as no stoppage is made for dinner; eggs, bread, water (glass necessary) are 
offered for sale at the stations. Seats should at first be taken on \\i.& right 
side for the sake of the view of the Pyramids -, from Minyeh onwards the 
left side is preferable, for the views of the Nile valley and Benihasan. — 
The railway follows the course of the Nile pretty closely, and a sufficient 
idea of the views from the carriage-windows may be obtained from the 
account of the dhahabiyeh voyage below. The following is a list of the rail- 
way-stations, nearly all of which are also steamer-stations. For descrip- 
tions, ."iee the text. Stations: Gtzeh, Haicamdiyeh; 14 M. (1/2 br. from Cairo) 
Bedvashen (p. 2); 51 M. (P/4 hr. from Bedrashen) El-Wastah (p. 4; halt of 
6 min.), the junction of the line to the Fayum (R. 2, p. 34); Ashment (to 
the right, in the distance, the pyramid of El-LahUn]; Bils/i (p. 5); 7151. 
Benisuef (p. 6; rail. stat. 3/^ M. from the Nile); 841/2 M. Bibeh (p. G), the 
junction of a branch-line used for the transportation of suttar-cane ; 93 M. 
Feshii (p. 6); 106 31. MaghAghah (p. 6); 117 31. Aha Girgi-h (p 6) ; Maidych, 
with a handsome bridge over a canal (lef() ; 128 31. Kolosaneh (p. 7) ; 181 31. 
Samaim (p. 7); 148 31. Minyeh (p. 9); Abu Kerkds ; '173 M. liodah (p. 18); 
178 31. Melawi el-'At-ish (p. 22); Di'r Mauds (to the left or E., Tanuf, with 
the mound marking the site of Tanis Superior, not to be confused with 
Tanis in the Delta); 190 31. DcrHl esh-Sherif (p. 28); Beni-Korrah; 210 M. 
Monfalut (p. 29); Beni-Hiisen; 229 31. Assiut (p. 31). 

b. By the Nile. 
252 31. Arrangements, see Introduction, p. xiii. 
As soon as a favourable wind springs up (^wliicli, however, has 
sometimes to be waited for for hours), the dhahabiyeh is cast off and 
Bakdekeu's Upper Egypt. 1 

2 Route 1. MEDUM. From Cairo 

poled out into the middle of the cliaimel. The sailors accompany the 
hoisting of the lateen sail ■with a lusty chorus, and if one of the brisk 
'Etesia' blows, which Uerodotus mentions as driving boats up the Nile, 
the long pointed craft flies quickly along, passing in rapid succession 
the Khedive's palace and the barracks of Kasr en-Nil, Kasr el- Ain, 
the island of Rodah with its palaces (on the E. bank), and the cha- 
teaux of Gezireh and Gizeh (W. bank). Old Cairo lies on the E. 
bank, and beyond it rise the Mokattam Mts., with the citadel and 
Stabl 'Aiitar, a ruined Arab fort on the S. end of one of their spurs; 
on the W. is the group of pyramids at Gizeh. To the left (E. bank) 
farther on, are the quarries and hamlets of Turah and Ma'sarah (see 
Baedeker s Lower Egypt^ p. 403). Opposite, on the W. bank, rise the 
pyramids of Abusir, Sakkarah, and Dahshur. Near the bank, to the 
left, amidst a flue grove of palms, is a Coptic convent, and adjacent 
is a gun-factory, begun by Isma'il Pasha, but never finished. 

The steamer remains for some hours at Bedrashen (rail, stat., 
p. 1), where asses are kept ready for a visit to Memphis, Sakkarah, 
etc. (comp. Baedeker s Lower Egypt, R. 4). Opposite, on the right 
bank of the Nile, lies Helwan (ibid, p. 404), frequented as a water- 
ing-place. — On the bank at Kafr el-'Ayat (W. bank; rail, stat.), 
where the steamer lays to for the night, are some ancient construc- 
tions which may have belonged to the Canal of Menes. The un- 
important pyramids of Lisht lie to the right, while the singularly 
shaped pyramid of McdClm (the so-called 'False Pyramid') becomes 
more and more prominent. 

Eikkah, on the W. bank, is the starting-point of the excursion 
to the Pyramid and Mastabas o/'3/«ium (asses with poor saddles may 
be procured at the village ; 2 fr. and bakshish). 

The Pyramid and Mastabas of JlfiuuM, the oldest monuments in the 
world, deserve a visit, which may be accomplished from Rikkah in abont 
C hrs. (railway travellers may perform it in about the same lime from the 
el-Wastah station; comp. p. 1). Crossing the railway, we proceed on don- 
key-back in abont l'/4 hr. to the pyramid, which rises close to the colti- 
vated country cm the soil of the desert, IV2 M. to the N. of the village of 
MedHin. This appears to be the oldest of the local names handed down 
to us, as it is met with on the mastabas of the early period of Snefru. 

The Pyramid of Mediim is so different from all the other structures of 
the kind that it is called by the Arabs ^El-IIaram el- Kadddb\ or '■the faUe 
pyram\d\ From a large heap of rnbbisli wliich covers its base, the 
smooth and steep upper part of the structure rises in three different 
stages at an angle of 74o 10', and is still preserved to a height of 122 ft. 
The first section is 09 ft., and the second 20'/'j ft., while the third, now 
almost entirely destroyed, was once 32 ft. in height. The outer walls con- 
sist of admirably jointed and polished blocks of Mokattam stone. The 
holes in one of the surfaces were made by Lepsius and Erbkam when 
they examined the pyramid, the constr>icti(m of which afforded them an 
admirable clue to the principle upon which the others were built (Vol. I., 
p. 300j. The Pyramid of Medum was never completed; the heaj) of debris 
at its base consists of the material which once filled the angles of the 
different sections, so as to give the pyramid a smooth surface. The pyra- 
mid was pillaged as early .is in the time of the 20th Dynasty. If was 
opened in ISHl by Maspero. who found a long corridor and a chamber 
without sarcophagus. Perhaps in this pyramid Snefru, the first king of the 

fi.lfiepFrt red 


to Assklt. MEBtTM. 1. Route. 3 

4th Dyn., was buried, as in the neighbouring tombs persons related to him 
are interred. 

The Mastabas of Uediim, which were opened by Mariette, lie to the 
N. of the pyramid. These were the tombs of the relations of Snefru 
(4th Dyn.), and in many respects resemble the mausolea of Sakkarah which 
bear the same name. The facades of the most important of them are 
partly uncovered. The street of tombs, which is now accessible, pre- 
sents the appearance of a hill-side covered with masonry, incrusted with 
stucco, and provided with ante-chambers. The mouth of each tomb is 
towards the E. ; the leaning external walls are generally of Nile bricks, 
richly embellished with the linear patterns which afterwards formed the 
favourite decorations of the sides of the sarcophagi (which were imi- 
tations of the tomb-facades). The vestibule is in most cases compara- 
tively large, but the inner corridors are narrow, slope downwards, and 
are covered with representations in a remarkably simple and antiquated 
style. The archaic character of the scenes and of the hieroglyphics 
proves the great antiquity of these monuments. The influence of the 
hieratic canon is already traceable here, but it does not appear to have 
hampered the efforts of the artists as much as it did at a later age. The 
admirably preserved colours are also less conventional than those seen in 
later monuments. 

The first open tomb which we reach from the S., was that of Prince 

(Erpa Ha) Neferm&t^ who lived in the reign of King (J Teta. (There 

were 3 kings of this name, in the 1st, 3rd, and 6th Dynasty). On the left 
wall of the corridor leading to the tomb-chamber,' we see the deceased 
in a sitting posture, and on the right wall he is represented standing, 
with his wife behind him. Adjacent are men and women presenting 
offerings, as in the ma.stabas of Ti and Ptahhotep. The flesh-tint of the men 
is red, and that of the women pale yellow, and this circumstance, especi- 
ally in a monument of this early period, is important as tending to 
prove the Asiatic origin of the Egyptian nobles. The features of the 
persons represented are of the Caucasian, and not of the Ethiopian 
type. Among the villages belonging to Nefermat, which offered gifts, 

there appears on the left the name of the district of ^\ g "> ■=*=' 


'■Metun of the cattle'. Metun is the oldest form of 

the name Medum. From the neck of the ox, which represents the victim, 
flows a black stream of blood. On the right side we find among others 
a district named that 'of the white sow', which proves that pigs were reared 
in Egypt as early as the time of Snefru. The pig in this group is very 

true to nature ^r:^ rh^' ^^ ^^^ name of the district Hat en Sek, 
or 'place of the ploughing', the most ancient form of the plough is used 
as a determinative symbol. The advanced condition of industrial pur- 
suits, showing that the Egyptians already practised the art in which, 
according to Pliny, they afterwards excelled, is proved by the character 
of the dress worn by the women represented on the right side of the 
first passage, consisting of black and white cotton stuff, with pleasing 
patterns on the borders. He tells us that they were not in the habit of 
painting the materials for their dress, but of dipping them in certain 
fluids. They were coloured with boiling dyes, and came out impressed 
with a pattern. Although the boilers contained one colour only, it is 
said to have imparted several different tints to the stuffs dyed in them. 
— In order to impart a diirable colour to the larger figures represented 
here, an entirely unique process was employed. The outlines were en- 
graved on the stone, while the surfaces enclosed by them were divided 
into deeply incised squares, which were filled with stucco of different 
colours, the flesh-tint of the men being red, that of the women yellow, 
and the colour of the robes being white, etc. 


4 Route I. ATFIH. From Cairo 

A little farther to the N. is the tomb of Aiet, the wife of Nefermat. 
On the architrave over the doorway we see the husband of the deceased 
engaged in snaring birds, while a servant presents the spoil to the mis- 
tress of the house, whose complexion is of a brilliant yellow. On the 
outside wall, to the left, we observe the cattle of the deceased browsing 
on reeds. On the right stands Ncfermat, who, as the inscription informs 
us, 'caused this monument to be erected to his gods in indestructible 
character3\ Among the domestic animals arc several cattle of very 
bright colours. We also notice a gazelle held by the horns by a butcher, 
who is cutting otV its head. Offerings of wine were also made at this 
early period. In the passage leading to the Serdab is a group of labour- 
ers busily at work. The hunting-scenes are curious, and, notwithstanding 
their simplicity, remarkably true to nature. Among them is a greyhound 
seizing a gazelle by the leg, and anotlicr carrying a long-eared hare. 

A few paces to the N.E. is another ma.sjaba built of well-hewn blocks 
of limestone. The hieroglyphics and low reliefs, resembling those in 
the tomb of Ti at Saklcarah, are admirably executed. The deceased in- 
terred liere was named A'Aerei, and his wife Mara. Traversing the vesti- 
bule and a narrow passage, we reach a tomb-chapel with a sacrilicial 
table; in the passage, on the right, is a handsome male figure with a 
lasso, and on the left are stone-masons, engaged in making sarcophagi. 
On the loft, in the innermost niche of this tomb, we perceive the de- 
ceased, and on the right, his wife. We next come to a ruined mastaba, 
and to another tomb, half excavated, which was constructed for Raho- 
iep, a Sim of Snefru, one of tlie highest civil and military dignitaries of 
the kingdom, and his wife ^efert, a relation of the royal family. The 
statues of this married couple, who died young, or at least arc so repre- 
sented, wliich arc now among the principal treasures of the museum of 
Gi/.eh, were found here. Farther to the W. are several other tombs, now 
covered up. 

On tlie right bank, opposite llikkah and about II/2 M. from the 
river, lies the hamlet of Atfih, with some nioiiiids of eartli and 
debris representing the Ancient Aphroditopolis, the territory of wliich, 
according to Strabo, adjoined that of Acanthus (Dahslinr), while its 
capital lay on tlie Arabian bank of the Nile. A town of Aphrodite 
must also be one of Ilatlior, the Egyptian goddess of love, to whom 
the white cow, whicli Strabo says was Avorshipped here, was sacred ; 
it wag the capital of Matennu, the 2'2n(l nomo of Upper Egypt, Its 
hieroglyphii'. name was Tep ahe, head of the cow. 

In the Chrislian period (ca. 310 A.D.J Aphnidilopulis gained some cele- 
brity from -St. Anihoti;/ , who lixed his hei'mitago in the mountains to 
the E. of the town, beside a well and a grouj) of palms. So many pil- 
grims of every class, age, and sex sought out the holy man. that a regular 
posting route, with relays <if camels, was laid out across the desert. St. An- 
thony, however, fled from his admirers and buried himself deeper in the 
mountains. Hut while he thus shook off liis earthly vi.sit:ints, he could 
not so easily ccape those extraordinary tempters from spirit-land, at which 
(Fallot has tauglit us to .'imile, though to St. Anthony himself, as well as 
(o St. Ililaricm and other similarly persecuted anchorites, the contest was 
one of bitter earnest. Tlic Coptic convent of Mar Antonios (p. 5), a few 
leagues higher u|). on the IC. side of the Nile, still sends supplies to the 
convent of St. Anthony, situated in the heart of the Arabian Desert (p. C). 

After passing a few small islands, we now reach (W. bank) el- 
Wastah (pp. 1 and 3fi; po.^t-offlce and Arab telegraph at the rail. 
Stat., 1 4 M. from tlie Nile), where passengers bound for the Fayum 
leave tin; dhaliMbiyeli and bi'take tlieni.'jelves to tlic train (see U. 2). 
I'M-Wastah is plea.santjy situated in a grove of palms and is sur- 
rounded witli lields of clover. 

to Assitit. BENISUEF. /. Route. 5 

Visitors to the Fayvim may regain el-Wastah on the following day at 
10.15 am. or at 4.16 p.m., by leaving MedJnet el-Fayum at 9 a.m. or 
2.53 p.m. An extra day allow.s a visit to the Labyrinth and the Pyramid 
of Havvarah (p. 39). In this case the dhahabiyeh should not be sent on in ad- 
vance, but should be ordered to await the traveller's return. — The pyra- 
mid and tombs of Mcdilm may also be visited from cl-Wastah (see p. 2). 

A small canal, beginning near the village of Zciwiyeh (W. bank), 
runs out of the Nile into the Bahr Yusuf(ji). 28). 

Farther up, in the latitude of Abnas el-Medineh and Benisuef, there 
seems to have been another deep channel connecting the [river with the 
Bahr Yilsuf. These four channels enclosed an inland which has been iden- 
tified with the HefacUojyolitan Noine, unanimously described by Greek au- 
thorities as an island. Strabo, who visited it on his way to the Fayum, 
after leaving the nome of Aphroditopolis, calls it 'a large island', and re- 
lates that in the city of Heracleopolis the ichneumon was worshipped, 
the deadliest foe of the crocodile, held sacred in the neighbouring nome 
of Arsinoe; for, he tells us, it crawls down the throat of the sleeping 
monster and devours its entrail.s. The large mounds of debris at Ahn&s el- 
Medineh.^ the Umm el-Kima7n ('mother of rubbish-heaps') of the Arabs, have 
been identified with Heracleopolis; they lie 11 M. to the W. (inland) of 
Beni.^ue.f. The old name of the town was JUiinenstt, from which Ahiids is 
derived through the Coptic lines. The ram-horned god fforshci/, the 
prince of terrors, was also worshipped here. A few columns still stand, 
here, and other monuments may be buried under the debris. Systematic 
excavations are to be undertaken. At piesent Almas need scarcely be 
visited except by those who approach the Fayiim from Beni.sucf. 

On the W. bank the mountains recede a little from the Nile, 
but on the E. bank their steep and lofty spurs frequently extend 
down to the bank in rising jncturesque forms. None of the Nile- 
villages before Benisuef need be mentioned. On the E. bank stands 
the Coptic convent of Mar Antonios (see p. 4). About 2M. inland 
(right) from Zctun (W. bank) lies the hamlet of Bush (rail, stat., 
p. 1), which is inhabited by Copts and thus has some interest for 
those who wish to study these direct descendants of the ancient 
Egyptians in a community of some size. 

Benisuef, on the W. bank, the first place in Upper Egypt (rail. 
Stat., p. i ; stat., 3,4 M. from the Nile), is a town of 10,000 inhab., 
pleasantly situated between the railway and the river. It contains 
a post and telegraph office and is the capital of a province of the 
same name, which contains 169 villages and about 220,000 inhabi- 
tants. To the left of the rail, station is the Mudiriyeh, or residence 
of the mudir or governor. The houses or rather huts of this provin- 
cial capital are, however, constructed merely of Nile mud. The linen- 
manufacture for which this place was celebrated in the middle ages 
has greatly declined, but there are several sugar-plantations and a 
small bazaar. To the left of the railway is a fine grove of palms. 

A road which was much frequented before the completion of the rail- 
way, leads from Beni.suSf into the Faydm (p. 34), and travellers with a 
tent and plenty of time might still hire camel,?, asses, or horses here and 
proceed to Medinet el-Fay&m via el-Lahiln ('gate of the Fayiim'), where the 
Bahr Yusnf enters the Fayum, and Hawdrah. By using the railway for the 
return-journey and giving up Birket el-Kurun, this excursion can be made 
in 3-4 days. 

Another road, traversing the Wddi Bat/dd, which opens near the vil- 
lage of Baydd, on the-E. bank of the Jfile, opposite Beni.^uef, le-ids through 

6 Route 1. MAGhAgHAH. From Cairo 

the desert tn the Convents of SS. Anthony and Paul, a few leagues 
from the Red Sea. The linjtherhood (if St. Anthony's Convent occupies 
the highest rank among the religious societies of the Slonophysite Con- 
fession; and the Patriarch, or head of the Coptic community, must be 
selected from their number. A visit to the convents, however, does not 
compensate for the fatigue and trouble it involves. 

As far as Minyeh the spaoe between the K. bank and the hills 
remains narrow, theliiuustone rocks frequently abutting on the river 
in unbroken walls or rounded blulfs. Few villages are seen on this 
bank, but the fertile alluvial tract on the W. side, 10-12M. in width, 
is thickly populated and carefully cultivated, exhibiting in profusion 
all the cereals that grow on the Nile, date-palms, and sugar-cane. 
The huge sugar plantations present a busy scene in November, when 
the sweet juice is collected from the canes and conveyed to the 
factories, which arc a monopoly of the Khedive and follow eacii other 
in rapid succession. These factories are connected by the railway, 
and short branch-lines, used in harvest-time only, run from them 
to the plantations lying farther to the W. Their lofty chimneys 
Impart a very modern-industrial appearance to the ancient land of 
the Pharaohs. Large barges full of sugar-canes and others with 
fellahin going to work in the factories are met on the river. Most 
of the higher oflicials in the factories arc Europeans. The juice is 
expressed from the cane and then refined by being boiled twice iu 
closed vessels. In an average year about 25,000 tons of sugar are 
produced in Egypt; in 1889 the value of the sugar exported 
amounted to 50'J,000i.. 

The boat passes two large islands. (Jn the W. bank lie Balankah 
and Bib eh (rail, stat., p. 1), with large sugar-factories. The chan- 
nel now contracts, and numerous islets are passed. Feshn (rail, stat., 
p. 1), on the W. bank, is II/2 M. from the river. Near the village 
of el-Hibeh, on the E. bank, about 4 M. farther up, are the ruins of 
the town of Kheb or Khebi, which belonged to the nome of Aphro- 
dite (p. 5). These include well-preserved riparian structures of the 
time of the Pharaohs and some massive walls made of bricks, 
bearing two different stamps. One of these bears the name of the 
local goddess, 'Isis of Kheb', and the pra-nomen of TutmeslII. (18th 
Dyn.); the other, discovered by 11. ihugsch iu 1853, reads 'The 
high-priest of Amnion, Pishem the just, governor of the towns of 
Urkhenu and Isem-kheb'. 

On the E. bank rises the Gebel Shekh EmbCmtk. The steamer 
stops atMagh&ghah, a j)lcasant place on the "W. bank, with aca<-ia8, 
palms, aiul large sugar-works (post and telegraph office at the rail, 
stat., p. Ij. The Nile-channel is very wide here (several islands) ; 
farther on both banks are flat. At Abu Giryeh (rail, stat., p. 1), 
with sugar-factories, the railway runs close to the river. 

About I'J M. to (he K. of Abu Girgeh, on tho Jiufir YUsuf, in (he nome 
of fiep, lies the town of Behnesah, on the site of (he ancient Oryrrhynchut 
(l^cniotic ; profane name I'e-m:at. Coptic IIeJUL'2te, Greek \\i\i.n-zr\), now 
roprosenlod only by a few desolate heaps of debris. The fish Oxyrrhyn- 

to Assiut. GEBEL ET-TER. 1. Route. 7 

chus, a species of Morinyrus (Arab. Mizdeh), was held in such hit;h honour 
here, that the inhabitants refused to eat any fish caught by a hook, lest 
the hook might previously have injured an Oxyrrhynchus. In the neigh- 
bouring town of Cynopolis (see below) the dog was held in equal honour, 
and Plutarch relates hov? a 'very pretty quarrer, the settlement of which 
required the intervention of the Ilomans, arose between the two towns, 
owing to the facts that (he citizens of each had killed and dined on the 
sacred animals of the other. Juvenal gives an account of a similar strife 
between Ombos and Tentyra (p. 207). On the introduction of Christianity 
Oxyrrhynchus became so "full of convents that monkish songs were heard 
in every quarter". Convent jostles convent all round, forming as it were a 
second town of monks. In the 5th cent, the diocese of Oxyrrhynchus is 
said to have contained 10,000 monks and 12,000 nuns. In the town itself 
were 12 churches. Under the Arabs it is known only as Behnesah. In the 
Mameluke period it was still of some importance, but it has since steadily 
declined. From Behnesah the desert-route leads to the 'small oasis' of 
BahHi/eh, also known as the Oasis of Behnesah (comp. p. 343). 

About 4 M. above Abu Girgeh, close to the E. bank of the Nile, 
are the insignificant remains of Shekh el-Fadhl, near which is 
Hamathah. Father Sicard's discovery of a large number of dog- 
mummies here proves that we are standing on the site of the necro- 
polis oi Cynopolis (KovGi^ TcoXtj), the'cityof the dogs', which, as the 
above story indicates, must have adjoined Oxyrrhynchus. Strabo's 
words are: 'Next come the Cynopolitan nome and Cynopolis, where 
Anubis is worshipped and dogs are held sacred and fed with con- 
secrated meat'. Several trough-like hollows and clefts have been 
found here, some of which, in the rocks, are of considerable size; 
but no inscriptions have been discovered. Cynopolis itself, accord- 
ing to Ptolemy, lay on an island in the Nile, but no traces of it are 
now visible. Opposite, IY4M. from the W. bank, lies the village 
of el-Kes. 

Kolosaneh (rail, stat., p. 1), on the W. bank, has a large palm- 
grove. Opposite (E. bank) lies Surauyeh. To the N. and S. quar- 
ries are worked in the limestone rock. — Among the rocks here is 
a small temple (not very easily found), bearing the names of Seti II. 
and of Merenptah Ilotepher-ma, supposed to be the Pharaoh of 
the Exodus (19th Dyn.). The kings are offering sacrifices to the 
triad of Sebek, Hathor, and Horus, and representations of Sebek 
(with the head of a crocodile), Hathor, and Ramses III. may be 
made out on the external wall of the grotto, facing the spectator. 
The inscriptions are very indistinct but are couched in the usual 
form of thanksgiving to the gods for the blessing of a long reign. 

On the W. bank lies Samalllit, with a handsome railway-station 
(p. 1), sugar-factories, palms, and fields of clover. A little farther 
to the S., on the E. bank, rise the steep rocky sides of the GebeL 
et-Ter ('bird-mountain'), with an extensive flat top bearing the 
Coptic convent of el-Buker. + Those who wish to visit the moun- 
tain should disembark just before reaching it and ascend on the N. 

+ Now generally called Der el-Bukrah, from a windlass (bukrah) used 
in drawing water. But the name is probably derived from the old legend 
of the Bukir bird. 

8 Route I. WJiDI ET-TER. From Cairo 

side. Tlie excursion, which has no great interest except for the flm 
view of the Nile valley, talies l'/2-2hrs. Other convents of a similar 
kind (see, e.g., p. 51) can be reached more easily. The convent, 
also named iJer Silteh Maryam el-'Adhrah or convent of Lady Mary 
the Virgin, consists of a group of miserable huts, occupied not only 
by the monks but by laymen with their wives and children, and 
looks like a fortified village. Most of the monks employ themselves 
in making shoes. The underground chapel in which service is held 
Is uninteresting. The institution is very old, and curious tales are 
told of it hy Makrizi, Kazwini, Suyuti, and other Arabic writers. 

'Tliis fonvciit', says Makrizi, 'is ancient, overlooks the Nile, and is 
reached by a staircase hewn in the hill; it lies opposite Saiii]ut\ Then, 
followinj; el-Shaboahti, he narrates how it is visited by [lilgrinis from all 
quarters and lies on the 'hill of the caverns'. 'At one point of the biir, 
be continues, 'is a narrow fissure, and on the saint's day of the convent 
all the bukir-birdsf in the neighhourhood come flying to this fissure, 
flocking together in a huge crowd and making a tremendous din. One 
after the other in constant succession thrusts its head into the cleft, and 
utters a scream, until one comes who^e head sticks fast and connot be 
withdrawn. The victim then beats its wings against the rocks until it 
dies, after which all the other birds depart and leave the rock in solitude 
and silence. 'This', adds the writer, 'is now a thing of the past'. Similar 
legends are fouad in antiquity. The Pharaohs, on ascending the throne, 
let birds loose to bear the tidings to the four (juarters of the globe. Hero- 
dotus and .^lian tell of feathered ambassadors dispatched in this way from 
Egypt, and to this category apparently belongs the myth of the birds of 
Memnon, which on certain days visited the grave of the Son of the Uawn, 
who fell before Troy, cleansed it with their beaks, and besprinkled it with 
water by dipjiing their feathers in the stream. Though this legend may 
have ori'^inated in Asia, it was afterwards, like Blemnon himself (p. 154), 
transplanted to the JCile. 

The Wadi et-Ter (E. bank) leads from the Gebel et-Ter to the S.E. 
About I'/'J M. to the S. of its mouth is the village of Tehneh et-'fa/iUnah 
("Tehneh of the mill'). Before reaching it we pass the ancient ilitdii el- 
'agiUs, or 'walls of the old woman', probably erected as a barrier to the 
desert-hurricanes. At Tehneh, which is about ^|^'^ll. from the Nile, are two 
groups of tombs, that to the N. belonging to the latest jieriod at which rock- 
tombs were constructed on the Nile, while that to the S. belongs to the 
early epoch of the ancient kingdom. The necropolis to which these tombs 
belonged is sup[ioscd to be that of the town ui Akoris, mentioned by Pto- 
lemy alone and belonging to the nome of Cynopolis. Mounds mark the 
site of the ancient town. Beyond rise the rocks, containing tombs of the 
time of the Ptolemies and several short Greek inscriptions. One sepul- 
chral chapel, containing some singular reprcsentati ns of a late date, is 
interesting. The colours on (he ceiling have faded, but the paintings on 
the walls are still distinguishable. In front, on the left wall, stands the 
deceased, in Roman costume; opposite, on the right wall, be appears again, 
ofl'ering a sacrifice, as a sijin that though in the Roman service or at least 
of Roman tastes he yet reveres the gods of his ancestors. The represen- 
tations of these dcilies occur on all four walls of the chamber and are 
80 numerous that they must include the local divinities, not only of Akoris, 
but also of all the other places in the nome, of which the deceased, whose 
name is not decipherable, may have been nomarch. The only inscriptions 
extant are on the inner side of the door. Higher up on the rock-walls are 
two horses in the Roman style, held by men. Between the two were other 
sculptures, the subjects of which are no longer recognisable. The first- 

t This bird is described by Suyuti as black and white, with a black 
neck, ringed near the head, black wing-feathers, and the ability to swim. 

to Aasiut. MINYEH. 1. Route. 9 

mentioned figures Lave been supposed to be Castor and Pollux, or two 
Roman emperors, but they rather resemble horses brought as tribute, like 
the groups in the pediment of the Stele of Piankhi. Farther to the S. 
is a colossal image, carved out of the rock, of Ramses III. sacrificing to 
the god Sebek. The inscriptions in the very ancient group of tombs to 
the S. are in such bad preservation that their date can only be guessed 
at from their general style. 

Minyeh ( Minyet-ibn-Khastb ,- rail, stat., p. 1^, on tlie W. bank, 
a well-built and handsome town with 15,900 inhab., i.s the seat of 
the mudir of a district containing 281 villages and 315,000 inhabi- 
tants. There is a telegraph-office at the railway-station, and adja- 
cent is the post-office, the director of w^hich speaks Italian. At the 
hospital is a physician who has studied in Europe. The town pos- 
sesses two hotels and a large and curiously painted Arab cafe', in . 
which ghawazi sing in the evening. Parts of the street running 
along the river are planted with trees, and in the stream many 
steamers and dhahabiyehs lie at anchor. The bazaars and the 
Greek bakkals' (small dealers) possess large stocks of goods. In the 
Bazaar street is an Austrian watchmaker and clothier, and among 
the houses on the river is an Italian tailor. The palace of the mudir 
is a plain and lightly-built structure. The large sugar-factory is 
the oldest in Egypt, and a visit to it during the sugar-harvest is of 
great interest; most of the officials are French and very obliging. 
Market-day in Minyeh presents a very gay and characteristic picture 
of Oriental life. There are no public buildings or monuments of 
any interest, but the houses of the richer merchant, in spite of their 
plain exterior, are often fitted up with great comfort. A glance 
into one of their courts will show what a rich and varied life exists 
in the interior of houses which from the outside look like miser- 
able huts. 

It is uncertain what place of the Pharaohs' time Minyeh represents ; 
but the assertion of Leo Africanus that it was founded by the Arabs may 
well be doubted. Among the facts which render it improbable are the 
old masonry on the river (towards the S.), the ancient architectural frag- 
ments immured in one of the mosques, a Cojitic inscription, and the very 
name of the town, which is derived , not from the Arabic, but from the 
old-Egyptian dialect. Its Coptic name is JiiOOIlH ( Moone) and this, as 
Brugsch has demonstrated, is derived from the old-Egyptian Mena-t. This 
name, however (in full Mena-t Kfmfu, 'nurse of Cheops'), belonged to a 
place which lay nearly opposite to the present Minyeh, on a site still 
marked by a few remains. At a later date Mena-t was probiibly trans- 
ferred, under the name of Minyeh, from the right bank of the Kile to the 
left, where, presumably, some of the inhabitants had previously settled. 
To this day the inhabitants of Blinyeh maintain a close connection with 
the E. bank of the Nile, cimveying their dead for burial to Zdwiyeh, sur- 
namcd el-Mitin (i.e. 'of the dead'), 5 M. to the S. 

Excursion to Beniijasan, 15 M. (sec p. 12). After making enquiries 
as to the security of the route, the traveller hires an ass, ferries to the 
right bank of the Kile, and ascends the river via Zdzoiyet el-Milin fp. 10) 
and K6m el-Ahmar (p. 10). Instead of returning to Minyeh, he should 
continue to follow the right bank of the Nile to the (IU1/2 M.) Ruins of 
Antino'e^ now Shekh 'Abddeh (p. 19) and cross the river thence to Rodah 
(p. IS). This is a long but interesting day's journey. Accommodation 
at Rodah may be obtained on application at the railway-station (p. 1). 

10 Route 1. KOM P:L-AHMAR. From Cairo 

Opposite Miiiyel), on the E. bank, lies Kom el-Kafarah, where 
some ancient tomhs, perhaps belonging to the 12th or 13th Dy- 
nasty, have lately been discovered. 

Z&wiyet el-Metin and Kdm el-Ahmar ( 'the red rubbish-mound'), 
situated on the K. bank, 5-0 M. above Minyeh. may be visited to- 
gether. We llrst reach the village of Zilwiyeh, near ■which are the 
estate and beautiful garden of the venerable Abu Sultan Pasha. 
Between the village and Kom el-Ahmar, about 1/2 M. from the 
latter, lies the fine cemetery of the citizens of Minyeh (p. y), with 
its numerous domed tombs and chapels. Thrice yearly, in the 
months of Regeb, Shawwal, and Dhilhiggeht, at the time of full 
moon, funereal festivals, lasting several days, are celebrated here. 
Among the ceremonies observed are the offering of dates to the 
dead, which recalls the funereal offerings of the ancient Egyptians, 
and the presentation of palm-branches, recalling the Oriental sym- 
bolism of early Christianity, still familiar in our churches. A few 
minutes' walk towards the 8. brings us to the red mound of pottery 
and rubbish known as Kom el-Ahmar, which runs parallel with the 
Nile. Climbing over this we reach the burial-vaults of the primajval 
monarchy, which are situated among the Arabian hills, with their 
gates towards tlic river. 

The tombs are unfurlunately in bad preservation, and some of them 
have been destroyed by violence, the stones being removed for use in build- 
ini;. It is uncertain of what town this was the necropolis, but it undoubt- 
edly belonged to the 16th nonie of Upper Kgypt, named Afah or Maljet 
(gazelle), in which the i;azelle was held sacred. In this nome .also lay the 
towns of Hebon and Nofrua, the chief deity of which was represented as 
a sparrow-hawk standing on a gazelle, accompanied by Hathor, Horus, 
and Khnum. Some of the tombs are still open to visitors. The lower 
ones are small and dilapidated, including one that was richly adorned 
with statues. Similar fiiiures, hewn in the living rock, are still distinguish- 
able on the facade and in the rear of the chapel. Farther up is the tomb 
of Ncfersekhru, royal secretary and superintendent of the storehouses of 
Upper and Lower Egypt, which still contains some good sculptures. This 
tomb, in the rear of which are three niches, appears to have been con- 
structed under the li^th Dynasty. Among its contents are sacrificial lists 
and scenes like those in the vaults of 'Abd el-Kurn:ih: Osiris under a ca- 
nopy; corpse crossing the Kile, accompanied by female mourners; the 
deceased in the midst of his family. The tomb "of Khiines, a relative of 
the Pharat)h3, .-iituMteii farther to the S. and lower down, is of earlier origin 
and in all probability belongs to the ancient kingdom. The scenes of 
agriculture and navigation in this tomb, reproduced by Lcpsius, are now 
scarcely fvisible. From the ujiper tombs we obtain a splendidly varied 
view of the Nile, its fertile valley and the town of Minyeh, with the red 
mounds of debris in the foreground, w^hilo to the N. stretches the s^ndy 
desert, from which the domed tombs of Zawiyet cl-JIctin rise like a group 
of tents. On the nxiuiid of Kom el-Ahmar lies a colossal ligure, 70 ft. 
long, without an inscrijilion. 

Senihasan and Specs Artemidos, 15M. fromMinyeh andl62M. 
from Cairo, an important steamboat-station. 

+ These months cannot be reproduced by the names of our months, 
as they pass through all lh(> scaMins of the Sdlar \ear. Thus a festival 
which is celebrated this year in summer will take place 15 years hence 
in winter. 

tu Assitit. SPEOS ARTEMIDOS. 1. Route. 11 

The 'three weeks' steamer halts here 3-4 hrs., while the 'tour weeks' 
steamer remains overnight and leaves the entire forenoon for a visit to 
Speos Artemidos and Benihasan. The excursion begins at Speos Artemi- 
dos, which lies (o the S. (i/u br. on donkey-back), whence we proceed 
towards the JT. to (V2 tr.) the foot of the tombs of Benihasan. We then 
walk to (10 min.) the S. graves and descend to Nos. 2 (Khnum-hotep) and 
1 (Ameni-Amenemha) of the N. tombs, where the asses are in waiting to 
take us back to the steamer (3/4 hr.). Travellers ascending the river in 
a dhahabiyeh should land at Benihasan, ride to Speos Artemidos, and send 
the dhahabiyeh on to meet them near the village of Benihasan el-Almiar. 
Those descending the stream save a little time by landing at a point 
somewhat nearer the tombs of Benihasan, almost opposite Benihasan el- 
Kadim (p. 12j. 

Speos Artemidos ('grotto of Artemis'), known to the Arabs as 
Sum 'Antitr ('stable of Antar' ; comp. p. 33), is reached from the 
steamboat-landing, where asses are in waiting, in 1/2 hr. The route 
crosses fields and sand, finally ascending considerably. On the 
way carefully rolled cat -mummies are offered for sale, which 
have retained the unmistakeable odour of cats for thousands of 

years. The cat was sacred to the goddess Pasht ( ), whom 

the Greeks identified with Artemis. The Temple of this goddess, 
hewn in the rock, consists of a vestibule and of an inner chamber 
connected with the vestibule by a corridor. Above the door of the 
vestibule is a long inscription of the time of the 18th Dynasty, 
which celebrates the goddess Pasht and also speaks, under the name 
of Amu, of the Hyksos in Avaris who from ignorance of the god 
Ra destroyed the ancient temples. 

The temple itself was founded by Tutmes III. and renewed by 
Seti I. Of the 8 pillars which supported the vestibule all have 
been destroyed except two in the front row, which bear inscriptions 
and royal cartouches on their W. and E. sides only. On the W. 
side of the recumbent pillar to the right Champollion saw the 

name of Tutmes III. ( 1 " " " '1 m J . All the other cartouches arc 

those of Seti I., who is described as the favourite of the goddess 

Fasht, the mistress of \\ f^^^^ Matennu or the dweller in the 

mountain I *^^r5Q Ant. On the rear-waU of the vestibule 

are some interesting representations. To the left is Pasht in the 
guise of a mighty sorceress, stretching out her left hand to king 
Seti I., behind whom, sitting in an attitude of benediction, is 
the god Ammon-Ra. To the extreme left is the small figure of the 
god Thoth, lord of Hermopolis. Appropriate inscriptions are 
also furnished. To the right, in three rows, are the deities of Speos 
Artemidos (12 figures), beginning with Mentu and Turn, in front 
of whom is Thoth, who conveys to the local gods the command of 
Ammon-Ra that Seti I. shall be raised to the throne of Horus. lu 

12 Koule 1. 


From Cairo 

the doorway to the next chamber are a long iiiscriptiou and a re- 
presentation of the king oflVriiig a (;ynocephulus. In the rear-wall 
is a niche (naos) with the cartouche of Set! I. 

^ ■^ ^ -^ To the W. of the Specs Artcmidos is a 

^ „ I .' „ ', second grotto (perliaps merely a cat's tomb), 

on the outside of which are the intrresting 
cartouches of Alexander JL, son of Itoxana, 
and six scenes rt'prescnting the king in the 
company of the gods. 

The dragomans now luirry on to (^/^ hr.) 

IJenihasaii, where we ascend to the S. tombs. 

These, however, have been almost entirely 

~ J destroyed, and the only one of any interest 

■^ is No. 7, the tomb of 

)f Kheti, whicli contains 
hunting-scenes and line clustered columns. Passing on we soon 
reach (8 min.^ the highly interesting N. tombs of Arneni (No. 1) 
and Khnum-hotep (No. ~); conip. pp. 14-18. 

The necropolis of Benihasan is one of the most interesting in 
all Egypt, not only on account of the remarkable architectural 
features of the I'ith Dyn. seen here, but also for the nianifold re- 
presentations of scenes from the domestic life of the Egyptians at 
that early era. 

The jiiurney rriuu the Nile to the tombs takes from ^ji br. to IV4 br. 
according to the height of the water and the landing-place selected. A.ssc.s, 
with good saddles, l-l'/'^ fr. Candles, and if possible magnesium wire, 
should be taken to light the tombs. The route leads towards the bare 
limestone hills, at first through groves of palms and then across sand. 
The ancient licitihasan +, Benihasan el-Kailim ('the old"), now deserted, lies 
to the right; the modern village is to the 8. of the usual landing-place. 
On reaching the limestone hills we see the remains of a dilapidated j)ath, 
supported by masonry, and ascend over debris to the horizontal hill-path, 
to the W. of which stretch the tombs. 

15efore the traveller enters the tombs to inspect the represen- 
tations within, he should examine the columns at the entrance. At 
first sight everyone will set these columns down as uninlstakeable 
examples of the Doric order; but the indisputable testimony of the 
inscriptions informs us tliat they date, not from the Ptolemaic 
period, but from the invasion of the Ilyksos, in the 12th Dyn., be- 
tweiii 15.C'. '2000 and !'..('. 3000. 

C'hampollion named them I'roto-Doric or Pre-Doric Columns. 
Since him many authorities, with these columns as tlieir starting- 
point, have tried to establish the kinship of the early Greek order 
with the architecture of Egypt and to prove that the former was 
derived from the latter. These views, however, aroused keen op- 

+ The place was deserted 30 or 40 years before the' visit of the French 
Kxpedition, because the inhabitants wished a wider space for cultivation 
near their village, which tliey accordingly rebuilt farther to the S. The 
story that the villagers were expelled by Ibrahim I'af-ha and e.xterminated 
for robbery is a fabrication, although it is true that many of them were 
executed for this crime. 

to Assiiit. 


1. Route. 13 

position, partly because they overshot the mark, and partly because 
they igiiorantly confounded forms peculiar to these rook-tombs with 
those represented in the entirely independent field of architecture 
above ground. The connoisseurs and^students of Greek art, blinded 
by their love for the object of their^^study, refused to allow that a 
single feature of Hellenic architecture had arisen anywhere but on 

Section of Tomb and Columns of Benihasan. 

Grecian soil, and stigmatised Egyptian architecture as 'barbaric' 
■without taking the trouble to investigate its claims. Finally, how- 
ever, Lepsius, equally at home in both fields, stepped into the fray 
and his second masterly essay may be taken as the last word on the 
subject. lie shows that the development culminating in the poly- 
gonal fluted columns of Benihasan can be traced step by step in 
the cavern-structures of the Egyptians of the ancient kingdom, and 
he also shows that, though the Doric Column of the Greeks is 
known to us only in its fully developed form, some inexplicable 
features in the Doric order are not only justified, but even necessary 

14 Route 1. RENIHASAN. From Cairo 

in its Egyptian counterpart 7. The columns of Benihasan consist, 
like the Doric column, of a basis, an octagonal or sixteen-sided 
shaft with IG or 20 flutes, a capital, and an abacus. The echinus 
or chyniatiuni is, however, wanting. While the swelling or entasis 
on some Doric columns, and also the aniiuli or rings at the top of 
the shaft, liave hitherto met with no sufficient explanation, the 
same features appear as natural and necessary parts of the so-called 
'plant column' of Egypt. The architects of the Nile aimed consciously 
at a rcproiluction of the stem of a plant, and as the capitals repre- 
sented a bunch of buds it was natural that the cords which fastened 
them should not be absent. Their number is five ; and the 3 or 
5 annuli at the top of a Doric column, erroneously explained as in- 
cisions made for the ropes used in hoisting it to its place, are 
simply an inheritance from the Egyptian column. The idea of the 
annuli, as of the entire Doric column, is of Egyptian origin, thougb 
the perfect Greek column, with the beautiful transition-member 
formed by the echinus, is far from a mere imitation. 'The Greek 
column has become an entirely new form, animated by a new prin- 
ciple proper to itself, which has thoroughly mastered the hetero- 
geneous elements from without and blended them in a new unity.' 
In farther emphasis of the importance of these columns in the hi- 
story of art, we may remind the reader that the earliest Doric col- 
umns known to us date from about the time that the Psamtlkidae 
(p. xxix ) were not only allowing the Greeks to enter the valley of 
the Nile but were inviting them to settle there, and that the col- 
umns of Benihasan are 1500 years older tlian this. The columns of 
Benihasan are indeed nothing more than the pillars in the Temple 
of the Sphinx and the Mastaba (^Baedeker's Lower Egypt, pp. 366, 
379) provided with flutes and chamfered edges. 

The two tombs of chief interest, the farthest to the N., are easily 
recognised by the beautiful polygonal columns at their entrances. 
The donkey-drivers make directly for tlicm, paying no attention to 
the others. The numbering begins at the N. end. 

Tomb 1. The exterior of the pronaos or vestibule is distin- 
guished by two fine octagonal columns, bearing a flat vault hewn 
out of the rock. Four sixteen-edged columns, with narrow fltiting, 
stand in the interior of the tomb-chamber and appear to bear the 
three beautifully painted anhes of the ceiling, which are hewn in 
the form of shallow barrel vaulting. The side-columns touch the 
right and left walls of the nearly square chamber, in the rear of 
which opens a recess containing the statues (much dilapidated) of 
the deceased and his two wives. The usual long shaft leading to 
the bottom of the tomb and the chamber for the corpse at the end 
of it are also present. Tliis is the tomb of Amenemhn or /Imeni, 

+ Some flelails on this matter will he found in tbe section devoteil 
to Egyjitian art in (he first vuliiiiie of tbis Hamlliook (p. 160). 

to Assiut. BENIHASAN. 1. Route. 15 

the son of tlie Lady Hannu, who was one of the chief dignitaries 
of the kingdom, bore the title of an erpa ha or prince, governed 
the nome of Mah in time of peace, and commanded a division of 
the army in war. To the left and right of the entrance he is depict- 
ed on a throne with lions' feet, holding his commander's baton in 
his hand. Inside tlie door are two well-preserved inscriptions, 
cut in the stone. That to the right (S.J informs us that Amenemha 
departed this life in the 43rd year of Usertesen I., corresponding 
to the 25th year of the governorship of Ameni. He undertook all 
his wars 'sailing up-stream': — i.e. he campaigned only against 
tlie dwellers of the S., the 'miserable Kushites', as they are called 
in the inscription. In those days the arms of the Pharaohs had not 
yet been carried towards the E. The Sinai peninsula, with its 
mines, is the only district in this direction which excited the Egyp- 
tion lust of conquest. From his southern campaigns Amenemha 
brought home much gold and other booty. The inscription to the 
left (N.) also mentions a victorious campaign towards the S., but 
is of special interest for the light it throws on the truly human 
feelings of this bye-gone time. Amenemha describes his occupa- 
tions in time of peace as follows (beginning at the fourth line from 
below) : 'I cultivated the entire nome of Mah with many work- 
people. I troubled no child and oppressed no widow, neither did 
I keep a fisherman from his fishing or a herdsman from his herd. 
There was no head of a village whose people I had taken away for 
compulsory labour, and there was no one unhappy in my days or 
hungry in my times. When, liowever, a famine arose, I tilled all 
the fields in the nome of Mah, from its S. to its N. boundary, and 
gave nourishment and life to its inhabitants. So there was no one 
in the nome who died of hunger. To the widow I allowed as much 
as to the wife of a man, and in all that I did I never preferred the 
great man to the small one. When the Nile rose again and every- 
thing flourished — fields, trees, and all else — ■ I cut off nothing 
from the fields'. 

The paintings in the interior of the tomb-chamber proper are 
unfortunately very much faded, and they have also been con- 
siderably injured, especially in recent years. Some figures of war- 
riors which still remain, armed with club and axe or club and lance, 
have a foreign appearance, as their skin is of a lighter colour than 
that of the Egyptians, and their hair and beards are red. 

Tomb No. 2 is that of Khnumhotep , the son of Nehera. It owes 
its origin to a member of a family of high rank, in which the office 
of governor of Mah seems to have been hereditary for several ge- 
nerations. Amenemha I., Usertesen I., and Amenemha II., the first 
kings of the 12th Dyn., showered titles and dignities with a free 
hand on this family, which in return clung to tlie royal line with 
peculiar loyalty and affection. By a wonderful piece of good fortune 
we are able to reproduce the entire family-tree of this family, in 

IG Route 1. RENIHASAN. From Cairo 

whi<;h the names of women fill a very important role. Amenemhall. 
Ra-nub-kau q f:^^ | (| || ( createil Khnumhotep governor of 
the E. nomes, and as the heir of his maternal grandfather made 
him priest of Horus and Pasht in the town of MenatKhufu (Minyeh). 

The portico or vestibule of tliis tomb deserves particular atten- 
tion , as it not only possesses proto-Doric columns resembling those 
of Tomb 1, but also shows some architectural forms, which seem 
intended to reproduce the beams and rafters of buildings above 
ground. The cornice projects strongly above the architrave and 
is supported by fine laths hewn, like all the rest of the structure, 
out of the living rock. The resemblance of these laths to the mu- 
tules of the Doric order is not especially striking in itself, but taken 
in conjunction with other points of similarity is, perhaps, worthy of 
mention. — The interior of Khiiumhotep's tomb is richly adorned 
with paintings. Most of the representations were painted on a thin 
layer of stucco, with which the limestone walls were coated. At the 
foot, however, is a long inscription cut in the rock, in lines of a 
greenish colour, 2'/2 ft- ''igli- [I" 1890 the royal names were cut 
out of the rock by some vandal hand aTid offered for sale.] From this 
inscription we receive information about the family of Kiinumhotep, 
wlio owed the greater part of his dignities to liis maternal grand- 
fatlier, about his relations with Amcnemha II., who, at the inter- 
cession of his mother, made him a royal governor, and about the 
benefits he had conferred on liis government and its people and the 
honour he had done to the gods of his nome and the manes of his 

The paiiitings have unfortunately suffered so much in the last 
30 or 40 years, that the subjects of some of them are now almost 
indistinguishable. Most of them, however, were copied by Lepsius, 
Rosellini, Wilkinson, and others, wliile they were still in fair pre- 
servation; and they have furnished most important contributions to 
our knowledge of the private life of the ancient Egyptians. In the 
uppermost row of paintings, above the door, was represented the 
festival of the opening of the tomb of Khnumhotep. 'The heaven 
opens', says tlio inscription, 'as the god (i.e. tlie deceased trans- 
formed into Osiris) steps forth'. To the right, lower down, we see 
the colonnades of Khnumhotep's dwelling, with servants measuring 
and registering his treasures and (farther on) bringing his corn into 
the barns. Two of the lower rows show the operations of ploughing, 
harvesting, and threshing. Still lower down is a Nile-boat, bear- 
ing the mummy of tlie deceased, as the inscription informs us, to 
Abydos (the grave of Osiris), while the high-priest imparts his 
blesKiTig. Helow is a representation of the vintage and of the gather- 
ing of fruit and vegetables. The cattle in the water and the fishing 
scene (at the foot) vividly recall the similar scenes in the Mastaba 
of Ti. To the left of the door, high up, are seen the processes of 
preparing clay for pottery .md sawing wood; in the second row 

to Assiut. BENIHASAN. 7. Route. 17 

Khnumhotep appears in a litter, inspecting his potters and carpen- 
ters. Some of the latter are felling palm-trees and others are build- 
ing a hoat for the journey to Abydos (see below). The most inter- 
esting of the scenes of artizan life in the lower rows are the 
representations of women baking and weaving, under tlie supervision 
of eunuchs. — The entire Rear Wall is occupied by a tastefully 
arranged representation of the water-sports in which the deceased 
took delight. A forest of papyrus reeds grows by the water-side, 
thickly peopled by all kinds of furred and feathered game. To the 
right and left Khnumhotep is depicted in his boat, accompanied in 
one instance by his wife Khuti, who is painted a lighter colour. 
Here he transfixes large river-fish, there he holds the birds he has 
brought down by his darts. Above are birds caught in a net. In the 
river swim characteristically drawn fish, and crocodiles and hippo- 
potami are also seen. A man who has fallen into the water is being 
liauled out again. The dominant idea of the chase is farther carried 
out in the representations of a hawk seizing a gaily-plumaged bird 
and an ibis capturing a butterfly. 

The N. Wall (to the left on entering) is the most important of 
all, as upon it is the celebrated picture of a Semitic race bringing 
cosmetics (mcstem) and other presents to Khnumhotep. In the 
lowest row, to the right, are seen the secretaries of Khnumhotep, 
receiving the report of the steward of the cattle, who is followed by 
the herds and shepherds. Just above this is Khnumhotep himself, 
represented on a scale three times as large as the other figures and 
accompanied by three dogs and a man with sandals, bearing a staff. 
In the 4th row from below, on a level with the head and shoulders 
of this huge figure, is represented a curious procession. Neferhotep, 
the secretary, and another Egyptian lead towards the governor a 
number of foreign people in gay-coloured garments, whose sharply 
cut features, hooked noses, and pointed beards unmistakeably pro- 
claim tlieir Semitic nationality. This Asiatic visit seems to have 
been one of the signal events in the life of the nomarch. Neferhotep 
hands his master a document from which we learn that the strangers 
knocked at the door of Egypt in the 9th year of king Usertesen II. 
Prince Absha, the leader of the foreigners, leads a gazelle and bows 
to the ground. The next Asiatic leads an antelope. Four armed men 
march in front of the harem, which consists of four women aTid three 
children. Two of these ride upon an ass, which also bears imple- 
ments for weaving. The women wear brightly coloured raiment of 
a curious cut. The clothes and loin-cloths of the men are also 
brilliantly coloured. A heavily-laden ass is followed by a lute- 
player and a warrior armed with club, bow, and quiver. The in- 
scription, beginning 'above the figure of the secretary Neferhotep, 
is as follows : 'Arrival of those bringing the eye-salve mestem (kohl 
or antimony). We {i.e. Neferhotep) introduces 87 Amus". TheAmus 
were a Semitic race of Asiatic origin in the N.E. of Egypt. We have 

Baedf.kkr''3 Upper Egypt. 2 

18 Route). BENITTASAN. From Pahn 

here, as it wore, the advance giianl of the invasion of the Hyksos, 
towards the end of the i'lth Dynasty. Tlie Hyksos, named 'Amu' 
in an inscription in tlie ncishbonring Speos Artemidos ( p. 11 ). con- 
sisted of isolated tribes, who pnrchased permission to enter Egypt 
by tribute, crossed its boundaries, and finally penetrated to the in- 
terior. The chief Abslia here bows before the Egyptian; his suc- 
cessors carried things witli a high hand and bent the p]gyptians 
under their yoke. — The Hock of ostriches behind the last Amu 
belongs to the series of pictures on the left side of the wall, re- 
presenting Khnumhotep, accompanied by iiis dogs, slaying vcild 
beasts with bow and arrows. Below is a flock of geese and a fowl- 
ing-scene. In the second row from the foot are bulls ligliting and 
scenes of cattle-tending. 

The S. Wall ( to the right) is occupied by processions of servants 
bringing gifts for the dead, a frequent subject in these representa- 
tions, and the offering of animals in sai^riflce. Before one altar is 
the figure of Khnumhotep, before another his wife Khuti, daiighter 
of I'ent. 

The traveller will find many of the above scenes now defaced 
beyond recognition, but he should not let this deter him from walk- 
ing a little farther to the S. and entering some of the other tombs. 
That of KUeti, one of the nearest (No. 7), easily recognised by the 
three pairs of columns supporting the roof, contains interesting, 
though half-obliterated representations of thi^ innumerable gymnastic 
and fencing exercises and games of the ancient Egyptians. (Jirls 
are seen throwing the ball from one to another, and men ponder 
carefully over a game of draughts. I'ho lluntiny Scenes are of 
linguistii: value, as the names of the different animals are written 
above tiiem. Among these was a stag, now totally effaced. Mechan- 
ics are ilepicted at work here and elsewhere. — Travellers who see 
the tombs of the new kingdom at Thebes, after having visited the 
graves of Benihasan, will be astonished at the vastness of the im- 
pression made upon the life ami sentiment of the Egyptians by the 
llyk.'^os period. At Benihasan everything recalls the tombs in the 
Pyramiils, and the subjects of repriisentation are drawn wholly from 
this earth ; under the New Empire scenes of the future life and re- 
presentations of the gods are also given. We should also notice that 
the horse, so common in later times, never appears under the early 
empire. The forms of the columns, including the beautiful lotus capi- 
tals ( see liaedeker's Lower EyyjiU p. 164), are of the greatest inter- 
est. The proto-Doric column is seen here in all stages of development. 
Tlie plain pillar, the octagonal pillar, the oi'-tagonal and sixteen- 
sided columns, with and without flutes, all occur at Henihasan side 
by side and may be looked upon as pra(!tical illustrations of the 
section upon the ('nrern lliiililing of the Kgyptians in the intro- 
ductidU to J.nircr f'ifyjd I p. KiO). 

At R6dah (rail, stat., p. 1), an important place on the W. bank, 

to Attsiut. ANTINOE. /. Rmite. 1 9 

with post and telegraph offices, several mosques, and a large sugar 
factory, the railway approaches close to the river. The factory is 
said to contain a stone with a hitherto unpublished Greek inscription. 
About 1 M. inland (W.) from Rodah, between the Bahr Yusuf and 
the Nile , lie the ruins of the once famous Ashmunen. The ancient 

Egyptian name was Khiimmu _ ' ra ®' while the Greeks called 

it HeviHopoUs, the town of Herntes-Tholh, the god of writing and science, 
whose chief sanctnary was situated here. Hence the town was also named 
Pa Tehuti, or town of Thoth. Hermopolis Majjna was the capital of the 
Hermopolitan nomo of Upper Kgypt. The name Ashmunen is derived, 
according to (iuatremere (Memoirts Ge'ogvaphiques, 1., pp. 490 et seq.), 
from the fact that the town embraced two different communities, one 
on the site of the present ruins, the other, with a harbour, on the Nile. 
Among the plates of the French Expedition are two views of a line 
Portico of the Ptolemaic period, with two rows of six columns each 
(Antiquites IV, PI. 50, 51). The columns were 55 ft. high, and the portico 
was 124V2 ft. long and 291/2 ft- wide. In Minutoli's 'Journey to the ( Jasis 
of Jupiter Ammon' (Plate XIV) a view is given of one of the columns, 
with the cartouche of Philippus Aridfeus, one of the successoi'S of 
Alexander the Great, who was a native of Ashmunen. The remains of 
the temple were used in building a saltpetre factory. — At Gebel 7'iina/i, 
near Hermopolis, is a tablet (much dilapidated) with an inscription of 
the sun-worshipper Khuen-aten, who lived on the opposite banlv of the 
river (comp. Tell el-Amarnah, p. 22). 

Nearly opposite Rodah, on the E. bank, 11 M. from Benihasan, 
lies the village of Shekh 'Ab(Meh, with the ruins of Antinoe. 
Hadrian erected a new town in honour of his favourite Antiiions 
on the site of the Egyptian town of Besa, where the handsome 
youth is said to have drowned himself, to fulfil the oracle which 
predicted a heavy loss to the emperor and so to prevent a more 
serious disaster. The village lies on the hank amid palms of un- 
usual size and beauty, and to the S. of it is a brook, now dry 
except after rain, which must formerly have flowed through the 
town. The remains of public buildings of the Egyptian period are 
scanty. The French Expedition saw a triumphal arch, a theatre, 
and two streets flanked with columns, the one running N. and S. 
and leading to the theatre, the other at right angles leading to the 
city-gate and the hippodrome. A lofty column bore an inscription 
of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222). To-day, however, there are few 
remains either of Greek or Romau times. Among the palms lies a 
fine Corinthian capital. The marble belonging to the 'very fine gate 
of the Corinthian order' that Pococke saw here and figured in his 
book was burned 'to make lime for building the sugar-factory at 
Rodah. The extensive ruins of the ancient town lie to tlie E. of the 
village of Shekh 'Abadeh. The streets and ground-plans of the 
houses are still recognisable. The rooms were small and the walls 
were made mainly of Nile bricks. There are, however, some un- 
derground apartments of flat Roman bricks, [reached by stone stair- 
cases. Near the scanty ruins of one of the largest buildings lies a 
basin of white marble, which must have had a circumference of 
at least 23 ft. 

20 Route 1. DKR EN-NAKIILKII. From Cairo 

Those who are interested in Christian antiquities should follow 
the E. hank from Shekh 'Abadch towards the S.i" In about ^/^ hr., 
after passing some ruins of a late epoch, we reach the Der Abu 
Hennis ((Convent of St. John), called also simply ed-Der. In the 
days of the Mameluke persecutions the Christians are said to have 
lived here and at Shekh 'Abadeh in comparative security, as the 
Arabs believed that no Mohammedan could exist here on account 
of the evil spirits. At present there are more fellahin here than 
Copts. There is little to be seen at ed-Der. The crypt, in which 
divine service is held, is said to date from the time of the Em- 
press Helena. By ascending the hill at the back of the houses, we 
reach, to the left of the ravine, some cave-like quarries, which 
were fitted up as Christian chapels and were embellished at an early 
date with sculptures. The main chamber contains paintings of saints 
and scenes from the New Testament, but those in one of the side 
chapels (Kaising of Lazarus, Wedding at Cana , etc.) are better. 
To judge from tlieir style these interesting pictures are not earlier 
than the 6tli cent. A.D. Among the Coptic monks who resided here 
(from the 4th cent, onwards) were Victor and his brother Koluthus, 
Silvanus, and Macarius ; and the tombs of the last two are still 
shown. The adjoining quarry was begun by Amenhotep III. 

About^ 4 hr. beyond Der Abu Ilennis we reach Der en-Nakhleh, 
the 'convent of the date-palms'. To reach the *Tomb with the re- 
presentation of the transportation of a Colossus, we cross the dry 
water-course beyond the houses, ascend the hill on the left side, 
and near the top reach a path on which, a little to the right, the 
grave is situated. Guides may be procured for a few paras. Trav- 
ellers descending the river should visit the tomb from Bersheh, 
above which towers the rocky Gebel Shekh Sa'id (with a shekh's 
tomb), in which the tomb in question is hollowed out. The whole 
district belonged to the nome of Un or Ilermopolis. Tlie represen- 
tation in this tomb is highly interesting as being the only one that 
gives us an idea of the processes used by the Egyptians in moving 
their colossal statues. 

The Arabs thought it impossible that mere human strenjith could 
move audi hupc burdens, and hence a legend grew up amnn;; them that 
the subjcct.s of the Pharaohs were ttiants, who knew how to move masses 
of rock with their ma;;ical staves. Even the men of the present day, at 
whose command stand forces of whieh the ancient K^'vptians never even 
dreamed, arc astounded at their achievements in this direction and feel 
inclined to solve the prolilem by ascribing to them the use of technical 
aids, which we have no evidence that they possessed. The principles of 
the pulley and tlie lever seem to have been unknown to them ; and ob- 
stacles, which seem to us to demand imperatively the application of 
steam and machinery, were overcome by enormous multiplication of sheer 
human power. 

f The dhahabtych shoulil be .sent on to Bersheh, in order to allow 
time for a visit to the picture of the transportation of an Kgyptian statue 
(see above). About 4-5 hrs. are necessary to see comfortably all the 
points un tliis route. 

to Assiiit. DEREN-NAKHLEH. 1. Route. 21 

The colossal liguie within this tomh represents Kai, son of Tot- 
hoteiJ, a high-priest, a steward of the mysteries of the word of God, 
a privy chamberlain (superintendent of the works in the inner pal- 
ace), and the head of a nome. His paternal grand-mother was a 
daughter of Usertesen I., the second king of the 12th Dynasty, 
and he was also connected with the royal family on the mother- 
side. He was likewise related to the family of Nehera and Khnum- 
hotep (see p. 15). 

The successful transportation of the statue figured in his tomb was 
one of the chief events in the life of Kai. The scene shows us an image, 
13 ells in height, securely fastened tu a sled. Small cushions are inserted 
to prevent the polished stone from being injured by the ropes. To the 
sled are attached four strong cables, each naanned by 43 workmen (in all 
172), the 'young men', as the inscriptions inform us, 'of the W. and E. 
of the nome'. On the lap of the figure stands a man clapping his hands, 
probably the leader and time-giver of the song of the workmen, whose 
task was facilitated by rhythmical movement. To this day in Egypt and 
elsewhere the same custom is observed wherever the strength of many men 
is united in some common exertion, as in the sailor's chant in raising 
the anchor or hoisting sail. A man facing the time-keeper knocks two 
wudden stamps together, obviously to transmit the proper time to those 
too far off to hear distinctly the hand-clapping of the leader. On the 
prow of the sled, behind the rings to which the ropes are fastened, stands 
a man pouring water on the ground to prevent the heavily loaded sled 
from taking fire by friction. Water-carriers stand ready to refill the empty 
pitcher. These are followed by other labourers bearing notched Iieams, 
for laying under the sledge when necessary. Three bailitl's or stewards, 
with sticks, are each attended by four men, who seem from their simple 
costume to be foremen, stone-masons, or extra-hands. At the top are 
depicted seven well-equipped companies of infantry, marching in stitY 
military order towards the advancing colossus. The officers bear tridents 
resembling those in the usual representations of Neptune, which may 
either have been used as field-standards or for driving the cowardly 
into action. 

This highly instructive representation shows, among other points, 
how unlimited was the authority of the nomarch over the people of his 
nome and how freely, not to say extravagantly, he could apply human 
laliour in effecting his ends. One is tempted to pity the corvee labourers 
and to forget how ends which seem petty or even obnoxious to one 
generation may have seemed to their ancestors worthy of an unlimited 
expenditure of time, blood, and wealth. In the time of the pyramid- 
building 12th Dynasty it was accounted a noble and reputable thing to 
erect the hugest and most durable monuments. The mass of the people, 
who seem to have regarded the might of their oppressors in the same 
light as we regard the workings of destiny, were proud to have had a 
share in the erection of any specially important monument. Similar 
considerations are suggested by scenes in the tombs of the pyramids, and 
the inscription accompanying the atiove-described picture gives us chapter 
and verse for the accuracy of this view. It runs as follows: 'Transport 
of the thirteen-ell statue made of stone from Hatnub. Behold, the way 
by which it was to be transported was of extraordinary difficulty. Truly 
difficult was also the toil of the people in drawing the mighty mass along 
it, in dragging (the colossus) in hewn stone. I ordered the bands of young 
men to march and prepare the way for it, with watchmen, carpenters, 
and so forth. The most important were among them. The order was 
issued that men of a strong arm should go forth to fetch it. My heart 
was full of content, and my fellow-citizens all rejoiced. Tlie scene was 
extremely beautiful to witness ; the old man leans on the youth, the 
strong withstood the weak-hearted and timid. They thus became so strong 
that each one effected as much as a thousand. And behold, this statue 

22 Route 1. TKI.L EL-A.MAKNAII. From Cairo 

(if hewn sdiiie went forth nut (if tlic nmunlnin. uime \iiiutterahly jii-aml 
to witness than all thini,'S else. Transport-fihijis ('(niippcd with all ni<a!;ni- 
ficence, the choieest of ray yonng men and soMicrs. My children followed 
me arrayed in festal ornaments, and the inhabitants of my noine, sing- 
ing songs of praise, cclchrated my arrival in the fortress of this town'. 

The other representations in tliis toml> oflcr nothing unusual. Much 
has heen destroyed and defaced, principally l>y the monks, who tried to 
sanctify the pagan work and drive the devil from it by marking it with 
the sign of the cross. 

Below this tomb is another of the 12th Dynasty, belonging according 
to the inscriptions to the royal chamberlain Aha- 

On tlie W. bank, 1 M. from the Nile, is Melawi el-'Arish (rail, 
stat., p. 1), a small town with 10,000 inhab., whore fowls, eggs, 
etc., may be proi'ured i-lR-aply (large market on Sun.). In the vi- 
cinity arc many larjrc palms and also sngar-plantations. P'arther 
on, on the E. l)aMk, at the foot of the hill of the same name (p. 20), 
lies Shekh-Sa'id, with tombs of the old empire, including those of 
priests of Khufu, Userkaf, and Pej)!. 

We next reach the ruins of et-Tell and the grottoes of Tell el- 
Amaruah, two very interesting points on the E. bank, at which the 
'four weeks' steamer stops for a few hours on its return-journey. 
The best plan is to disembark at ct-Tell, visit the remains of the 
ol<l town, return to the dhahabiych, and sail to Hoijy el-KcindU, where 
donkeys for the visit to the grottoes are more easily obtained than 
at et-Tell. We pass to the right of the village of ct-7Wi, 74^- 
from the river, and at the point where the cultivated land ends we 
turn due S. (to the right). After passing the ruins of a large build- 
ing (probably a temple), now consisting ol' the foundations only and 
nearly indistinguishable, we turn to tiie right from the path to vi- 
sit the numerous relics of i)ublic and private buildings of all kinds. 
There are larger and liner ruined temples in other parts of Egypt, 
but nowhere else do we obtain so excellent an idea of the actual 
dwelling-pl.ices of the citizens. It looks as if the haiul of deity had 
bodily removed this large town (more than 1 M. long from N. to S.) 
from the surface of the earth, leaving nothing but the foundations 
to tell the aftcr-worlii that many thousands of human beings once 
lived an<l worked, suffered and rejoiced ou this waste sjjot. The 
lines of tlie streets may be followed and ground-plans traced; but 
thi- dfinaiids of cultivation are steadily cffaiiiig the remains. 

Tell el-Amarnah. Whctlier we proceed by laud from et-Tell 
or disembark at Jlagi: el-Kandll, we have to ride towards the hills 
to the V,., in which, even from a distance, we discover the gates of 
the celebrated toml)S of Tell el-Amarnah. In either case it is advisable 
to have a guide. On tlie way we should not omit to visit the recently 
discovered grave of the sun-worshipper Khu-en-aten (Amenho- 
tep IV., see below). Of the two groups of tombs that to the N. is 
the more interesting and the more easily accessible. 

An interesting and not >ct fully explained epoch of Kgyptian history 
is illustrated hero by a large number of paintings Jaiid inscripti(ms. In 
the Historical Introduction to onr lirst vol. an account i.s given of both 
Amoubotcp 111. and his sou and successor Amenhotep IV. The lirst, a 

to Ass int. TELL EL-AM ARN AH. I . Route. 23 

mighty prince both in war and peace, was a pious worshipper of Auiuion, 
whose name, indeed, forms part of his own (Anien-holep). Amenhotep IV., 
on the other hand, turned his back on his father's religion and on the in- 
creasingly spiritual conception of Ammon (the Hidden One') and the other 
ancient gods, discarded his name "Peace of Amnion', became exclusively 
a sun-worshipper, and named himself Khu-en-aten, i.e. "llellection of the 
Sun's Disc'. It is an interesting but doubtful question whether Amenho- 
phis IV., in his role of reformer, intended to resuscitate, as 'a patriotic 
restorer of the old cult', the simple sun-worship from which the religion 
of the Egyptians had originally taken its rise ; or whether he was moved 
by the Semitic influences, which are so noticeable all over the country 
after the expulsion of the Hyksos, to become an adorer of the orb of day 
and to introduce a religious ceremonial that recalled the practices of the 
Asiatic courts rather than the more dignified usages of the 'Sublime Porte' 
of Egypt. Portraits of historical personages often cast a clearer light on 
their character than piles of written documents, and the numerous re- 
presentations of Amenhotep IV. encountered in these tombs show that he 
was a sickly man, a fanatic, and an enthusiast. [The portrait-statue of 
him in the Louvre suggests similar conclusions.] He also, as the in- 
scriptions inform us, stood under the influence of his mother, who was 
not of royal birth and seems to have encouraged her son's tendency to 
prefer the old popular religion to the elaborately developed creed of the 
priests. His work was distinctly reactionary and could not long survive 
him. Almost everywhere we see his successors scratching out his name as 
a sign of their disapproval and contempt. Where it still stands intact we 
may conclude that it was overlooked. The fact that the portrait-like 
reliefs of men in these tombs, as well as the horses and buildings, appear 
more true to nature than in any other Egyptian monument may be due 
to the greater liberty of divergence from the hieratic canon allowed in a 
reign which was so unfavourable to the priestly dogmas. These reliefs 
excited the special admiration of the Greeks. A Hellene who visited them 
inscribed his name as admiring the art of the priestly stone-cutters 
(tsyvtjv v>a'j|j.a(;u)v tujv lepojv XaoTOfxiuvl. Besides the palaces and tombs 
of Tell el-Amarnah, Khu-en aten also built a large lienben or temple at 
Thebes, the blocks of which were used for the pylon of King Horus. He 
also erected a temple in Heliopolis. the remains of which are still extant, 
and probably another in Memphis. He is himself depicted on a pylon in 
Soleb (Nubia). 

Quite recently a new light has fallen on the history of Amenhotep IV. 
and his predecessor through the discovery of several hiindred tablets with 
cuneiform inscriptions in the large Temple, or rather Palace, of Tell el- 
Amarnah i, which narrate the intercourse of the Kings of Bal>ylon with 
Amenhotep III. and Amenhotep IV. To the former King Dushratta of Mi- 
tanni gave his daughter Tadukhepa in marriage; and her dowry is stated 
on one of the tablets. Other tablets contain letters from Palestine and 
Syrian vassals to the King of Egypt, and diplomatic notes from King 
Burnaburiash to Amenhotep IV., concluding a treaty of peace and asking 
for the hand of his daughter. Most of the tablets are now in the Asiatic 
Museum at Berlin, but many are in the British |Museum and a few 
at Gizeh. 

iV. Group. The tombs in each group are marked with red 
tiumhers, runnitig from N. to S. Most of the tombs are entered 
from a small fore-court, and the doorways of many are adorned 
with concave cornices. The door leads into an oblong apartment, 
communicating with a wide sepulchral chapel, with a small burial- 
recess in the background. The ornamentation of the ceiling is 
very varied. Columns with bud-capitals occur frequently, some 

T .Some authorities believe that these tablets were found in the tomb 
of Amenhotep IV. (see above). 

21 liuute I. TELL EL-AMARNAII. From Cairo 

of them untlni&hed, and the colouring of the reliefs is sometimes in 
wonderful preservation. The mummy shafts, in spite of their great 
deptli, liave all long since been desj)oiIed of their contents. In the 
very lirst tomb we lind a representation of the king and his family 
offering a sacrifice to the sun's disc. The disc is encircled with 
the Uneus-snake and furnislied with several arms, stretching down- 
wards; the hands are symbolic of energy, liberality, and the creative 
faculty. Dwarfs (then, as later, a favourite royal plaything), fan- 
bearers, and bowing courtiers stand below. In front is the provost- 
martial with his baton. To the left of the first grave, on the hill, 
is the Tomb of Pentu (No. 2), which is in a very ruinous con- 
dition. Farther on to the left is that of Rameri (fio. 3), with a finely 
worked exterior. On the left wall of the second chamber of this tomb 
is a military scene, which we do not hesitate to describe as the 
most realistic representation found liitlierto in any Egyptian grave. 
The lean figure of the Pharaoh, above whom the sun spreads its 
arms, stands in his war-cliariot and drives the fiery steeds, the intro- 
duction of which Egypt owes to the Hyksos. Sais (out-runners) 
witli long staves run in front of the chariot, towards the crowd of 
people offering sacrifice and bending to the ground in adoration. 
Standard-bearers and soldiers clear the way for tlie rapidly advan- 
cing procession, just as the mounted kavasses still do for the carriage 
of the Khedive. The king appears once more followed by his 
children, who also drive their own chariots. The procession hastens to- 
wards the royal palace, which covers the right part of the rear-wall 
of the chapel and also part of the right wall, affording us a clearer 
idea of an E^'yptiau palace than any other scene of the kind. It 
has long been established that neither the royal princes nor even 
the Pharaohs themselves lived in the temples. On tlie contrary 
they used to build themselves airy chateaux of light materials, with 
doors opening on shady galleries and colonnades. Gardens with 
fountains and water-basins surrounded tlie building, near which 
were also out-houses, stables, and well-stocked storehouses, in 
quantity corresponding to the huge number of ,tho dependents 
of the royal family. The great entrance-door is dignified with 
double rows of bud columns, and red standards wave from lofty 
flag-staffs. Above one of the side-doors is a round window siniilarto 
tiiose which the French call (eil-de-b<inif. The palace is adjoined 
by a sepulchral chapel, supported by columns and containing figures 
of the king's ancestors, honoured by rich sacrificial offerings; at the 
door is a choir, singing pious songs of remembrance to the accom- 
paniment of the harp, and taking its time from the hand-clapping 
of the leader (a custom still preserved in Egypt). — In the first 
chamber of Tomb 7 (right wall, p. 26) is a representation of the 
Temple of the Solar Disc, with a large peristyle court surrounded 
by a colonnade. Pillars resembling Caryatides decorate the walls, 
and above all tower the lofty pylons with their hollow cornice. 

to Assiut. TELL EL-AMARNAH. /. Roule. 25 

Not only are tlie subjects of tliese representations of great interest, 
but the character of the architectural drawing itself should be no- 
ticed. It is something between a sketch-plan and a finished picture. 
The ground-plan is clearly indicated, but at the same time an idea 
is given of the appearance of the external elevation of the building. 
Clearness and truthful reproduction of details are aimed at here as 
zealously as in the figure-drawing. The ground-plan is first sketched 
in, and then the outlines of the fa<;ades, and even the doors and 
trees are added so far as the space allows. 

The forms of the persons represented vary considerably from those 
seen in tombs elsewhere. Almost all Iiavethesame thickset body and 
lean neck that characterize the king. The figure of the latter is, of 
course, a portrait; and it is possible that the courtly artists bur- 
dened the subjects with the weaknesses of the prince so that his de- 
formities might not appear as anything unusual. Amenhotep IV. 
was certainly not a foreigner ; but his mother Tii may have been 
one, and may have installed her fellow-countrymen at the Egyptian 
court. Even the highest dignitaries have un-Egyptian features. 
Among these is the royal favourite Merira, who is represented on 
the right wall of Tomb 3, as literally overwhelmed with the golden 
necklaces, rings, and orders, which the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty 
delighted to shower on their loyal adherents; he stands in front of 
the royal family, the members of which are attended by fan-bearers 
and cour'ders of all kinds. 'Let him receive gold', says tlie inscrip- 
tion, 'on his neck, on his back, and on his feet'. Secretaries make 
a note of the donations and write out the royal patents, which are 
also mentioned elsewhere. The fourth necklace is being hung 
round the neck of Merira, while the fifth and sixth are handed (o 
him by two officials; a third attendant holds three golden rings. 
The Urma, to whom this favourite belonged, were, in addition to 
their other dignities, the most learned physicians and high-priests of 
Ileliopolis (mentioned in the inscription). The sickly prince na- 
turally pays the highest honours to his physician, one of the Urma 
priests. Another of these priests, named Khui, is mentioned in the 
Ebers Papyrus as having prepared a famous eye-salve, and it is pos- 
sible that Amenhotep IV. may liave been blind or, at least, threaten- 
ed with blindness. His outstretched neck suggests the attitude 
of a blind man, and in the song of one of the priestesses by the 
door-post of the same tomb occur the words : 'The lord of goodness 
arises .... No other one opens his countenance, healing his eyes 
with his beams'. 

Tomb 4 contained the remains of the 'truth-loving' Aahmes, the 
royal secretary, adjutant of the fan-bearers, and first lord of the 
bedchamber. Here we find one of the great dignitaries celebrating 
the glory of the sun. He praises the beauty of the setting of the 
lord of the lords and princes of the earth, at sight of whom the 
electbreak forth Into rejoicing, atwhose rising and setting the whole 

20 liouUl. TP:LL EL-AMAIINAII. From Cairo 

earth aud all lands sing songs of praise. The praise of the king is 
interwoven witli the hymii io the sun : 'Thou givest me honour 
before the king all my days. A worthy burial after a long life in 
this land of the light-region of the sun's disc was accorded to me. 
I fulfill the span of my life. 1 fullill my life in the completeness 
of a servant of the good god, wlio is free to ascend every throne he 
likes. I am a vassal of tlie king'. Then follows a list of the titles 
of Aahmes. 

Tomb 6 contain.^ representations of columns, the shafts of which 
are encircled at regular intervals by rings resembling the tissue 
enveloping the joints of reeds. The capital consists of several erect 
bell-flowers, with dependent buds held together by a ring. 

The Tomh of Jluia (No.l). the keeper of the treasury, also 
contains much that is interesting. The Temple of the Sun, on the 
right wall of the first chamber, has already been mentioned. The 
king is shown seated upon a lion-guarded throne, illuminated by 
the solar rays, and borne by several courtiers. Before and behind 
are noble youths with large and small fans. The same chamber 
contains another striking and well-preserved scene, representing 
the studio of the sculptor Auto, director of the portrait-sculptors 
(lit. 'givers of life) of the king's mother Tii. A well-executed 
statue of this powerful but unlovely princess is being coloured 
by the master himself, while two younger sculptors (s-ankh) give 
the finishing touches to the head and legs. The sacrificial scenes 
are of the usual type. — The name of Klm-en-aten has been almost 
everywhere obliterated from the cartou<'lie.«. The solar disc with 
the arms appears frequently as a kind of talisman, sometimes above 
the single hieroglyphics. While demanding devoted loyalty from 
his subjects, the king seems to have enjoyed the most affectionate 
and happy relations with his wife and daughters, in whose names 
we recognise an echo of his own ( Aten"). The wife is named 'Beauty 
of the Solar Dis<'., the beauteous Dame Ait' ; the daughters are Merit 
Aten, the darling of the sun; Ateii makt, the ward of the sun; 
Ankh-s en pa Aten, she who lives through the sun ; Aten nefra' ta 
shera, beauty of the sun; the little Aten bekt, servant of the sun, 
and so on. Tii, the mother of the king, is already known to us 
(sec above). 

The iS'. Tombs, 1' 4-IV2 lir. from the N. group, are not so well 
preserved. Tiie graves formerly stood open, and oiily those parts 
under cover have escaped serious injury. In 1883 Maspcro dug 
deeper into the already opened graves, aTid opened some for the 
first time, such as that of Mahu (p. 27). The cartouches of Khu- 
on-atea arc not scratched out in the newly uncovered tombs. Of 
special inti'rest are the recently discovered vaulted passages with 
steps, leading downwards, which are unlike any other Egyptian 
construction. It is evident that these were the actual burial-places. 
Skulls of bodies which had not been embalmed have been found 

to AssiCit. TELL EL-AMARNAH. 1 . Route. 27 

hero. The uortheriiinost tomb (No. 3 of Lepsius) shows us tlie king 
and his family standing on a da'is, below which foreign captives 
are depicted. The royal pair receives rich tribute. Those bringing 
the gifts are Egyptians. A'i, to whom the tomb belongs, is adorned 
with necklaces on account of the abundance of his contributions. 
Numerous servants carry the sacks and bottles to the open cellar- 
door, in front of which, in a bending attitude, is a bailiff with a 
staff. It is possible that the cellar belongs to Ai, and that the gifts 
are royal bounties to him. — The next grave to the S., on a pro- 
jecting hill, was excavated in 1883. It was destined for Mahu, a 
commander of the royal police, and scenes from his life (Arrest of 
mountaineers. Escort of the king's equipage, etc.) are depicted on 
the walls of the first chamber (esp. to the right of the entrance). 
In the right side-wall is a door bearing a prayer in behalf of Mahu 
to Aten-Ra (the radiating solar disc). — Tlie next tomb, that of 
the royal official Tutu^ contains (to the right of the entrance) the 
almost complete text of a hymn, sung by a priest in praise of the 
sun : 'The breath of the wind', says the hymn, 'enters their nostrils, 
and Thy gift it is that they have being. All flowers bloom and 
grow in their beds, and they flourish at Thy uprising. Festal joy 
arises at the sight of Thy countenance. All quadrupeds hurry along 
on their feet, all the birds in their nests flutter their wings in joy'. 
This tomb also possesses a 'papyrus' column, of unusually careful 
workmanship and elaborate ornamentation. The basis of the ca- 
pital is encircled, among the leaves, by a Ur;eus-serpent ; and at 
the upper end of the shaft, below the richly-adorned band repla- 
cing the aunuli, are singular decorations consisting of sacrificial 
gifts, including many birds in groups of five. — To the S., at a 
little distance, lies the tomb designated by Lepsius as No. 1. This 
also is dedicated to a high dignitary named AV, perhaps the same 
as in Tomb 3. On the entrance-wall to the right is represented a 
festival, which some interpret as that of an order, while others take 
it for the marriage of Ai, fan-bearer and commander of cavalry, to 
the royal nurse. The king, denoted by the disc, his wife, and his 
daughters stand on a da'is. The courtiers, from the charioteers to 
tlie military officers and fan-bearers, receive with deep obeisances 
the decorations which the Pliaraoh, the queen, and the princesses 
tlirow down to tliem. Tlie foremost dignitary already wears six 
necklaces, and the lady behind Mm is just adding a fifth to the 
four she already possesses. A troop of dancers enlivens the pro- 
ceedings by energetic leaps and contortions, and secretaries make 
a note of the donations. To the S. are several other graves, in- 
cluding those of Apii and Ramses, the latter a general and chamber- 
lain of Amenhotep III. To the N.N.W. of these tombs lay the huge 
residence of the singular king Khu-en-aten , which was perhaps 
destroyed by the same generation that obliterated his name from 
the cartouches. 

28 Routt 1. DKRUT K{?H-SH1:1{1f. From Cairo 

Beyond Hagg cl-Kandil the Nilc-voyager passes several small 
villages, but ncitlier they iior the scanty ruins of the Pharaonic 
epoch near thcni deserve a visit. 

In a ravine near el-HawCttah (E. bank) stands a stele with a 
hieioglypliif inscription, discovered by the late Mr. Harris, liritisli 
consul at Cairo aTid ixcdlently versed in Egyptian antiquities. 
Farther on we skirt an island and reach the point on the W. bank, 
between tlie villaires of el-iiezireh (i.e. 'island') and el-Mandurah, 
where tlie Bahr Ytisuf or Joseph's Canal^ an arm of the Nile, di- 
verges from the main strc^am to water the agricultural districts of 
the Libyan bank, the Fayiim ( p. 35) etc. The name of Joseph, was 
given to it by the Arabs, who recognise in the son of Jacob the type 
of all administrators. It probably owes its regulation if not its origin 
to Amenemha III., of the 12th Dynasty. Extensive works are now 
in progress to furnish the W. part of the Libyan bank with water 
from a point higher up the Nile, near Assiut. 

About 5 M. below tlie divergence of the Bahr 'i'usuf, at some 
distance from the Nile, lies Derftt esh-Sherif (rail, stat., p. 1). 
About l'/4 M. above (S, of) the fork, on the E. bank, are some 
brick ruins, and I1/4 M. farther to the S. are the mounds of Der 
el-Kuser, probably the site of the ancient Pescla. This is the N. 
boundary of the dum-palms, which, however, do not attain their 
full development till farther up, between Assiut and Kench, where 
we see many fine specimens (p. 70). The Arabian Mts., rising in 
precipitous rocky walls, approach the river. Swallows, ducks, and 
other birds inhabit the caves in the porous rock on the banks, and 
fly in and out in screaming crowds. The cliffs on the right bank of 
this part of the Nile are knowji as Gebel Abu Fedah. The stream 
below them is considered the most dangerous part of the channel 
between Cairo and Assuan. Violent winds blow round the crags, 
and numerous sandbanks impede navigation. 

The Arabs fell that a ship-inaster of Konch, having safely arrived at 
Itrililk, was asked by his friends how he had passed the Gcbel Abu Fcda. 
'(^uitc easily', was his rejoinder, 'there's no danger there'. An old man 
who overheard him remarked: 'From your own words 1 see that you 
do not know this mountain'. 'I know it as well as my own eyes', said 
the boatman. 'When I return to Keneh 1 must pass it once more. If my 
vessel sull'ers any damajjo in doin't; so, 1 will pay you 10,000 piastres, on 
Condition that you pay me the like sum if 1 pass safely. But 1 t;)ve you 
due warning that I know the Gcbcl Abu Fcdah perfectly well'. The old 
man accepted the wajier, and the ship-master had his "boat bound with 
iron, en);a);ed the l^est sailors, and set forth. As he approached the ttebcl 
the lioat was assailed at lirst by one wind, and afterwards by four storm- 
winds, each blowing from a dirt'erent quarter. The ship, in spite of its 
iron fa.slenin(:8, was cast upon the rocks and went to pieces; and the 
vainiilorious re'is, as he scrambled ashore with nothing saved but his 
life, cried: 'Oebel Abu Fcdah, I never knew you till now'. 'Numerous 
similar stories arc related of these cliffs. And no wonder, for nothing 
can bo more mysterious and spe<'tral than their appearance at twilight, 
when the dark swarms of birds lly towards the rocks and disappear as 
suddenly as if engulfed by it. 

The hill contains many rock-tombs, which have not ytit been carefully 

to Assiut. MA'ABDEH. 1. Route. 29 

investigated. Travellers who wish to do so will find the hill not a very 
arduous climb. In descending they may strike the river at a point a 
little farther to the S. and row thence to the dhahahiyeh. 

On the W. bank, 3 M. from the river, lies el-Kusiyeh, now an 
insignificant fellah town, representing the ancient Kusae, in which, 
according to iElian, Venus Urania and her cow (i.e. Hathor nebt 
pet Hathor, the mistress of heaven) were worshipped. No inscrip- 
tions have been found in Kusiyeh itself, but elsewhere the name 
of Hathor occurs as the Lady of Kesi. From Kesi came the Coptic 
Kiuc-K-Olu(kos-koo). and thence was derived the Arabic Kusiyeh. 

At cl-Harlb, on the E. bank, are the ruins of an ancient Egyp- 
tian town, at the mouth of a Wadi ascending to the Arabian moun- 
tains. The walls, provided in places with window-openings, are 
high, but fragments of demotic inscriptions show them to be of late 
date. Small caves in the rocks contain bones from mummies of 
men and cats. 

Monfal6t, on the W. bank (rail, stat., see p. 1), an important 
town with 13,200 iiihab., is the seat of a Coptic bishop and con- 
tains several fine villas and gardens and a bazaar. Its market is 
much frequented on Sun., and it also prossesses a sugar- factory 
and a distillery, where date-brandy ("araki) is made, partly for local 
consumption by the Copts and partly for export. Tlie town lies 
close to tlie river, which must here have greatly encroached on the 
W. bank since the close of last century. The Arabs translate Mon- 
faliit as 'Lot's place of banishment'. 

To the S.W. of Monfaliit lies Beni '^Adln, where in 179S a collision 
took place between the troops of General Desaix and the Arabs. In the 
following year, just after the arrival of a caravan from Darfur, General 
Uavoust destroyed it as a nest of rebels, taking the women prisoners. 
Mohammed 'Ali united his army here in 1S20. Ihe journey to the oasis 
of Farci/rah (p. 348) is frequently begun here. The first station to the 
N.W. is the convent of Afaragh, containing 50 Coptic monks. 

Esh-Shekilkil, a small village on the E. bank, lies on a 
narrow strip of fertile land between the Nile and the S. end of the 
rocky Gebel Abu Fedah. It is the starting-point for a visit to the 
Crocodile Grotto of Ma'abdeh. A guide, who may be procured in 
the village of Shekilkil, is necessary to show the best way over 
the stony hill and to point out the entrance to tlie cavern, which 
easily escapes the eyes of even practised searchers. Lantern and 
ropes are also necessary, and a few strong sailors to handle the 
latter. Ladies should not attempt this excursion. The distance is 
about 41/2 M., and most of the way is up a steep hill. We first 
proceed towards the N.W. to the (1/2 hr.) village of el-Mdnbdeh, 
and thence to the N.E. towards the hill, the plateau of which we 
reach in 3/^ hr. A walk of 1/2 ^^- towards the S. then brings us to 
the grotto. The entrance is in the shape of a hole 12 ft. deep, into 
which we are lowered by ropes, a guide previously descending to 
aid in landing. We then creep on all-fours for some distance 
through the dust of ancient mummies, and after some time 

30 Route 1. MA'ABDKIT. From Cairn 

ascend a branch to the left. The passage in a straight direction 
chiefly contains human mummies, while that to the left is packed 
with mnmniies of crocodiles. Some of tliese are of great size, and 
in other cases bundles of '25 baby-crocodiles are put \ip together. 
Baskets of bast contain crocodile-eggs, with the shells, contain- 
ing the embryo, still unbroken. After some time we reach a more 
spacious part of the grotto, where it is possible to stand erect. It is 
not improbable that the cave had a second entrance on the other 
si<le of the bill, but this has not yet been discovered. Great care 
should be exercised in using the lights; two Frenchmen who acci- 
dentally set fire to the mummy-bandages were suffocated by the 
smoke and burned to ashes. It was here that Mr. Harris found 
the celebrated papyrus MS. containing fragments of Homer's Hiad, 
which was held in the hand of the mummy of a man wearing a 
coronal of gold. The enormous number of Crocodile Mummies 
found here will astonish no one who knows the following passage 
in the trustworthy 'Abdellatif (12th cent.}: 'Among the animals 
peculiar to Egypt the crocodile must not be forgotten, which occurs 
in great numbers in the Nile, particularly in the S. part of Sa'id 
(Upper Egypt) and in the vicinity of the cataracts. There they 
swarm like worms in the water of the river and around the cliffs 
that form the cataracts'. In his time there were still crocodiles in 
the Delta. These animals are now totally extinct on the lower Nile; 
none has been seen for many years between Cairo and Uebel Abu 
Fedah, and they are becoming very rare between tlie latter jioint 
and Assuiin, mainly, it is said, owing to the noise of tlie steam- 
boats. Even between the First and Second Cataracts they are now 
rare, though 20 years ago they were very frequent. 

The road to Assiut, which we encountered on our visit to et-Tell 
(sec p. 22), leads across the Gebel Abu Fedah and reaches the Nile 
at lir.niMoltamtned, near the S. base of this hill. In the hill beyond 
UeTii Mohammed are some tombs of the iith Dyn., with uninter- 
esting and half-effaced representations of agricultural and other 
scenes. Jn the valley lies the Coptic convent l)cr el-Gehrai, con- 
taining a (ireek inscription (discovered by Mr. Harris) in the shape 
of a dedication of the camp of the Lusitanian Cohort, which served 
under Diocletian and Maximian, to Zeus, Hercules, and Nike (Vic- 
toria). In the desert, between the convent and the hills, are some 
scanty fragments of walls of brick, which seem to have belonged 
to the fortilled camp. 

Between Monfali'it and Assiut (26 M. by water, 17 M. by land) 
the Nile makes several great bends, which occasion a good deal of 
delay to navigation. The generally favourable N.E. wind here 
sometimes blows broadsiile on, and sometimes even against us. The 
greatest curves are at ll'tkir d- Menhibad and el-Aiiiriiy. Kl- 
Menkabad, Cojjtic Man h'njiol (potters' village"), situated on an 
artiticial arm of the Nile, has long been famous for its pottery. To 

to Asmd. ASSIUT. I. Route. 31 

the S. of it lies Benlb (or Ehnub') el-Hammam, inhabited by Copts. 
The mountains of the E. bank now recede, and the foot-hills of the 
Libyan chain approach the river, on the banks of which grow several 
fine groups of sycamores. The minarets of Assiut now come into 
sight, and numerons dredgers are seen at work in the canals. We 
land at el-Homrah, the palm-enclosed harbour of Assiut, with its 
steamers and other boats. 

Passengers by railway reach Assiut in the evening after dark, as the 
train is not due till G.30 p.m. and is generally late. Those who do not 
wish to spend a day here, in order to see the town and the neighbouring 
tombs (p. 32), should at once transfer themselves and their luggage to 
the steamer (dragoman of the steamboat agents at the station). The path 
to el-Hamrah (see above), a walk of about 20 min. (donkeys for hire), leads 
along the railway track, and, as it is not lighted, a man should precede 
the party with a lantern. The train, however, often runs right down to 
the harbour. On reaching the steamer the traveller should at once make 
sure that all his baggage has been brought aboard. 

Assifit, Asyiit, or Siut (New Hotel, kept by G. Benois, near the sta- 
tion, i2s. per day, not very good), '252 M. from Bulak, Is one of the 
oldost and now one of the most important towns on the Nile, con- 
taining 31,600 inhab., a railway station, and steamboat, post, and 
telegraph offices. There are British, American, French, German, and 
Austrian consular representatives. The public baths are well fitted 
up. The Egyptian Mission of the American Presbyterians (100 sta- 
tions, 26 churches, 97 schools) has one of its stations here, with 
interesting schools for girls and boys. The sacred name of the place, 
Pit tinub ('town of the wolf-headed Anubis') or Pa ap heru kema 
('S. town of the way-opener', i.e. Anubis) gave rise to its Greek 
name o{ Lycopolis (see below). Its secularname, even in the ancient 

kiiigdom, -was 1J\ v\ Saut, Coptic Swut. No other town, 

except Medum, has preserved its ancient name with so little change. 
With the exception of a few fragments of columns, nothing remains 
of the living quarters of the ancient town, but the older part of the 
necropolis contains some very interesting relics of early times. 

Plotiiins, the greatest of the Neo-Platouic philosophers (205-270 A. D.), 
was born here in the beginning of the 3rd cent., and his system was not 
uninduenced by the priestly doctrine"! of his native town. From the be- 
ginning of the 4th cent, onwards Christianity was dominant in the town 
and neighbourhood. Pious believers took rel'uge in the caves of the 
necropolis to live a life of penitence apart from the world. One of these, 
JoJm of Lycopvlis, at the end of the 4th cent., bore the reputation of a 
saint and even of a prophet. Theodosius sent an embassy to him to en- 
quire the outcome of the civil war. The anchorite foretold a complete 
bnt bloody victory, and this prophecy was fullilled in the victory of 
Theodosius over Eugenius at Aquileia in 394 A.D. The life of the saint 
of Lycopolis was written by his friends Rufinus and Palladius. The grotto 
that he occupied cannot now be distinguished from the numerous others 
in the hills ; but the rocky chamber of another hermit of the name of John 
can lie identified in the vicinity of Benihasan, for he wrote on the wall 
the Coptic phrase: 'make prayers for me miserable. I am .lohn\ Towards 
the end of his life St. John of Assiut lived in the Convent of the Seven 
Hills, at the top of the ridge, whicli was named after him the Convent 
of St. John the Less. Makrizi relates that St. John, at the bidding of his 

32 RrMtel. ASSIUT. From Cairo 

teacher, once planted and watered a piece of dry wood, and that a fruit-tree 
sprang up, called the 'Tree of Obedience', yielding fruit for the monks. 

From very early times Assiut was considered the northernmost point 
of the Thebaid. 

Tlic steamers and rlhahabiyelis are met at el-Hamrah by donkey 
boys with well-saddlud donkeys and by sellers of pottery, which 
can nowliere in Efrypt be obtained better than here. The line pottery 
of Assiut, esp(!cially its bottles and pipe-bowls, is justly celebrated 
and forms an important article in its export trade, which also deals 
in linen, embroidered leather goods, ostricli feathers and other pro- 
ducts of the Sudan, natron, soda, and corn. It has, however, lost 
part of its commercial importance since the great caravans from W. 
Africa have frequented other routes and places. Large trains of 
camels still come from Uarfilr and Kordofan, generally encamping 
at Pieni 'Adin (p. 29), 19 M. to the N.W. of Assiut. The vicinity 
of Assiut is one of the best-cultivated districts in the valley of the 
Nile, the fertile strip between the Libyan and Arabian Mts. here 
attaining a width of 12 M. The province of Assiut, the mudir of 
which resides here, contains 234 villages with r)83,596inhab. (incL 
the oases of Khargeh and Dakhel). Near the harbour are several large 
palm-gardens, in which also grow pomegranate, fig, and other fruit- 
trees. These gardens are let at enormous prices and produce rich 
harvests of fruit. 

Those who have 2Y2-3 hrs. to spare should not omit to ride 
through the town and to the tombs on the slopes of the Libyan 
limestone hills, not only for the sake of the antiquities, but to see 
the busy Oriental life in the bazaars and to enjoy the view from the 
graves. Candles and matches must not be forgotten. To visit Assiut 
from the dhahabiyeh and to ride through it takes abo\it 1 hr. The 
town lies about ^ ^ M. from the river and is riached from the har- 
bour by an embanked road shaded with beautiful trees. Outside 
the town lie the long government buildings. The streets are full 
of busy life, especially on Sundays, when the people of the neigh- 
bourhood flock into the market. Oriental wares are cheaper in the 
bazaars of Assiut than at Cairo, but European goods are dearer. The 
better houses are of burned brick, the meaner of sun-dried Nile 
bricks. The fa(;ades on the street are generally unimposing, but a 
glance into one of the courts of the bigger houses will show that 
the wealthy merchants of Assiut are not indifferent to comfort and 
display. Tin- main street intersecting the town from E. to W. is 
nearly !i .M. long. 

Necropolis of Ancient Lycopolis. To reach this from the har- 
bour we riMpiirc at •' 4 lir. Hiding through part of the town, 
we diverge from the main street at the point where it bends to the 
right and proceed to the left, through the cultivated land and across 
a handsome bridge, to the foot of the Libyan hills. The dark 
optMiiiigs of the tombs and caves are conspii-uons at a distance in 
the abrupt sides of the mountain, below which lies the new Arab 

to Assiut. ASSIUT. /. lioiUe. 33 

cemetery. On tliu way, especially in the forenoon, we often meet 
funeral processions , resembling, with their wailing women and 
water -distribntors, those of Cairo, bnt producing a much more 
solemn effect through the absence of the bustle of the crowded 
streets and the presence of the deserted city of the dead. Nowhere, 
not even in Cairo, are the funeral songs so strange and weird as 
here, or sung by siich deep and tuneful voices. 

At the foot of the hill we dismount aud follow the good path 
which leads to the most interesting tombs. A tomb below, near the 
Arab cemetery, is unimportant. Mighty grandees of the ancient 
empire, who tilled the highest secular and ecclesiastical offices, 
hewed huge vaults in the rocks here for the reception of their mum- 
mies. Other tombs, smaller and less elaborately decorated, belong 
to simple burghers of a later period ; and there are also holes in the 
rock for mummies of the jackal, which was sacred to Anubis Apheru, 
the local deity of Assiiit. It is this animal that the Greeks in this 
instance wrongly called Lykos or wolf (whence Lycopolis), but a 
few genuine wolf-bones have also been discovered here. Mummilied 
dogs, kittens, and birds of prey have been found, wrapped in limn 
bands and sometimes adorned with gilding. Those who do not ob- 
ject to creep into some of the d\isty and ill-smelling holes will still 
easily find fragments of sacred animals. The jackal, along with the 
Uraius-snake, flaunted proudly on the standard of this nome, the 
chief town of which was the capital of the whole of Upper Egypt in 
the time of the ancient empire. 

The path, which is well-made though somewhat steep, leads us 
first to a large rock-hall, the ceiling of which is roughly hewn in 
the form of a vault and still bears traces of blue stars painted on a 
yellow ground. Sadly defaced inscriptions, in the style of the an- 
cient empire, cover the walls. The hieroglyphics on the door are half 
obliterated, but enough remains to show that this was the grave of 
Hap-Zefa, son of Dame At at, a high-priest, and governor of S.Egypt. 
The Arabs call'it Istahl 'Antar, or the stable of Antar, a hero of 
tradition (comp. their name for the Specs Artemidos at Benihasan, 
p. 111. The *View from this tomb is very fine. The fertile land 
and the Nile enclosed by the limestone hills of Libya and the Ara- 
bian mountains in the distance form a quiet but by no means mono- 
tonous setting for the beautiful townof Assiiit with its eleven mina- 
rets and its environment of palm-gardens. The view is still grander 
from the higher tombs. The second chamber of this tomb is covered 
with important inscriptions. To the right on entering is one of 
64 lines, which cannot be read without the aid of a long ladder and 
a good lantern. It contains ten articles from the code relating to 
the worship of the dead, determining, amongst other things, the 
sacrificial gifts for the statues of the deceased. These were trans- 
lated first by Maspero and afterwards by Erman, while the revised 
text has been published by F. L. Griffith (1889). To the left is 

Baeuekee's Upper Egypt. 3 

31 Uoule'J. FA YUM. Tours. 

another almost illegible inscription, engraved, like a palimpsest, 
above an older text and referring to llap-Zifa; on the same side 
are cartovichcs of Usertesen I. 

Ui^^icr up, to the right (N.), is a row of three tombs close to 
each other, the northernmost of which has beun destroyed. The 
second is the Kuhf et-'Asakir, or I'^oldiers' Tomb, so named Irom 
the rows of warriors on its S. wall. On thu right side of this tomb 
is a long and partly effaced inscription, referring not only to Khetl. 
father of Tef ab, the owner of the tomb, but also to King Merikara 
( I'ith Dyn., ace. to Maspero, of the 10th or Ileracleopolitan Dyn.), 
in whose reign Kheti lived. 

The adjoining tomb (to tlie left or S. ; No. 3) contains a long in- 
scription referring to Tef ah ^ a high-priest of Apheru (Annbis), 
lord of Assiut. A little farther to the S. is the tomb (No. 2) of an- 
other Hiip-Zefa, son of Ai and headman of the district of Atei-khent. 

The fceologjcal t'Dimation of this hill of lombs is very interesting, 
specially on account of the numerous specimens of Calliatiasse nilotica 
and other fos'iils founfl on its upper part. The limestone is so hard 
that it emits sparlis, and flints occur in considerable <)uantity. 

Among the curiosities of Assitit there must not 1)C forgotten the small 
piece of water standin'^ between tlie river and the town, the ancient le- 
jrend of whose eflfect upon virgins is still half seriously related. Paul 
Lucas is probably the first author who mentions it, and Michaelis devotes 
a para:iraph to it in his edition of Abulfeda's Description of Kgypt (A. 
I8'J): 'De i|uo slajiuo fingunt Siutcnses, ejus potu signa virginilatis eripi, 
unde excusatas habent novas nuptas virginitatem non prodentes, si stagni 
aquam degustarunt. Felix certo inventum, nee dcspero tales in vicina iilia- 
ruin quoi|ue el Europae urbium , quod felix faustumque virginibus 
sit, fontes\ 

At /ieni Moljammed el-Kuftli\ opposite Assiut, are several important 
lombs of llie Gth Dynasty, belonging to nomarclis and (probablyj rela- 
tives of King I'epi. 

2. The Fayum. 

Comp. Mtij), p. 2. 

A Touit TiiKorGii THE FatOm, including a visit to the Labyrinth, the 
site of Lake BIOBris , the Birket cl-Kuriin witli its abundant wildfowl, 
and tlic ruins in its neighbourhood, takes 0-S days, unH re(iuircs B tent, 
a dragoman, and a supply of provisions. A dragoman charges 3t>-40 fr. 
a day for each person, according to the requirements of his emjiloyers, 
and for that sum he is bound to provide them with a tent, provisions 
(wine excepted), and donkeys, or other means of conveyance, and to 
pay railway fares and all other expenses. A written Cfintract (comp. 
p. XX), specifying the places to be visited, the points where some stay i,s to 
be made (on which occasions a reduced charge per day should be stipulated 
for), and other particulars, should be drawn up before starling. Those 
who intend to visit Mcdinet el-Fayum .Tnd its immediate environs only, 
and wlio do not object to rougli (juarters for line or two nights, may 
dispense with a dragoman and a tent, but should be provided with a 
moderate 8up]>1y of food. .\n introduction to the mudir will be of great 
si'rvice in enalding the travi'lliT to jirocurc the necessary horses or donkeys, 
which the inhabitants arc often unwilling to hire (ciini]). jip. 37, 42). 

.Since the conijilelion of (he railway this excursion has usually been 
undertaken from Cairo, but it may also lie ciimbincd with a visit to 
SakkSrah. It was formerly usual 1o visit the Fayuin in connection with 
a jfpurney up the Nile, but (his plan entails needirss expense, as the boat 
and its crew have to be paid for while lying idle for several days. If, 

Situation. FA YUM. 1'. lloute. 35 

however, the traveller prefers this plan, he disembarks at Wastah and sends 
on his dhahabiyeh to Benisuef. which he afterwards reaches by railway. 

Railway from Cairo to Wedinet el-Fayum (Ligne de la Haute-Egtjple)., 
75 M., in about 4 hrs. The trains are often lute. — A train starts daily 
at 8.30 a.m. from the Bulak ed-Dakrur station, reaching Wastah tp. 1) at 
10.38 a.m. (halt of 20 min. ; change carriages) and Medinet el-Fayum at 
12.16 p.m. A second train starts from Biilak ed-Dakrur at 3 p.m., reach- 
ing Wastah at 5.29, where the train leaving'Assiut at 8.30 a.m. arrives at 
4,25 p.m. From Wastah the Fayiim train proceeds at 5.45 p.m., reaching 
Medineh at 7 p.m. — From Medinet el-Fayum the line goes on to Senhflr, 
but for a visit to the Birket el-Kurun must be brought from Me- 
dineh (comp. p. 42). — A train leaves Medinet-el-Fayum daily at 9 a.m., 
reaching Wastah at 10.15 a.m. and Bulak ed-Dakriir at 1.15 a.m. 

Situation and History of the FATioM. In the great plateau of the 
Libyan Desert, which rises 300-400 ft. above the sea-level, is situated the 
province of the FatOji (from the ancient Egyptian 'Phiom', i.e. marsh or 
lake district), the first of the oases (p. 343}, which is usually considered 
to belong to the valley of the Nile, and is justly celebrated for its extra- 
ordinary fertility (p. 36). This tract is in the form of an oval basin, 
840 sq. M. in area, and supports a population of 2C)0,000 souls ; it is enclosed 
by the Libyan hills, which are here of moderate height, and lies about 
three-fifths of a degree to the S. of Cairo. It enjoys a remarkably fine 
climate, and has but rarely been visited by the plague. This 'land of 
roses'' is still one of the most beautiful parts of Egypt, and more than 
any other part of the Nile valley deserves the well known epithet of 'the 
gift of the Nile', bestowed on Egypt by Herodotus, as it is entirely indebted 
for its fertility to the waters of the Nile with which itis artificially irrigated. 
The Bahr I'tlsuf (p. 28), a channel 207 M. in length, which is more probably 
a natural branch of the river, artificially adapted, than a canal, diverges 
from the Nile to the N. of Assiiit, and flows through a narrow opening in 
the Libyan chain into the Faytim , where it divides into numerous 
ramifications, abundantly watering the whole district. One of its branches 
runs towards the N., skirting theE. .slopes of the Libyan hills. At the point 
where the Bahr Yusuf enters the Fayiim, the district forms a plateau of 
moderate height, descending towards the W. in three gradations towards 
the Birket el-Kuriin, a long, narrow lake, extending from S.W. to N.E. 
On the easternmost and highest part of the oasis the Labyrinth and 
Lake Moeris (pp. 39, 40) were once situated ; the central part yields the 
luxuriant crops for which the province is famous ; while the western- 
most part chiefly consists of sterile desert land. To the W. and N. of the 
Birket el-Kurun rise precipitous limestone hills, beyond which lies the 
immense sandy desert of Sahara. The Fayum must have been reclaimed 
from the desert at a very early period, probably during the early empire, 
iu the reign of Amenemha in. , as monuments of his period indicate 
that he was perhaps the first of the Pharaohs who sought to regulate 
the whole course of the Nile. On the Upper Nile Prof. Lepsius has 
found Nilometers constructed by that monarch , and in the Fayum , on 
the site of the Labyrinth, a number of blocks of stone inscribed with his 
name. The Greeks called him Aniens, or Muevis, and believed that the lake 
known to them as 'Lake Moeris% which they regarded as a marvel of 
engineering skill, was named after him. The word meri, however, is 
the Egyptian for lake or overflow, so that the great basin of the Fayum 
was simply 'the lake'; and it was from his exertions in c(mnection with 
the irrigation works that Amenemha obtained the name of Moeris. We 
learn from several inscriptions, and from a papyrus roll treating of the 
Fayiim, that the province was known in the time of the Pharaohs as Ta 
sJict, or the lake-land , and that Lake Moeris was called hun-t, signifying 
the discharge or posterior lake. On its bank rose the celebrated Laby- 
rinth, which was probably renewed by the Bubastite monarchs of the 
22nd Dynasty. About the same period the town of Crocodilopolis, situat- 
ed on Lake Moeris, and afterwards called Arsinoii after the wife of Pto- 
lemy Philadelphus. was so extended and embelli.shed by Osorkon I. that 
it is called the 'city of Osorkon 1.' in the inscription on the celebrated 


36 Route l>. MEDlNi:'!' KL-FA\UM. Fayilm. 

stele of Piankhi. The wlmle province was at first calli'd the lake-land, 
then the district of CrocotUlopolis , and lastly the Arsinoitc Nome. The 
deity most hijilily revered here was the crocodile-headed 8eljek, the rep- 
tile sacred to whom was carefully tended in Lake McitIs. At the same 
time the voracious and dan{;erous monster, notwithstandinji the reverence 
paid to it on account of its connection with the inundation, was also 
regarded as Typhonic, and the Crocodilopolitan nome was therefore 
I)assed over in the lists of nomes. — At the period preceding that of the 
Psamtikides of the 'iOlh Dynasty the Lal>yrinth appears to have been used 
as a hall for great imiieiial assemblies. At the period of the Ptolemies 
and the linmans the prod\icts of the Fayiim were much e.xtolled. 'The 
Arsiiioite Kome\ says Strabo, 'is Ihe most remarkable of all, botli on ac- 
count of its scenery and its fertility and cultivation. For it alone is 
planted with large, full-grown, and richly productive olive-trees, and tlie 
oil is good when carefully prepared; those who are neglectful may in- 
deed obtain oil in abundance, but it has a bad smiell. In the rest of 
Kgypt the olive-tree is never seen, except in the gardens of Alexandria, 
where under favourable circumstances they yield olives, but no oil. Vines, 
corn, podded plants, and many other products also thrive in this district 
in no small abundance'. — Strabo's description is still applicable at the 
present day. The oranges and mandarins, peaches, olives, lig.s, cactus 
fruit, pomegranates, and grapes grown here are much esteemed, and the 
beautiful, rich-coloured red roses of the gardens of the Fayum, which 
were once so lavishly strewn at the banquets of Cleopatra, still thrive 
here. At the station of Medinet el-Fayum small phials of attar of roses, 
of inferior quality, arc frequently oO'ered for sale. Isma'il Pasha devoted 
special attention to this favoured part of his dominions. The fields, which 
arc watered by means of wheels of peculiar construction, yield rice, sugar, 
cotton, ila.x, and hemp, besides the usual cereals. The beginning <if No- 
vember is probably the seascm at which the traveller will obtain the most 
distinct idea of the fertile character of the district. — The InhahiUmls 
are I'ellahin, or tillers of the soil, and Heduins. To the latter race be- 
long the poor fishermen who inhabit the banks of the Uirket el-Kuriin. 
Slany of llie peasants also call themselves 'Arabs', and the wealthier of 
them are generally well mounted. 

From Cairo tu el-Wastah (51 M.), sec p. 1. Travilleis coming 
from Cairo (iliaiigo carriages here; stay of 20 miii. in the forenoon, 
17 min. ill the at'tLriioon. 

The brancli-linc to the FayCiiii rtins towards the W., across 
cultivated laud, to the village of Ahu liddi, Iteyoud which it tra- 
verses a desert tract for 35 niiii., and then crosses tlie low and 
bleak Libyan cliaiu of liills, reaching its highest iioint at a level of 
190 ft. above the sea. We then dt^sci^nd, cross thcBahr el-Warddn, 
which Hows towards tlie lial.irYiisuf from the N., and tiicu the water- 
course ol' el-Bats (p. 38), and nuar the station of (19 M.) el-Adwek 
(09 ft.), on the right, we again perceive cultivated land. On tlic 
left is a cemetery with the dilapidated tombs of several sliekhs. 
Numerous palm-braiiclies are placed by the tombstones as tokens of 
alTection. On the right stretches an ancient dyke, which once may 
have belonged to the embankment of Lake M(eris (p. 40). We 
pass the station of el-Madub, traverse rich arable land, and soon 
reach (231/2 M.) — 

Medinet el-Fayftm, the 'town of the lake-district', situated to 
the S. of the site of Crocodilopolin-Ar.^ino'c, the aiicii'iit capital of 
the pro\ince {Hold du FayAuit, iOs. daily; with a letter of intro- 
duction from Cairo quarters may also be obtained at the American 

Fayilm. MEDINRT EL-FAYUM. 2. Route. 37 

mission-station or at the housu of the Italian cur^O. It contains 
ahout 40,000 inliab., and is a not nnpleasing specimen of an Egyp- 
tian town. Between the station and the town we observe a peculiar, 
undershot sakiyeh, or water-wheel driven by the water itself. The 
very long covered bazaar contains nothing of special interest. The 
traveller, even if unprovided witli an introduction, should pay a 
visit to the mudir, who will protect him from extortion in case of 
any difficulty witli the owners of horses and others (_comp. p. 34). 
A broad arm of the Eahr Yusuf (p. 35) flows through the middle 
of the town. Tlie mosque of Knit Bey, on the N. side of tlie town, 
now somewhat dilapidated, is the only interesting building of the 
kind. It contains numerous antique columns, brought from the 
ancient Arsinoi', some of which have shafts of polished marble with 
Arabic inscriptions, and Corinthian and other capitals. Below the 
mosque, on the bank of the Bahr Yusuf, are some remains of ancient 
masonry. No ancient inscriptions have been discovered here, but 
tlie walls of some of the houses contain fragments which must 
have belonged to ancient temples. At the W. end of the town the 
Bahr Yiisuf radiates into numerous branches, which water the 
country in every direction. The dilapidated mosque of Soft situated 
here forms a picturesque foreground. 

To theN. of the town are the extensive ruins of Crocodilopolis- 
Arsinoe, which has been entirely destroyed. The site is now called 
A'dm Fi'irijf. Many antiquities, both of the Roman and the Christian 
period, have been found here, including numerous small terracotta 
lamps and many tliousand fragments of papyri, intermixed with 
pieces of parchment. Most of the papyri are Greek (among them 
fragments of Homer, Euripides, Thucydides, also of a Christian 
catechetical book), many are Arabic from the 2nd cent, of the He- 
gira down to 943 A.D. ; and others are in Coptic, Pehlevi, Sassa- 
nide-Persian, and Meroitic-Ethiopian characters. Several fragments 
in hieratic and hieroglyphic characters, the oldest from the time of 
Ramses III. (about 1300 B.C.I, have also been discovered. As the 
writings are for the most part tax-papers, it has been supposed tliat 
they belonged to a tax office of the town of Crocodilopolis, where 
old papyri also were used. A large number of the papyri found 
here were acquired by Consul Travers for the Berlin Museum, and 
even a larger number by Theod. Graf and Archduke Rainer for the 
Austrian Museum of Art and Industry at Vienna. The very exten- 
sive cemetery of the town, with its picturesque tombstones, covers 
part of the site of the ancient city; the higliest of the mounds of 
rubbish command a survey of the whole of the Fayum. At the N. 
end of the ruins, about 11/4 M. froni Medineli, M. Schweinfurth 
discovered the remains of a large temple with a pylon, in front of 
which is a sitting figure of Amcnemha I., the founder of the 12th 
Dyn., and inside several slabs with the name of Ramses the Great. 
A head with ITyksos features, now in the museum of Gizeh, has 

38 Rnule 2. BilTAMU. Fnyum. 

also been found here. According to Mr. I'linders Petrie, the temple 
proper, which was 4'JO ft. w'ide and l»ad a double colonnade, be- 
longs to the 26tli Dynasty. 

The village of Bihamu, about 4 31. to the N. of Medineh, was 
doubtless once situated on the liank of Lake MQeri.s. It still contains 
some shapeless ruins of ancient origin, de.'titute of inscription, but sup- 
posed to be the reniains of the pyramids which according to Uerodotns 
once stood in the lake. They are now called Kuvsi Far'dn, or chair of 
Pharaoh, and resemble dilapidated altars rising above other fragments of 
sidid masonry. If they were once pyramids, the greater part of them 
must have been removed, as the walls are now but .slightly inclined 
inwards. Distinct traces of the water in which they once stood are to 
be seen on their bases, and they are still surrounded by remains of 
walls, the purpose of which is unknown. 

In the fields near Ebgig, or Begig, 2^/2 M. to the S.W. .of Medineh, lies 
a fine obelisk, broken into two parts, which must have once been at least 
4G ft. in height (route to it rough and dirty). Like other obelisks, it is, 
bori/oiitally , of olilong rectangular shape, and its summit is rounded. 
The inscriptions, whicli are damaged at many places, inform us that the 
monument was erected by Usertescn I., who also founded the obelisk 
of lleliopolis (Vol. I., p. 333j, and l)elonged to the same family tl2th Dyn.) 
as Amenemha III. , the founder of the Labyrinth. — A visit to liihamu 
and Ebgig is chiefly interesting to archaeologists, and perhaps to bota- 
nists also. 

KxciRsiONs. A wliole day is required for a visit to the Pyramid 
of Ilawiirah and the Lahyrinth (horse 10, donkey ft fr.). The rotite 
leads at first for "'^hr. along tlie bank of the P.ahr Yusuf. The lirst 
village of any importance is Uliafeh. Otir path traverses well cul- 
tivated land with numerous water-wheels. The corn and cotton 
fields are shaded by numerous sycamores, lebbcks, palms, and 
other trees. About \/.2 hr. from TJhafeh, and beyond two smaller 
villages, we reach a bridge of ancient brick masonry. Traversing 
the slightly undulating tract a little farther, we reach the Jiuhr 
TScliVi Mi'ih [ 'river without water"), also called el-Bats, a deep chati- 
nel, extending in a wide curve, and terminating near the N. IC. end 
of the J'.irket el-Kurun (p. 43). In winter the water, which trick- 
les down from its lofty banks, forms a few scanty pools. At the 
bottom of the channel gro^v reeds and tamarisks. The S. bank 
rises at places nearly perpendicularly to a height of '20 ft., so that 
the sequence of the strata of the soil is distinctly observable. Wc 
now ascend the plateau (the highest in the province, 88 ft. above 
the sea level) on which lies Hawfi.ret el-Kasab or Jlawaret e.l- 
Makla, a considerable village, with a mosque ( reached inl''V4hr. 
from Medinet cl-l'ayumj. The traveller may apply to the Slu-kh-cl- 
lieU'dlprefect of the village) for a guide to the pyramid of llaw/irah. 
If the water is high, and the canals have to be avoided, wc have 
to make a circuit of nearly '2 lirs. to the Labyrinth, btit by riding 
througli the water, where necessary, it may be reached in '■^/i hour. 

The longer route is preferable, as it passes several relics of 
antiquity. A little beyond the village rises the bridge of h'analtr 
r.l-At/ani^ the ton buttresses of which rest on a foundation of mas- 
sive stone. Wc continue to ride along an ancient embankment, and 

Fnyum. LABYRINTH. 2. Route. 39 

tlius reach the Katnsantah structure, which consists of a terrace of 
six carefully jointed steps of large and well-hewn blocks, hut hears 
no inscription whatever. We cross the Bahr el-Warddn, which 
now intersects the ruins near the Pyramid of Hawarah, and which 
is sometimes called hy the Arabs 7?a/tr el-Melekh or Bahr esh-Sherkl, 
i.e. river of the East. On the E. side lies the mass of buildings, 
which, according to Lepsius, was probably the Labyrinth (see be- 
low). In order to obtain a survey of these interesting ruins the 
traveller is recommended to ascend at once the Pyramid of Ha- 
warah. This consists of nnburnt bricks of Nile mnd mixed with straw 
(Vol. I., p. 370), and, when its sides were perfect, covered an area 
of upwards of 116 sq. yards. It has been ascertained that the nu- 
cleus of the structure is a natural mass of rock, 39 ft. in height. The 
dilapidated summit is easily reached in a few minutes by a flight of 
well-worn steps. The entrance to the pyramid, on the S. side, was 
discovered in 1889 by Mr. Flinders Petrie. The tomb chamber 
is 22 ft. long, 8 ft. wide, and 6 ft. high ; it was covered with three 
large slabs of stone and contained two sarcophagi, one of them of 
polished sandstone without luscription, and fragments of an ala- 
baster vase with the name of Amenemha III. The chamber was 
tilled with water to a depth of 3 ft. 

Towards the S. we observe a congeries of chambers and passages 
of unburnt bricks, bounded by the Bahr csh-Sherki, and pronounced 
by Lepsius to be the right side of the Labyrinth, and the only part 
of it which is to some extent preserved. On the other side of the 
Pyramid there was doubtless a similar collection of rooms which has 
now disappeared; and several other structures beyond them, of which 
traces still remain, must have once existed there. The whole Laby- 
rinth must have been in the shape of a horseshoe. Between the wing 
of the Labyrinth which still exists, and that which has disappeared, 
lies an extensive space strewn with broken pottery, in the middle 
of which are large fragments of a magnificent ancient temple. The 
base of the shaft of a small papyrus column, and a capital of the same 
order, both in the red stone of Assuan, with sculptured stalks aTid 
foliage, are worthy of notice. Some blocks disinterred here bearing 
the name of Amenemha III. have again been covered with sand. 
Several large blocks of limestone are also observed in the middle of 
this large court of the Labyrinth. The inscriptions are almost en- 
tirely destroyed, but faint traces of painting, and the symbols o=> 

(aa) and V\ (u), are still recognisable. From the traces still ex- 
isting, the whole structure would appear to have occupied an area 
of 8800 sq. yds., and the large inner court an area of about 60 acres. 
The Ancient Labyrinth. According to Brugsch, the Greek name Laby- 
rinthos, which has liecn difl'erently interpreted, is derived from 'evpa', 
or 'elpa-rohunr, i. e. the 'Temple uf the mouth of the Lake". The in- 
scriptions found here by Lepsius prove that it was founded by Amen- 
emha III. of the 12th Dynasty. Herodotus declares that the Laby- 

40 noute ?. LABYRINTH. Fayum. 

rinth, which was afterwards reckoned as 'one of the wonders of the 
world', was so vast as to surpass all the buildings of the Greeks taken 
together and even the Pyramids themselves. For the best description 
we arc indebteil to Strabo , who visited the Labyrinth in person. He 
says: 'There is also the Labyrinth here, a work as important as the 
I'yriimids, adjoining which is "the tomb of the king who biiilt the Laby- 
rinth. After advancing about 30-40 stadia beyond the first entrance of 
the canal, there is a table-shaped surface, on which rise a small town 
and a vast jialace, consisting of as many royal dwellings as there were 
formerly mimes. There is also an equal number of halls, bordered with 
columns and adjoining each other, all being in the same row, and fiu-m- 
ing (me building, like a long wall having the halls in front of it. The 
entrances to the lialls are opposite the wall. In front of the entrances 
are long and numemns passages which have winding paths running 
through them , so that the ingress and to each hall is not 
practicable to a stranger without a guide. It is a marvellous fact that 
each of the ceilings of the chambers consists of a single stone, and 
also that the passages are covered in the same way witli single slal)s 
of extraordinary size, neither wood nor other l)uilding material having 
been employeil. On ascending the roof, the height of which is incon- 
siderable, as there is only one story, we ol)serve a stone surface con- 
sisting of large slabs. Descending again, and looking into the halls, wc may 
observe the whole series borne by twenty-seven moncdithic columns. The 
walls also are constructed of stones of similar size. At the end of this 
structure, which is more than a stadium in length, is the tomb, consist- 
ing of a square pyramid, each side of which is four plethra (400 ft.) in 
length, and of equal height. The deceased, who is buried here, is called 
Ismandes. It is also asserted that so many palaces were built, because it 
was the custom for all the nomes, represented by their magnates, with 
their jiriests and victims, to assemble here to offer sacrilicc and gifts to the 
gods, and to deliberate on the most important concerns. Each nome 
tlien took possession of the hall destined for it. Sailing about a hundred 
stadia lieyond this point, we ne.xt reach the town of Arsinoc', etc. This 
description of Strabo is confirmed by the contents of two papyri, one fif 
which is in the museum of Gizeh, the other in. private possession (Mr. 
Hood). The deities of 66 districts are enumerated here, M of whom be- 
long to Upper Egypt, 20 to Lower Egypt, and 22 to tlie Fayiim. 

It is very (loiibtful whether wo should consider these buildings 
of Nile bricks as remains of the ancient Labyrintli, or rather as 
tombs. Certainly nothing is left that recalls in any way the splen- 
dour of the old 'wonder of the world'. Except some blocks of lime- 
stone, nothing remains of the extensive structures once erected 
licrc\ save tlie pyramid 'at the end of thi; labyrinth'. 

To the N. (if the pyramid Mr. Flinders I'eliie discovered some mummy 
coflins with carefully painted heads (now in London). Of still greater 
value arc the iiorfra'its found at el-I{ub<iydt, 13 M. to the N.E. of Mc- 
dinet el-Fayiini, which were purchased and brought to Europe by M. Theo- 
dore (Iraf. 

Lake ]I(Erig. The object of Lake Mreris, which has long since boon 
dried up, was to receive the superfluous water in the case of too high 
an inundation, and to distribute its contents over the fields wlien the 
overflow was insufficient. Strabo describes Lake Mieris in the follow- 
ing terms: 'Owing to its size and depth it is cajiable of receiving the 
superabundance of water during the inundation, without overflowing the 
haliitations and cnqis; but later, wlien the water subsides, and after the 
lake has given up its excess through one of its two mouths, both it and 
the canal r(>tain water enough for purposes of irrigation. This is accom- 
plished by natural means, tint at both ends of (he canal there are ivlso 
lock-gntcs, by means of which the engineers can regulate the influx 
and efflux of the water.' The lock-gate, which in ancient times ad- 
milted tin; water conducted from the Nile by llie canal into the lake, 

Fayfim. EL-LAHUN. 2. Route. 41 

was prol>ably situated near tbe mddei-n el-Lahihi (see below), the name (if 
which is supposed to be derived from the old Egyptian '•Ko'lncn' or 'io- 
fewi'', i.e. 'the mouth of the lake\ and the site of which was probably 
once occupied by the town of Ptolemai's. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the Situation and Form of the 
Ancient Lake. Linant-Bey, arguing from the considerable difference of 
level between the two lakes, maintains that the Birket el-Kurun (Lake 
of the Horns, p. 43) could never have formed part of Lake Mirris, as was 
formerly supposed, and he assigns to the latter a much smaller area than 
was attributed to it under the earlier theory. Placing it farther to the 
S.E., nearer to the Labyrinth and el-Lahiin, he makes its boundary-line 
run towards the S.S.W. of Medinet el-Fayum to the Birket el-Gliarak, and 
intersect the desert of Shckh Almicd, where the ancient height of the wa- 
ter, which far exceeds the level attained in modern times, has left its 
traces; it. then leads to Kalamshah, turns to the N. to Dcr, and then to 
the E. and S.E. to Dimis/ikineh, follows the embankment of Pillawdneh, 
and passi's Hawdrct el-Kebir and the bridge ofel-LMAn (see below). Hence the 
boundary loiuls by Di'mmo towards the N.E. to Seleh, and thence to the W. 
to Bihamu (p. 38); then again to the S,, and thus returns to Medinet el- 
Fayum. — A somewhat fatiguing journey of 2-3 days will enable the trav- 
eller to complete this circuit of the bed of the lake, which is now dried 
up. Recently, however, Mr. F.Cope Whitehouse, relying upon the great 
circumference assigned by Herodotus (II, 149) to the lake, of 3G(J0 stadia 
(reduced by Linant to 360) or about 335 M. (Pliny says 230 JI.), and upon 
measurements made by himself on the spot, ascribes a considerably larger 
area to the lake than Linant, and maintains that it extended on the S.W. 
to the Wddi Raydn. It is not improbable thot in ancient times nearly the 
whole of the Fayum could be laid under water, so that even the Birket 
el-Kunin belon^ied to Lake Moeris, but that the entire system was meant 
for' the watering of the Fayum alone and not of the Nile valley or the 
Delta. Considering that the bed of the lake must annually have been raised 
by the dep,)slt of Nile mud, it follows, that as soon as the raising of the 
embankments and the removal of the mud were discontinued, the lake 
must have become unserviceable, especially after the lock-gates at el- 
Lahun fell to decay, each opening of which, as Diodorus informs us, 
cost 50 talents [i.e. about ll,250Z.V). The discharge of the superfluous 
water probably ran through the Bahr Belah Mah, which has already been 
mentioned (p. 38) , or through the Wadi Nezleh (p. 42), both of which 
fall into the Birket el-Kui-iin. The ancient conjecture, that the latter 
discharged part of its water into the Sahara (or, as Herodotus says, the 
'Libyan Syrte'), was not an unnatural one. 

A visit to the Pyramid of el-Lahiin or Illahun is only interesting to 
those who are desirous of convincing themselves of the truth of Linanfs 
hypothesis, and to make the circuit of the boundaries of the old bed of 
the lake (see al)ove). The pyramid, which is built of Nile bricks, may be 
reached from Hawaret el-Kasab in 4-5, or from the Labyrinth in 3-4 hours. 
It has been recently been opened by Frascr. The discovery of an ala- 
baster altar with tlie name of Usertesen II. renders it probable that the 
pyramid was built by that monarch. A smaller pyramid lies to the N.E. 
The remains of the ancient embankments, which were tolerably well 
preserved in the time of the Khalifs, are not without attraction. Those 
who are interested in hydraulic engineering should also inspect the en- 
trance of the Bahr Yusuf into the Fayum. 

About 72 M. to the E. of the pyramid of el-Lahiin, Mr. Flinders Pc- 
trie discovered a temple in 1889, and close beside it the ruins of the town 
Ha-Usertesen-hPlep, now called Kahuii. The Litter was founded by User- 
tesen II (12th Dyn.) for the labourers on his pyramid. Among the articles 
found here were pottery. Hint and copper implements of the 12th Dyn., 
numerous papyri of the same period, a statuette of Si-Selick (13th Dyn.), 
a wooden stamp of Apepi, and a large wooden door of Osorkon I. 

Ouroh, 11/2 M. to the W.S.VV. of Illahun and close to the edge of the 
desert, owed its origin to Tutmes III., who built a temple there. Many 
of the inhabitiints were foreigners. Mr. Petrie discovered here fragments 

42 Route 2. ABUKRAn. Faydm. 

of pottery of the time of Tutankliamou ami Ramses II., resembling the 
most ancient potsherds found at Myceniv. The coffin of Amentursha, 
discovered here, is now at Oxford. The pottery bears Kgyptian stamps, 
but also letters of the Cyprian, Phd'nician, and other alphabets. 

Birket el-Kurun auA Kasr Kuritn (tent, horses, provisions, etc., 
coinp. p. 34). The Ka.ii- way from Medinet el- Fay inn via Senru and 
Abu Ooni<heh to (^15 M.) Alukmh (see below) and thence to Sen- 
hur and (71,2 M.) Tirseh is used almost exclusively for the con- 
veyance of sugar-cane to tlie manufactories of the Khedive. Trav- 
ellers going by railway (one train daily from Medineli to Abuksah, 
starting about noon, and performing the journey in about 1 hr.) 
must take horses with tliem for the continuation of their- journey. 
The following routes are all practicable, but the third is to be 
preferred : — 

( 1 ) We proceed by land via Nezleh (where boats must be ordered 
for the passage of the lake) to Kasr Kuriln; then by water to 
Dtmeh, and again by water to the 8. bank of the lake, situated in 
the latitude of Senhur, which lies about 4 M. inland. The horses 
should be sent on from Kasr Kurun to the lake (unless the some- 
wliat refractory guides refuse to obey), in order that we may ride 
to Senhur, and tliencc to Medinet el-Fayum. Four or live days are 
required for the excursion ; the points of interest are mentioned in 
tlic tliird route. The road from Nezleh (sec below) to Kasr Kurun 
( 4 hrs. ) leads through the desert, past the remains of a small temple, 
called by the Arabs Kdsr el-Bendt, or 'Maidens' Castle'. 

(2) If the traveller renounces Dimeh and Kasr Kurun, and is 
satisfied with the sport to be obtained in the liahr cl-Wadi, he may 
easily make the excursion in 21/2-3 days. On the first day the route 
skirts the railway (see above) to (2 hrs.) Senru; it then leads 
tliroiigh a plantation of opuntia, the growtli of which is so gigantic 
that it almost resembles a forest, and across a sandy tract overgrown 
with tamarisks to ('2 hrs.) Abuksah, situated on a hill, and com- 
manding a line survey of the lake and the Libyan mountains. At 
tlie N. base of the hill near the railway station (see above) is a sugar 
manufactory, superintended by a Frenchman, wjio accords a kind re- 
ception to travellers. "SVe now proceed to the S. W. across meadows, 
and tliroiigli a somewhat marshy district, to (21/^ hrs. ) Abslieh, sit- 
uated close to Nezleh. (The traveller is recommended to spend the 
niglit in a tent rather than among the Reduins. ) Next day we fol- 
low tlic valley of the Bnhr el- Wi'nU (or Bnhr Ncileli), which is 
bounded by large mud-hills, to the lake (2i/2hrs.), where we spend 
the middle of the day. (The numerous dead fish on the bank of the 
lake render its proximity unpleasant; boats are to be had from the 
r.eduins. ) In the evening we return to Absheh, and on the third 
day to Medinet cl-Fayum. 

(3) l''our days at least are required for the somewhat longer 
route via Senhur and the lake to Kasr Kurun, if the traveller wishes 
to visit lUmcli, and shoot on the lake. The route first skirts the 

FnyOm. RENHUR. 2. Ro^lte. 43 

railway and the villa of Malimi'id Bey, and tlien passes the tomb of 
a shekh, where a draught of good water is offered to the traveller 
l»y a dervish. A number of dry ditches must be crossed, and also 
several canals, where the traveller on horseback will hardly escape 
from wetting his feet when the water is high ; if he rides on a 
donkey, he should get the Arabs to carry him and his saddle across. 
The fields which wc pass are remarkably well cultivated, and the 
eye rests with pleasure on trees of various kinds, including fine 
olives in the gardens, with hedges of cactus. The vegetation is most 
luxuriant in the neighbourhood of Fldmin, a village picturesquely 
situated on a slope, but inhabited by a thievish population. The 
Bahr ct- Tdhuneh ( 'mill river' ), one of the broader canals, must be 
crossed here. Beyond this point the country is, at places, green and 
well irrigated, and at others dry and sterile. One part of the route, 
which is llankcd by luxuriant gardens of olives, pomegranates, and 
figs, is very muddy. After a ride of fully three hours wc reach the 
locks and the bridge Kanatir Hasan. The large body of water of 
the canal, which is conducted from the Bahr Yusnf, here falls into 
a channel, which, with many ramifications, conveys it to the fields 
of Senliur. 

Tlio large village of Senhur (rail, station, see p. 42] lies on the 
border of the second plateau of the province. Those who visit Ila- 
warah (p. 38) reach the first plateau, while the second is crossed on 
the way to Senhfir; the third lies at our feet when looking down on 
the Birket el-Kuriin from the great Kom, i.e. the ruin-strewn hill 
to the N. of the village. The handsome house of the Shekh el- 
Beled offers good accommodation, and even quarters for the night. 
The traveller should make a bargain here for a boat with the shekh 
of the fishermen. About 30 fr. for the day, and a bakshish for the 
rowers (of whom 6-8 are necessary for speed), are demanded. 

Senhur stands on the site of an ancient, and not unimportant, 
town, of which large heaps of ruins still remain. Boman walls are 
traceable in many places. A large building has recently been ex- 
cavated by the peasants for the sake of obtaining the hard bricks 
of which it is built, but part of it has already been removed. No 
remains of columns or inscriptions have been met with. 

From Senhur to the Birket el-Kuriin takes about I'/a hr. The route 
leads throvigh sugar-plantations. \Ve reach the lake noar the peninsula 
kuiiwn as el-Gezireh, on which stands a heap of ruins. A short distance 
to the W. are the scanty remains of el-Hammdm. The traveller, at^ter 
having ridden to the lake, should not forget to order his horses, which 
return to Senhur, to await him for the return-journey at the spot where 
he has quitted them, or to order them to meet him in good time on the 
hank of the lake by Nezleh (see p. 42). 

The Birket el-Kur6n ('lake of -the horns') owes its name to 
its shape, which resembles that of slightly bent cows' horns. It 
measures 34 M. in length, and, at its broadest part, is about H'/^M. 
wide. It is situated on the same level as the Mediterranean, and 
its depth averages 13 ft. The greenish water is slightly brackish 

44 Route. •?. KASR KURllrN. Fayum. 

(scarcely flt for drinking^ , and aliomids ii) fish, some of wliich 
are very palatable. The right of fishing is let hy goveniineiit, and 
the whole of the fishermen dwelling on the hanks of the lake are 
in the service of the lessee, who receives one-half of the catch. 
The boats (merkeh) are very simply constructed, being without 
deck or mast; the traveller must take up his quarters on the floor- 
ing in the stern ; none of tlie boats have sails, for, as the fish al- 
ways go in the same direction as the wind, the fishermen have to 
row against the wind \n order to catch them. Numerous pelicans, 
wild duck, and other water-fowl, frequent the lake. The banks 
are extremely sterile; on the N. side are barren hills of considerable 
height. In the middle of the lake rises a mass of rock, resembling 
a table, and serving as a landmark. Near the S. bank, from K. to 
W., lie the villages of A'(//^r Tarntijeh, Tirseh, Senhiir, Ahuksah, Be- 
shuai, aTid Abil O'onsJielf^ the ruins of Dhneh are situated on the N. 
bank, but there are no other villages of importance. AtheS.W. 
end of the lake is tlie promontory of Kliashm KIkiIU, overgrown 
with tamarisks and reeds, the creeks of wliich afford good landing- 
places. Ascending thence across the desert, we reach the temple in 
about IV4 hours. The fishermen object to pass tlie night on tlic 
bank in the neighbourhood of Kasr Kurun, being afraid of the I'e- 
diiins and the '/l/VZi' (evil spirits). 

Kasr Kurftn is a tolerably well preserved temple, probably of 
the lioman, or, at the earliest, of the Ptolemaic period, before 
reaching it we observe numerous traces of an ancient town, 
which has now disappeared. The ground is strewn with blocks 
of hewn stone, burnt bricks, broken pottery, and fragments of 
glass. A circular foundation wall indicates tlie site of an ancient 
cistern, while other walls seem to have belonged to vineyards. The 
walls of the temple consist of carefully hewn blocks of hard lime- 
stone. This temple, like almost all the shrines in the oases, was 
dedicated to the ram-headed Ammon-Khnum, as is proved by the 
only two figures of this deity which still exist. They stand opposite 
to eacli other at the highest part of the posterior wall of the upper 
story of the open roof. 

Tlic temple ia 'JO yds. in width across Iho farade, and 29 yds. in Icngtli. 
The entrance, facing the E., is approached by a lofty and carefully con- 
structed platform, 14 yds. in lenfitli, forming a fore-court, on the S. side 
of whicli rises a massive structure re«cnibling a tower. Adjoining the 
facade of the temj)le, to the W. of the entrance door, rises a massive, 
semicircular projection, re«cmbling the half of a huge column. On the 
lower floor arc the apartments of the teiniile which were dedicated to 
worsliip, divided into a tri])le prosekos, ami leading to the Sckos or .sanc- 
tuary. In the lirsl throe rooms the ^rnund slopes down towards the sanc- 
tuary, which, Imill in the lorm of a cella, .adjoins the third room of the 
prosekos, and (as in the case of other temples) was divid('d into three 
omall rooms at the back. The sanctuary is Hanked liy two nnrrow ])as- 
sagca, each of which is adjoined by three rooms. Thc'rooms of the pro- 
sekos also have adjacent clianihcrs from which we may enter the cellars, 
or ascend by two llighls of to tlie ui)|ier lloor will! its ditl'erent apart- 
ments, and thcncQ tr) the roof, wlience we obtain an extensive view ol tho 

Fiiyum. DIMEH. 'J. Route. 45 

remains of the ancient city, of the lake, and the desert. Each gate of this 
curious building is surmounted by a winged disc of the sun ; and over 
the doors leading into the second and third rooms of the profekos and 
into the sanctuary, instead of the ordinary concave cornice, there is a 
series of Vrasus snakes, which, with their outstretched heads and bend- 
ng necks, together form a kind of cornice. The names of several trav- 
ellers are engraved on the stone of the first room, including those of Paul 
Lucas, K. Pococke, Jomard, Roux, d'Anville, Coutelle, Bellier, Burton, 
Belzoni, Hyde, ;'nd Paul Martin. Ka.^r Kurun has also been visited by 
Lepsius. There are no ancient inscriptions remaining. 

To Uik E. of the large temple are situated two smaller Roman temples, 
in tolerable preservation, the larger of which, situated 300 paces from the 
smaller, is not without interest. Its walls (18 ft. by 19 ft.) consist of 
good burnt bricks, and its substructures of solid stone; the cella ter- 
minates in a niche resembling an apse; on each of the side-walls are 
two half-columns, which, as the fragments lying on the ground show, 
belong to the Ionic order. There are also some less important ruins 
covering an extensive area, but nothing has been found among them 
dating from an earlier period than the Roman. The construction of the 
walls, the architectural forms, and many coins found here, are Roman ; 
and none of those small relics of the period of the Pharaohs, which are 
usually found so abundantly among the ruins of Egypt, have been dis- 
covered here. This was perhaps the site of the ancient Dionpsias, a town 
which probably sprang up on the ruins of a Roman military station, 
situated on the extreme western side of Egypt. On the outskirts of the 
ruins are walls which perhaps belonged to gardens ; there must also have 
been once an aqueduct for the purpose of supplying the inhabitants and 
their gardens with water. 

From Kasr Kurun to Dtmeh is one day's journey. Dimeh is 
situated opposite to the point at which we approach the lake from 
Senhur. The scanty ruins on tlie S. hank of the lalce (El-Ham- 
mdmah, etc.), are not worthy of a visit ; hut the ruins of Dimeh, al- 
though no inscriptions have been found there, present some attrac- 
tion. A street, lUOyds. in length, formerly embellished with ligurcs 
of lions, leads to a platform on which an important temple once 
stood. The numerous blocks scattered about here, resembling mill- 
stones, and apparently artificially rounded, are discovered on closer 
inspection to be of natural formation. The paved court was sur- 
rounded by a brick wall, and the temple itself contained several 
apartments ; a peristyle, with columns now in ruins, led to the en- 
trance. Notwithstanding the imperfect state of the ruins, they 
suffice to prove, that a town of very considerable importance, per- 
haps the ancient Bacchis, once stood here. 

3. From Assiut to Eeliaueh. 

Comp. Map^ p. 8. 

107 31. Steamboat upstream in 7 hrs., downstream in G'/i; l"'"*- The 
mail-steamer stops for the night at Girgeh, both in ascending and de- 
scending. The length of the iniAiiAuiYEU Votage depends ujion the wind. 
With a favourable wind it takes about twice as long as the steamboat 
voyage; to Sohdg 4 hrs., tlicnce to Girgeh 6 hrs., and thence to ISelidnek 
3 hrs., in all aboiit 13 hrs. 

The voyage from Assiut to Akhmim leads through an extremely 
fertile and well-cultivated district. Well-tilled fields, broader on the 
W. than on the E., adjoin both banks of the river, and are shaded 

40 lioule 3. ABUTIG. From Assiat 

by line palms and Nile acacias, especially near the riverside villages. 
Here, as in most of l*'gypt, large quantities of pigeons are kept by 
the peasants, chiefly fur the sake of their droppings, which form the 
only maiuire used in the fields, the dung of the cattle being dried 
and used as fuel. Large pigeon-houses, not unlike pylons, are 
visible in all the villages, and huge flocks of pigeons are seen 
wheeling in the air or settling like a dark cloud on the fields. Most 
of these pigeons are of the common grey species, and attain a con- 
siderable size, but many pretty little reddish-grey turtle doves are 
also seen. The traveller is at liberty to shoot these birds, which in 
the form of a pigeon-pic with olives form a most acceptable addi- 
tioTi to his larder, but he should exercise this liberty with discretion 
and not rob the harmless fellah of too many of his feathered friends. 
The pigeons really consume more than they produce, so that their 
encouragement by the fellahin is rightly regarded as a serious 
mistake in their husbandry. 

Those who are interested in Egyptian agriculture may utilise 
the opportunity of an unfavourable wind to go ashore here. For- 
merly convent after convent occupied this district, and the gardens 
of the monks, according to Makrizi, made it possible for the tra- 
veller to walk continually in the shade. A few convents still remain, 
such as the Der er-Wtfeh (W. bank), on the slope of the Libyan 
hills, 8 M. to the S.W. of Assint, with the tomb of Tutus, son of 
liahotep and commander of the archers, and other ancient Egyptian 
graves. The inscriptions prove that Shas-holep, the capital of the 
Ilypselite nome, lay in this vicinity, and it may perhaps be identi- 
lieil with the modern Sltutch. Of the Christians who resided here in 
the 11th cent, we are told that they spoke (ireek as well as Coptii;. 
Interesting Coptic MSS. may still reward the searcher in all these 

The traveller need not break his journey between Assiut and 
Akhmim, as even the antiquarian will derive little profit from the 
scanty remains on this part of the river. Wiislah, nearly opposite 
Assiut, perhaps occupies the site of the ancient Contra lycopolis. In 
the (iebel Rokhdin, to the K. of the villages of el-Ghorcbhjeh and 
Nntiifeli, is an alabaster quarry. 

lo M. Butig or Abutig (steamboat and mail station), an agri- 
cultural town on tlie W. bank with 10,800 inhab. and a small har- 
bour filled witii Nile-boats, lies in the ancient ilypselite nome. The 
present name is prol>ably derived from the conversion of the ancient 
Kgyplian name JIa-aleti into the similarly-sounding Greek name of 
iV-oil/jy.Yj (Apotheke ; Coptic, Tapothyke), i.e. Storehouse, an ad- 
mirable name for the chief town of a district so fertile in grain. 
Among the Hellenes it was generally known as Ahotis, 

At Bcdi'iri, on the E. bank, 2 M. from the river, arc some rude 
rock-tombs without inscriptions. On the W. bank follow the mail 
steamboat-stations Sedfch and I'emeh. 

to Belidneh. KAU EL-KEBIR. .7. Route. 47 

By following the Arab hills we reach, 51/2 M. from Sedfeh, Rdhineh, 
with four large quarries in the hard limestone rock and some tombs of 
the old empire with roughly cut calyx-capitals and half-effaced sculptures. 
Similar tombs are found at Shi'kh Gdber and Dc>\ a little to the S.K. 
Kear Hanmniyeh, in the steep side of the rocky hill, are three grottoes, 
one above another, containing ancient tombs with inscriptions and re- 
presentations, belonging to the royal officials Afa and Kakes. In antiquity 

the place was named Xa-ATjmi ] I||lll ^r^ ® (Upper Kau; sec below). 

141/2 M. Kau el-Kebir, situated in tlie plain on the E. bank, 
is surrounded by a ring of hills, containing rock-tomb.s with sculp- 
tures and large quarries with some demotic representations. The 
few inscriptions refer to the old empire. Stamped bricks found 
in the mounds of debris belonged to the buildings of the 18th Dy- 
nasty. The quarries contain ornaments and representations of the 
Roman period. Kau el-Kebir stands on the site of the ancient 
Antaopolls, capital of the Antaeopolitan nome, in which the hero 
Antffius and other deities were worshipped. An inscription found 
here reads : Avxatco y.otl toT? auvvaot; Qeolc, 'to Ant;eus and his 
divine colleagues'. In ancient Egyptian it was called the 'Nome 
of the two Gods', probably in commemoration of the contest be- 
tween Seth and Horus. According to the myth Antaeus, son of 
Poseidon and Gaea, was a giant of immense strength, whom Osiris, 
on his journey through the world to introduce the vine and the 
culture of grain, appointed his vicegerent over the land bordering 
on Ethiopia and Libya. Busiris was governor of the land to the E. 
Aiita3us used his giant's strength to overcome and slay strangers, 
and Uercules had to try conclusions with him when he landed in 
Libya to steal the cattle of Geryon. After a violent struggle, Her- 
cules succeeded in strangling his huge opponent. The deciding 
contest between Typhon (Seth) and Osiris, or rather Horus, son 
and representative of Osiris, took place, according to the version of 
the legend adopted by Diodorus, at Antaeopolis, although the in- 
scriptions, and notably the great Ilorvis text of Edfu, relate that the 
struggle raged from one end of the Nile valley to the other. The 

KsJ ^ 
Egyptian name of Kau was [^rG Z] u Tu ka^ or 'town of the 

h ® 
lofty mountain', whence is derived the Coptic Tkou. It was also 

known as "^"^ 1/ ^ Zes. According to Golenischcff Antffius was an 

Egyptian mountain-god (from ant = mountain), whom the Greeks 
compared with their Dionysus. A Tepresentation of AntjBUS men- 
tioned by Wilkinson, in which he appears with his head, like Helios, 
surrounded with rays, and accompanied by the goddess Ncphthys, 
has recently been re-discovered by Golenischcff in the N.E. angle 

48 Route 3. SOIIAG. From Assiiit 

of the liill beliiiid K:\u ul-Kebir. Two nl' the j)ier.s ol' the grotto in 
which the representation occurs, hear pictures of Antieus. 

At tho l'ef.'iiinin;i (if the present ceiilury an interctin;^ temple stood 
on the site of the old town, of which the last colnnm wai washed away 
hy the Nile in 1821. .loinard, who described thia temple dnring thoFrcnch 
Expedition, v.hen the water already lapped its foundations, foretold its 
fate. The temple was dedicated tjy Ptolemy Philouiotor and bis wife 
Cleopatra to Anta>us and was restored by JIareus Aurelius Antoninus and 
his coUeaKne Verus (161 A.U). This information was conveyed by a 
double inscription, in Greek and in hicroglypliics, over the portal. The 

bulls of the hieroglyphic inscription yf^ SC^ ^f^ (Kdu) probably 

denoted the name of the town. The temple was Imilt of limestone and 
was at least 2'J5 ft. Ion};, 52 ft. wide, and 51 ft. hijjli. Its entrance faced 
the river. The 18 columns, which were arraufred in 3 rows, were ii7 ft. 
Lijjh, with a diameter of 27'/.i ft., and ended in palm-leaf capitals. If the 
{rigantic blocks fhat Joraard found on the f;rouiid were really parts of 
the coilinsr, they e.xceeded in si/.e those of Kariiak, which now excite 
our astonishment. One of them was 32 ft. louf;, 4^/4 ft. high, and 5'/* ft. 
thick, ami must have weighed at least 48 tons. 

To the S. of Kau el-Kebir the Nile makes a bend to tho W. and 
forms an island by dividing into two branches. On tho W. arm (W. 
bank), to the N. of the island, lies Kdu el-Gharbi (^V/. Kau), the 
seat of a rebellion in 1865, which had important consequences for 
all the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and about which the Oriental 
facility in forming tradition has already woven niinKrous legcnds.t 
The fcUahin scarcely venture to utter the name (Ahmed 'Payib) of 
the hero of this uprising, but speak of him with bated breath as a 
Messiah, who will one day return. He is saiil to be still living, iu 
Abyssinia, liigh up on the S. side of the hill of lyiiu arc some 
more rock-tombs. 

12' 2 M. SdUel, on the W. bank, is the station for the town of 
Tahtah, situated 2 M. inland, with ;iOUO inhab. and a frequented 

On the E. bank, a little higher up, rises the Gebel SItckh el- 
Ildudeh, with ancient quarries and (high up) tombs hewn in tho 
rock, the openings of which are visible from the river. The material 
of which thc! temple of Antjcopolis was built was pro<-.ured in the 
large quarries on the 8. side of the mountain, and consists of a 
har<i, line-grained, grey shell-limestone, which smells tinpleasantly 
when rubbed but admits of a splendid polish. — The next steam- 
boat stations are eL-MnriuihCtt and Slicndmiun, both on theW. bank. 
A large market is held in the latter every Saturday. On the E. bank 
of the stream, which here; encloses several islands, are some rock- 
tombs, witiiout inscriptions. 

2G1 .J .M. Sohag ( llulel du Nil, on tho river-bank ; Hritish and 
American consulai' agonts), on the W. bank, has recently become 
the seat of the mudir in place of Oirfreh and contains a very hand- 
some government-building. The Mndiriyeh contains 521,413 inhab. 

+ For details of the revolt of Alimcd Tayib and its .suppression, see 
Lady Dull" Gor.lon's LelUri from Kij'upl (jjiindon IStG. 1S75), 

to Bdianch. AKUMIM. 3. Route. 49 

and is 650 sq. M. in extent. The Canal ofSohdg, which leads hence 
to Assiiit, keeps to the W. and is intended to convey the water of 
the rising Nile as far as possible towards the Libyan Desert. 

On tliis canal lies Et/eh (Jt/u), the ancient Aphroditopolis, so named 
from tlie sandals (teb) made out of the skin of Seti. About 2 M. from Etfeh 
is the Red Convent, Dir el-Ahmtir, also called Her Abu Bishdi. Those who 
wish to visit the Red Convent and the similar White Convent (one of the 
reg:ular excursions of the passengers by the 'four weeks' steamer) may 
hire asses at Sohag and ride via Deintm tovrards the Libyan Desert. The 
old church of the convent, a basilica with nave and aisles, is a very 
ancient structure of brick, with elaborate capitals and a richly articulated 
apse. The outer walls, decreasing in thickness towards the top, and the 
concave cornice above the portal, are interesting for|their reminiscence of 
ancient Egyptian art. Abu Bishai, the founder of the convent, is said by 
Wansleb to have been a penitent robber, and he afterwards acquired such 
a reputation for sanctity that, according to Makrizi, 3000 monks placed 
themselves under his care. The recluse after whom the White Convent 
(Der el-Abiiaii or D('r Al>u Bhanddi) was named, is slated to have been 
one of his pupils. It lies at the foot of the mountains, farther to the 
S.E., and may perhap.5 be rather called a Christian village than a convent, 
as husbands, wives, and children live here in families. The walls of the 
church are built of hewn stone, probably taken from the adjacent rxiins 
of Athrihis (ShCkh Hamed), dating from the Ptolemaic and Roman im- 
perial periods. It dates at latest from the 5th cent, and is a basilica with 
nave and aisles. The columns vary in height and thickness, and the 
capitals are partly of later date. The chancel ends in three vaulted apses. 
The cupolas are adorned with poor frescoes, and the other decorations are 
also wretched. — In the hills to the W. of the White Convent are a few 
late rock-tombs, one of which, according to the inscription, is that of 
Ermiiis, son of Archibius. 

6'/2M. Akhmim, a steamboat and mail station on the E. bank, 
also reached from 8ohag by a shorter land-route, is a thriving little 
town with about 10,000 inhab., including 1000 Christians, some 
of whom are Roman Catholics, with a chapel of their own. The 
weekly market on Wed. is much frequented, and the bazaar is well- 
stocked. The numerous cotton mills produce the cloth for the blue 
shirts of the fellahin and for the long shCila (pi. sluildt), or shawls 
with fringes, which the poorer classes wear on state occasions and 
for prote(;t1on against cold. These articles, which have been made 
here since the time of Strabo, are extraordinarily cheap. Akhmim 
stands on the site of Khcmmis or PanopoUs, generally held to be the 
most ancient town on the Nile, though this honour probably belongs 
to the venerable This-Abydos, on the W. bank (p. 53). The deity 
specially venerated here was the form of Ammon Generator known 
as Ammon Khem, also called at a later date Alin, an appellation 
formed by dropping the Khem and abbreviating the Amen. Thus 
it is called ^[j.ivic, i.e. belonging to Min. For a figure of this deity, 
who appears in the most ancient texts, see Baedeker's Lower Egypt, 
p. 137. Diodorus, who among other classical writers gives us much 
information about Khemmis-Panopolis, calls it X£p.(, whence 
proceed the Coptic Shmin and the Arabic Ekhmmi or Akhmim. Its 
profane name on the monuments is Apu. 

Herodotus (II, 91) distinguishes the citizens of Khemmis as the only 
Egyptians who favoured Greek customs and relates that they erected a 

Bakdekeu's Upper Egypt. 4 

50 Ruute 3. KUEMMIS. From Amut 

Icinplc to Perseus, worshipped him with Hcllc'iie rites, and held games 
ill his honour. The citizens clain ed Pcrsciis as a native of their town 
and told the };arrul<)us Halii-arnassian that lie had visited Kheminis, when 
on his w ay to Libya in pursuit of the Goi-fion's head, and had recognised 
them a^ his kinsmen. A statue of him stood in the temj)le. From time 
to time the hero revisited Khommis, leaving, as a sign of his presence, 
his sandals, which were two ells longj the linding of these was con- 
sidered a portent of pood fortune. The festival of polc-climljinp, celebra- 
ted in honour of Khem, probably suggested his identilication with the 
Greek Pan. — It is obvious that Perseus has been confused with Horns, 
the destroyer of Typhon-Scth. Among the various forms assumed by the 
'Libyan Jlonster' in his long battle with llorus was that of a dragon or 
serpent, while Horus, like Perseus, was supported by wings in his en- 
counter-, hence the mistake of Herodotus. In any case he is e.xcusable 
for seeking in Kgypt the home of I'erseus, whose genealogy may be traced 
back to lo. -j- It is an interesting fact that a later author states that the 
Persea tree was first planted in Egypt by l^erscus. ^^s no goat-footed 
deities have been so far discovered in the Kgyptian cult, it is somewhat 
difficult to explain how Khem came to be identilied with Pan, unless on 
account of his Priapian characteristics. The Pans and satyrs at Khemmis 
first received and disseminated the news of the death of Osiris, and hence, 
says Plutarch, the sudden dread and confusion of a multitude is called 
panic. Aklnuim is thus the true home of Panic Fear. A white bull and a 
black cow were sacred to Khem. lie appears in the triad along with the 
child Horus and Isis Sekhet, surnaraed t-erpa (trcpha), whence the Greeks 
may have formed the name Triphis. Tryphsena was also a cognomen of 
some of the queens of the Ptolemaic line. 

Klicniinis still flourished in the Roman period, and its ancient 
and faniotis temple was finally completed in the 12th year of Trajan. 
After Christianity established itself here, the vicinity of Panopolis 
hecame crowded with convents. Nestorius, Hishop of Constantin- 
ople, who had been banished to the oasis of Ilibch (Khargeh, 
Egypt, lleb, p. 352) on account of his disbelief in the divine 
motherhood of the Virgin Mary, was attacked there by the plunder- 
ing I'lemmyes, and carried captive into the Thebaid, where he 
surrendered himself to the prefect of Panopolis, to avoid a charge 
of wilful lUght. lie died in Panopolis-Akhmlm. Even after the 
conquest of Egypt by Islam, the temple of the 'great town' of 
Akhmtm was. as Abulfeda and other Arabs relate, among the most 
imjiortant remains of the days of the Pharaohs. Edrisi gives the 
following account of it: 'At Akhmim we see the building called the 
l$arba (i.e. I'erpa, Coptic for temple), which the first Ilermcs erected 

before the flood (of many ancient temples) that of Akhmim 

is the most enduring and also the most remarkable for the beauty 
of its .sculpture. In truth we find rcpre.scnted in it not a few stars 
only, but also various arts and artists, along with numerous in- 
scriptions. The building lies in the midst of Akhmim'. Since this 
account a great part of the town must have vanished, as the temple 
rtiins now lie outside it, to the N. They are neither extensive nor 
beautiful, but are of interest to the savant, because they belonged, 

•1- Danaii, the mother of Perseus, was the daughter of Acrisius, son 
of Abas, son of Lynccus and Hypermnestra. Lynceus was the son of 
Aigyptos, and Hypermnestra was the daughter of Danaos, from whom 
the line runs up through lielos, Libyc, and Epajdios (ApisJ to lo. 

to BeliCineh. DER EL-ABYAD. 3. Route. 51 

as the above-mentioned Greek inscription informs us, to the old 
temple of Pan, who is here represented in an ithyphallic form. Al- 
most all the inscriptions are rapidly becoming effaced, and the same 
fate is overtaking a circle divided into twelve parts and supposed to 
be intended for the Zodiac. Of the second temple of Khemmis, 
which Ilerodotus describes as dedicated to Perseus, the only re- 
mains are a few stones of the 18th Dynasty and some scanty frag- 
ments of a building of the Ptolemaic and Roman period. These are 
reached by the water when the Nile overflows its banks and are 
gradually being swept away. 

In 1884 Jlaspero discovered an extensive Necropolis adjoinin;j: a Coptic 
monastery among the mnuntains to the N.E. of Akbmim. Thousands of 
mummies have been t;iken thence and aome of them were sent to Europe. 
A visit to this necropolis is well worth undertaking. The best plan is 
to secure the company of Kkalil-Sakkar, keeper of the Egyptian Museum, 
and ride with him to the K.E., in the direction of the mountains, "n 
a hill beyond the village of (^4 hr.) el-HwDaisheh we see the deserted Coptic 
monastery, round which, in a wide circle, lie the tombs, now mostly 
destroyed. They date from the 6th Dynasty (Pepiseneb, Kheniankhtcta, 
Ankhu, etc.) down to the Greek and Roman period. The grave of Tutu, 
son of Sit asra (daughter of Osiris), with liturgical inscriptions, is well 
preserved (1885). Most of the mummies found here were in good preser- 
vation, and many contained rolls of papyrus. Among them were many 
priests (at) and priestesses (ahi) of Khem, whose genealogies are carried 
up for eight or ten generations. 

The town of Akhmim has now become the seat of an active 
trade in mummies. Objects of considerable interest and value may 
often be obtained from the dealers in antiquities, but relic-hunters 
should not try to make purchases in the presence of the keeper of 
the museum. 

Continuing our journey up the Nile, we soon see, close to the 
E. bank, a conspicuous convent-village, resembling a fortress. On 
account of its whitewashed walls the sailors call it Der el-Abyad, 
a name that properly belongs to the monastery mentioned at p. 49, 
which lies much farther to the W. About 50 men, women, and 
children occupy the convent, which has little of a religious cha- 
racter in its mode of life. The pretty little church, built of light 
and dark bricks, is lighted by cupolas, the largest of which is above 
the nave. The nave is separated from the aisles by wooden screens. 
The Hekel, or Holy of Holies, at the E. end, is carefully enclosed. 
In the nave, below the dome, stands the reading-desk of the priests, 
and at the W. end of the church, separated from the priests, are 
the seats for the laity. The paintings are wretched, and there are 
no old MSS. ; but the church is an excellent specimen of a Coptic 
place of worship and is worth visiting, especially as it is only 
5 min. walk from the river. The monks are very obliging and arc 
grateful for a small donation (1 fr.. Is., or more). — Thornu, which 
was occupied by a Roman garrison, must have lain in this neigh- 

572 M. el-Menshiyeh, a steamboat and mail station on the 
W. bank, is merely a peasants' town, with very few houses of a 


52 ICoute 3. GIRGEH. 

better class. It was probably fouuded by Soter I. and in the time 
of the Pliaraolis it was called Neshi and Pdsehck (Crocodilopulia), 
afterwards P.-'e-ptulvidios; under the I'tok'niies it was known as 
Ploleniais-Hermiu Pa!<ui (^dwellinfi of the crocodile). 'I'hc officials 
of Abydos also rc^sidcd here. The mounds and river-walls at Mcn- 
shiyuh fno Inscriptions) are certainly extensive, but still it is diffi- 
cult, when face to face with them, to credit the statement of the 
usually trustworthy iStrabo : 'fartlier on is the town ol' I'tolemais, 
the largest in the ThebaTd and not inferior in size to Memphis. Its 
constitution is drawn up in the Hellenic manner'. The Ptolemaic 
kings who died here received the same honours as the manes of the 
Pharaohs at Ahydos. According to Leo Africanus Menshiyeh was 
the seat of an African prince named llawara. Numerous antiquities 
have been found here lately. 

Before we reach Girgeh the mountains on the Arabian bank 
approach close to the stream. At several jjoints arc rock-tombs, 
cither wholly destitute of inscriptions or with none but obliterated 

12'/2 M. Girgeh, on the W. bank, is a steamboat-station, witii 
post and telegraph offices ; the tourist-steamers stop for the night 

Girfjeh, whicli is 336 M. from Biilak ami 235 M. from Assuau, has 
liecn from time immemorial the station where the ■Nilo-l>oatmen halt to 
bake a new supply of bread. As, however, thi.s operation takes 24 hrs. 
(a suiiply for several weeks bcinp necessary), and as Girg;eh is not a con- 
venient place for so long a stoppage, the traveller is advised to make a 
contract in Cairo before starting to the ellbct that the hall for baking be 
made at Assiut. or Kench and not in Girgeh. No ro'i.f will give up this 
privilege, he has been previously hound down to do so in writing. 
The customs of the Nile boatmen are almost as unehangcablc as those of 
the desert Arabs. The only siiitable way in which (o Till up a halt of 24 hrs. 
at Girgeh would I)e to make an excursion to tlie (cmplc of Abydos, but 
this is much more conveniently reached from BeJianeh (p. 53). A day 
can be very proUlably spent at cither Assiut or Keneh, in the latter case by 
a visit to the noble temple of Denderah (coiup. the Contract at p. xxi). 

Girgeh, which contains 14,900 inliab., preceded Assiiit as the 
capital of Upper ICgypt, but is now merely the chief place in the 
province of Girgeh, while the seat of the Mudiriyeli is at Sohag 
(p. 48). It becomes more probable every day that Girgeh occupies 
the site of the ancient I'his (hieroglyph. Tcni), in whicli the god 
Anhur (Greek Onouris) was specially worshipped (comp. p. 03). 
(Some ancient tombs of the Gth Dynasty exist here, including one 
of the time of Mercnptah ; and a little to the N. are some other 
graves of the ancient kingdoni. Many of the present inhabitants 
are Copts. Outside the town lies a Roman Catholic/ convent, which 
is probably the oldest but one in Egypt; the abbot is a member of 
the Fraternity of the Iloly Sepulchre. The name of the town is 
Christian, being that of St. George or Girges, the patron-saint of 
the Coptic Christians, a representation of whom, in his combat with 
the dragon, is present in almost every Coptic church. St. George 

AP.TDOS. 4. Route. 53 

was canonised on April 23r(l, 303 A.D. ; and even as early as the 
5th and 6th cent, we find him a favourite saint of the Egyptians. 
Leo Africanus says that the Coptic brothers of St. George at Girgeh 
were very wealthy and tells how they provided travellers with 
what was necessary on their journey and sent rich gifts for the poor 
to the Patriarch at Cairo. To this day several of the Coptic families 
at Girgeh are very rich, possessing large estates; preeminent among 
these is that of P.othrns. Tlie town looks very picturesque as seen 
from the river. The Nile makes a sharp bend here, and the effect 
is as if the W. bank, on which the town stands, was at right angles 
to the E. bank. The Arabian mountains rise like walls, and the 
four tall minarets of the town, on the opposite bank of the Nile, 
seem to vie with tliem in height. A picturesque group on the 
river-brink is formed by an old and dilapidated mosque and a tall 
minaret beside it. Many of the houses in the town are built of 
burnt brick and decorated with glazed tiles. The bazaar resembles 
those of other Nile towns. ■ — ■ From Girgeh to Abydos ('Arabat el- 
Madfuneh), I'J-IS M., see below. — At Mesha'ik, on the E. bank, 
above Girgeh , scholars will find interesting remains of a temple 
bearing the names of Amenhotep III. and Ramses II. Some very 
ancient graves of priests of This have also been found there. 

8 M. Belianeh, on the W. bank, is a mail-station and the start- 
ing-point from which passengers on both tlie 'three weeks' and 
the 'four weeks' steamer make the excursion to Abydos (see below). 
Excursion to the Western Oases, see R. 35. 

4. Abydos. 

Belianeh is now tlie usual starting-point for a visit to 'Arcibat 
cl-Madfi'meh (Abydos), yvhidi lies about S'/.j M. to tlie S.W., in- 
land from the river. This highly interesting excursion, which should 
on no account be omitted, involves a ride of 2hrs. (there and back 
4 hrs.). The donkeys at Belianeh are bad and provided only with 
loose rugs or straw-mats instead of saddles, and those at Girgeh 
are no better. At Abydos accommodation may be obtained in the 
house of Sallbeh, keeper of the antiquities. 

The track crosses the large Canal of Rcnaneh, traverses a fertile 
district dotted with numerous villages, and finally leads over part 
of the Libyan Desert. Fine view of the mountain-chain running 
towards the Nile. The ancient Abydos lay in advance of this chain, 
on a site which may coniidently be called the cradle of the earliest 
line of the PharafHis. 

Menes, the first king of Egypt, is said to have been a Thinite, i.e. an 
inhabitant of the nome of This (Egypt. Teni). Adolf Schmidt, in his 
'Forschuniien auf dem Geliiet des Alterthums', tries to prove that This 
(Teni) lay near el-Kherheh, a little to the N. of Abydos, while Pococke 
socks it at el-Birheh (the temple), 3 M. to the W. of Oirgeh (coinp. p. 5'i). 
If, as Eljers has suggested, the earliest Asiatic jnimigrants into Egypt 
entered the Nile valley Irnm the S., via. Arabia .and the Strait of Bfih el- 

54 Routed. ABYPOS. Memnonium 

Mandeb, they could have found no more suitalile spot for a settlement 
than the nci'^hbourhood of Abydos, where the fertile W. bank of the Nile 
expands and oilers easy cultivation and excellent dwelling-sites, removed 
from all danjcr of inundation. This is the most ancient town in Kgypt, 
and its neighbour Abydos cannot have been much younger, for even in 
the time of the early empire it is frequently spoken of as a holy 
city. It possessed the most famous grave of Osiris, of which it was 
helieved that burial in its vicinity or consecration in its sanctuary went 
far in ensuring a favourable judgment in the world to come. From an 
early jieriod the grandees of the iand caused their mummies to be brought 
hither — often, however, for a limited time only, directing that, as soon 
as the wished-for blessings had been received from Osiris, the bodies 
should be carried back to their ancestral burial-grounds. Marictto has 
proved that the town it.self (Kgypt. Ahln) was never of any great ex- 
tent. The extant ruins extend from el-Kherbeh on the N.W. to 'Arabat 
el-Jladfuneh on the S.E. If, however, Abydos was small in the number 
of its citizens, it was great through the importance of the gods wor- 
shipped in its temples. Each of the 4'2 nomes of Egypt possessed its 
temple of Osiris; but none of them, except that of Sokar in Jlemphis, 
rivalled in sanctity that of Abydos. The testimony of the monuments is 
conlirmed by the classical writers. Herodotus left Upper Egypt nnde- 
scribed, because HecaUrns had already treated of it, b\it we quote the 
celebrated passage in which the trustworthy Strabo speaks of Abydos : 
'Above it (Ptolemais) lies Abydos, the site of the Mcmnonium, a wonderful 
palace of stone, built in the manner of the Labyrinth, only somewhat 
less elaborate in its complexity. Uclow the Memnonium is a spring, 
reached by passages with low vaults consisting of a single stone and 
l)roniinent by their extent and mode of construction. This spring is 
connected with the Nile by a canal , which flows through a grove of 
Egyptian thorn-acacias, sacred to Apollo. Abydos seems once to have been 
a large city, second only to Thebes, but now it is a small place, etc." 
Abydos is also mentioned by Plutarch, AthenaMis, Stephanus of Byzantium, 
Ptolemy, Pliny, and others. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of the oracle 
of the god Besa, which nourished here. 

The ordinary traveller, especially when he has at his disposal 
only the 8 hrs. allowed by the steamer, will confine liiniself to the 
Memnonium of Seti I. (PI. 1) at 'Arabat el-Madfuneli and the sadly 
dilapidated Temple of Ramses 11. (I'l. II). The remains of the 
so-called Temple of Osiris at tl-Kherheh (PI. Ill) and tlie adjacent 
site of Mariette's excavations in the aiuient necropolis among the 
Libyan hills are rapidly becoming less and loss interesting through 
the steady encroachment of the desert sand. 

The Memnonium of Seti I. 

This noble structure, which, from the time of Strabo onwards, has 
been visited and described by so many travellers, did not become fully 
known to the modern world till Marietto Bey, with characteristic judg- 
ment and jicrseverance and supported by the generosity of the Khedive, 
began in 1853 the task of freeing it from the sand. His plan of isolating 
the building by digging a trench round and preventing new accumu- 
lations of san<l was not carried wholly into effect, but still, with the ex- 
ception of portion of the outside of the N. wall of the second court, 
there is now no part of the temple where inscriptions are likely to 
bo found that does not stand open to the explorer. The difficulty of the 
excavations was much increased by the fact that the back part of the 
temple was buried in the sIoijc of the hill, in stich away that it looked 
like a gigantic sepulchral cliapcl fiirming the vestibule to a mighty rock- 
tomb in the bowels of the niounlain. Marielte believes, and probably 
witli justice, that thi.M pccnliarily of lln: Mennidiiiuni explains the name 



1 r 



t>**oi5-/i^ih,Ani»Uill ' 

Wopirr t Di-hcH, I.i-ifiip 

ofSelil. AM'DOS. 4. Route. 55 

of the adjoining village, 'Arabat el-Madfuneh, i.e. 'Arahat of the buried'. 
Possibly the last portion of the name may refer to Osiris, whose grave 
hero attracted so many pilgrims, and Madfiln (masc.) may be a translation 
of the old name of the temple-quarter of Abydos. In spite of the most 
lavish expenditure of time, money, and labour, the excavators failed to 
find either the spring mentioned by Strabo or the tomb of Osiris, and yet 
the latter must lie dose to the part of the ruins called Kdm es-Sultdn, 
near tlie holy hill of Abydos so often mentioned in the inscriptions. " 

Mariette derives the name Memnonium from that of its founder Seti 
Ra-men-ma or Meu-ma-ra. This, however, is undoubtedly wrong, and 

Lepsius was the first to show that the Egyptian word Mennu 

I I www C£ 

AAAAAA, applied to any large monument or memorial, whether architec- 

tural or plastic, led the Greeks to describe every palatial structure of 
the ancient Kgyptians as a Mejavo'viov (Memnonion) or palace of Memnon. 
Perhaps they lirst heard the name Mennu given to the colossal figures of 
Amenhotep III. at Thebes (p. 153) and were attracted by its resemblance 
in sound to the name of the son of Eos who fell before Troy ; hence 
they called the figures, afterwards so celebrated, statues of Memnon, and 
saw Memnonia, or palaces of the same hero, in some of the large memorial 
buildings described as Mennu. The fact that the Hellenes did not apply 
this name to all the great buildings of Egypt, but only to some of the 
temples of W. Thebes and to the sanctuary of Seti at Abydos, may be 
explained by the supposition that in the time of the Pharaohs these build- 
ings monopolised the epithet of Blennu, just as the fortress of the Con- 
queror in London is known as the Tower par excellence among the 
numerous towers of that city. The temple of Seti became known as the 
Memnonium or Palace of Memnon in the Alexandrine period, and a 
natural consequence was the conversion of the name Ahlu into the simi- 
larly sounding Ahydos or Abydus, the name of a town of Troas on the 
Hellespont, not far from the burial-place of Memnon. By degrees the 
Asiatic hero, son of Tithonus and Eos and ally of Priam (comp. p. 154), 
was converted into an Ethiopian, and the lively imagination of the Greeks 
transferred the Asiatic legends to Egypt and adapted them to Egyptian 
conditions. Thus they related that Tithonus sent an Ethiopian army to aid 
his son against Troy. These soldiers, however, heard of the death of 
Memnon at Abydos in Upper Egypt and retraced their steps, after hang- 
ing their garlands on the acacias in the holy grove at the Memnonium. 
Birds were fabled to have sprung frona the ashes of Memnon, and reap- 
peared on certain days every year, removed alljimpurities from his grave, 
dipped their wings in the Aesopos, which flows into the Propontis at Cy- 
zicus, and sprinkled the grave with the water. At a later date these birds 
were said to come from Ethiopia. Finally it was asserted that the Egyp- 
tian Abydos had been founded by colonists from its Asiatic namesake. 

The Memiioninm of Abydos is not an ordinary divine or religious 
temple like those of Denderah, Kamak, and Edfii, bnt is rather one 
of the series of sepulchral sanctuaries of which mention is made at 
p. 170 of Baedeker's Lower Egypt. The numerous representations 
and inscriptions that cover its walls are mostly of a very general 
nature. They tell us, however, that the building they adorn was 
primarily intended for ftuiereal purposes. As already mentioned, 
the bodies of numerous princes and grandees were brought here to 
participate in the blessings that were supposed to emanate from the 
sacred tomb of Osiris. The Pharaohs nowhere offercid sacrifices to 
the manes of their forefathers more gladly than at Abydos, and 
prayers were put up here to the Osiris-kings of the ancient house 

5G Route 4. ABYDOS. Memnonhim 

of the Pharaohs just as at the neighhoiiringl'tolemais divine honours 
were paid to tlie deceased princes of Macedonian origin. — It was 
natural enough tliat in a sanctuary devoted to purposes of this kind 
no boisterous festivals or ceremonies should take place, and we are 
not surprised to learn that neither singer nor flute-player nor lute- 
player was allowed within its walls. 

The great building of Abydos, at first sight, impresses neither 
by its size nor by its beauty. The walls consist of tine-grained 
limestone, while a harder material (sandstone) has been selected for 
tlie columns, arcliitraves, door-posts, and other burden-bearing 
parts. The foundations are nowhere more than 41/2 ft. thick, and 
the platforms on wliich the columns rest are equally shallow. 
Numerous blocks have become disjointed, owing, as Mariette has 
shown, to the giving way of the dove-tails of sycamore wood 
with which they were fastened. The inscriptions of Seti and the 
earlier ones of liis son and successor show great purity of style, but 
this quality disappears in the later texts of the latter. It has been 
established that a sanctuary of some importance stood at Abydos 
even in the days of the ancient empire, a7id indeed we hoar of its 
restoration in that remote epoch. Our witness is a stele, now in 
the IjOuvre, on whic/h Ameniseneb, a priest and ar(;hitect, who lived 
in the reign of I'sertesen I. (12th Dyn.), records the fact that he 
renewed the (colouring and inscriptions in the temple of Abydos 
from top to bottom. This probably means the building of which 
some fragments, belonging to the I'ith Dynasty, are seen to the N. 
of the Memnonium (see p. 07). Under the Hyksos the ancient 
sanctuary was entirely neglected, and tlie only record here of the 
18th Dynasty, which was almost wholly absorbed by its wars and 
foundations in Thebes, is an inscription of Tutmes III. Seti 1., 
however, of the 19th Dynasty, built an entirely now temple, and 
his son Ramses II. completed the adornment that his father left 
unfinished. The ground-plan of the structure is unusual, and differs 
materially from tliat of other great Egyptian temples. Among the 
features, however, which it has in common with these are the 
pylons, a first and second fores-court, hypostyli- halls, and a sanc- 
tuary. The last, however, is much more richly articulated than 
usual. The witig to the S. (to the; left on entering) forms an ac- 
curate right angle with the main edifice. The whole structure is in 
tlie shape of a mason's square. 

We enter the temple from the N.E. Tlie first pylon and the 
walls enclosing Court A are in ruins. Couht B, which opcius to the 
S. on the temple proper, is in better preservation. The sons and 
daughters of UaiuBes II. W(!re represented on the right and left walls, 
but the figures and inscriptions have been almost elTaced. In .spite 
of the fact that all the inscriptions and representations here refer to 
Itamses II., it has been proved throuKli the discovery by Mariette 
of a dove-tail (sec above) bearing the nanits of Seti I., that the 


of Sell I. ARYDOS. 4. Roule. 57 

latter founded this N. part of tlie temple and left merely the de- 
coration of it to his son. — The facade of the temple is of very 
unusual form. A row of 12 limestone columns stand a short di- 
stance in advance of the temple wall, forming with it a kind of 
pronaos. In the time of Seti seven doors, corresponding to the seven 
chambers of the sanctuary (see below), pierced the rear-wall, which 
was adorned with a cornice of its own. On ceremonial occasions 
the processions in honour of the king seem to have entered by tlu; 
door to the extreme left; the next served for processions to Ptah, 
tlie third for Harmachis, the fourth for Ammon, the fifth for Osiris, 
the sixth for Isis, and the seventh for Horns. Ramses, however, 
walled up six of these doors, leaving the central one alone, the 
decoration of which had been begun by Sett, as the main entrance 
to tlie temple. A small door in the Ilorus gateway, to the extreme 
right, is still open. The pillars bear huge figured representations 
and a few inscriptions, wliich refer to Seti I. as deceased and intro- 
duce Ramses II. in the company of Ammon-Ra, Osiris, Horus, and 
other gods. The hieroglyphics Inform ns that Ramses erected this 
part of the temple in honour of his father, one phrase, for instance, 
reading : 'The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Lord of the 
barbarians (Nine Nations), to make great the name of his father'. 
The entrance-wall behind the pillars confirms this pious filial wish 
beyond the shadow of a doubt. In the wall, to the left of the main 
entrance, is a large and conspicuous inscription in 95 vertical lines, 
which, after the lists of kings, must be called the most important 
ill Al)ydos. It consists of two parts. In the first Ramses relates 
how, on coming to Abydos, he found his father's work unfinished 
and resolved to carry it to a conclusion. The grandees rejoiced at 
this resolution, and workmen and artists of every kind were sum- 
moned to aid in the task. In the second part Pharaoh recalls to his 
consciousness all the honours he had paid and the gifts he had 
presented to his father. The gods show him favour on ac('ount of 
his pious acts and advance, one by one, to bestow upon him the 
richest gifts of heaven : strength, fearlessness, victory, immortality, 
etc. A picture accompanying the inscription represents Ramses, 
with a crown on his head, ofi'ering sacrifices to the goddess Ma and 
to a triad consisting of Osiris, Isis, and his father Seti I., who takes 
tiiH place of Horus. Recently deceased, Seti^ appears as the youthful 
god, the victorious opponent of the might of Death, who will soon 
l)ecome Osiris, after subduing all his enemies beneath his feet. On 
one of the pillars, indeed, Seti is already described as the 'royal 
Osiris'. The inscription dates from the first year of the single 
rule of Ramses and from the time of his first journey to Tliebes, 
when he erected statues of liis father in the city of Ammon 
and in Memphis. At Abydos he first undertook tlie restoration of 
his father's monumental structures in the necropolis, on the spot 
specially sacred to Osiris Unncfer. After mentioning other restora- 

58 4. Route AP.YDOS. Memnonium 

tions, the inscription rontinnes as follows, with special reference to 
this temple: 'For lo.^while the temple of Ua-ma-men (i.e. Seti 1.) 
was still building both back and front, Seti ascended to heaven, 
before his Memnonium (Mennu) was completed. The columns had 
not yet been pla(;ed upon their bases, the statue lay on the ground 
and was not yet finished off, when he (Seti) became acquainted 
Avith the tomb (the 'golden room', the principal chamber of Seti's 
tomb at Biban el-MuliJk), etc. Then said His Majesty to the seal- 
bearer by his side : Summon the courtiers, the military commanders, 
and their fellows, and also the whole multitude of architects and 
librarians. When tliese were conducted before His Majesty, pressing 
their noses in the dust and their knees to the earth, they broke out 
into rejoicing and smelled the ground (i.e. prostrated themselves). 
They raised their arms, praising His Majesty, and prayed to this 
benignant d(uty, celebrating his perfection'. Then follow emphatic 
expressions of worship, addressed to the king. 'Then spoke His 
Majesty unto them and said: I summoned you before me on account 
of a plan that has entered my mind. I have seen the buildings of 
the necropolis and the tombs that are at Abydos, and also those 
who have to work there. Truly nothing has been restored since the 
time of their lord unto the present day. llut when a son finds him- 
self on the throne of his father, shall he not renew the moniiment 
(Menini) of liis begetter? . . . From childhood until now 1 have 
been a prince. He gave me the earth as a gift, and while I was yet 
in the egg the great ones of the earth prostrated themselves before 
me. ... I have called my father to a new life in gold (i.e. as a 
statue) in the first year of my exaltation. I have given orders that 
his temple be adorned and I have made sure his possession of the 
land ... I have olTered him sacrifices. . . . And now, when his 
building stood in my power, I watched overall the labours connected 
with it ... . I enlarged and renewed his palatial structure. I did 
not neglect his foundations, as wicked children do, who do not 
respect their father ... I built anew the walls of the temple of 
my begetter. I presented before him the man whom I had selected 
to superintend the works. . . I erected pylons in front of it, I have 
covered his house with clothing (sculptures), 1 have adorned its 
columns and provided stones for the foundations. A finished work 
was the nioiinment, doubly as glorious as at first. It is (named) after 
my name and after the name of my father, for, as the son, so is also 
tlu! father'. In the following sentences Ramses is praised as a model 
son and the highest gifts of the gods are assured to him. 'Since the 
Bun-god Ka there has never been a son who has accomplished what 
thou hast. . . . Thou, thou workest, thou renewcst one monument 
to the gods after another, according to the command of thy father 
Ua'. The whole world obeys him and brings him offerings. After 
the grandees have finished their oration, he once more orders the 
officials, masters, artists, labourers, and all others engaged in the 

of Sell I. ABYDOS. 4. Route. 59 

building operations to construct the sanctuary of his father in the 
necropolis and to hew out his statiie. Sacrifices and festivals are 
richly provided for. The rest of the inscription assumes more and 
more the character of a hymn, like those mentioned at p. 258 and 

The ahove will suffice to show the filial piety, with which Ramses, 
at least in the earlier part of his reign, strove to complete and re- 
store the work of his father. But the remains of tlie building con- 
structed by him near the Temple of Seti at Abydos (p. 67) prove 
that he also founded a large Memnonium for himself in the district 
saTietifled by the tomb of Osiris. 

Interior op the Temple. 
1. The Hypostyle Halls and the Sevenfold Sanctuary. 
From the Pronaos, containing the above inscription, two doors 
only now lead into the interior of the temple: the main entrance 
in the middle and a narrow door to the extreme right. The First 
Hypostyle Koom (PI. C) , a long but narrow apartment, makes 
a solemn and imposing impression. The roof, part of which has 
fallen in, is supported by 24 columns, arranged in two rows and in 
groups of four. The slender shafts are surmounted by capitals in 
the form of papyrus buds. Seti I. did not complete the plastic de- 
coration of the room. Ramses began new sculptures instead of those 
begun by his father, apparently forgetting the great filial piety he 
arrogates to himself in the above -quoted inscription (p. 58). 
Whether it was that the zeal of the son abated along with his grief 
for his father, or that the priestly S('ulptors thought it better to cele- 
brate a living prince rather than a dead one, the fact remains that 
it is Ramses alone who is here depicted and the temple itself is 
simply called the temple of Abydos, not, as in the earlier inscrip- 
tions, that of Ra-ma-men [i.e. Seti). The sculptures preserved here 
are of mediocre workmanship, and the inscriptions and represen- 
tations, almost wholly dealing with Ramses and his reception of 
gifts from the different gods, are generally uninteresting even for 
the scholar. On the right wall, near the second chamber, is a series 
of gods, consisting of Ra, Shu (the giver of all delight) and his 
sister Tefnut (giver of health) , Seb (giver of life and strength), 
Osiris, Horus (giver of every victory), Isis (giver of life and strength), 
tlie great god Apheru (Anubis), and Nut, who imparts the fulness of 
salvation. — The sis. lists of the nomes of Egypt, on the lower part 
of the walls, are also interesting. As elsewhere, the districts are 
represented as bearded male figures with the emblem of the nome 
(a piece of surveyed ground, m il ) and a standard bearing the 
symbol of the special district. As the lists here have no annota- 
tions, they are of less value than those at Deiiderah and elsewhere. 
Tlicy indicate that it was customary for all the districts of the land 
to pay their vows and bring gifts to the gods of a special sanctuary. 

00 Route 4. ARYDOS. Memnonium 

The^Second Hypostyle Room (PI. D) resembles tln^ first, but is 
higher, deeper, and in all respects of more importance. Seti I. be- 
gan it and his artists exei nted both the architertiiral details and 
the plastic adornment with the carefulness and purity of style that 
marks all their work. The son has here left umhanged the name 
of the father, which occurs at every point. Three rows of twelve 
columns each support the architrave, on which rest the roofing 
slabs, and are arranged in six groups, each of six columns, be- 
tween the groups access is alTorded to the vaulted chambers in the 
wall facing us as we enter. The first two of the three rows of col- 
ums have papyrus-bud capitals. Beyond the second row ti»e floor of 
the temple is considerably raised, forming a platform from which 
the vaulted chambers are entered. Upon this platform stands the 
third row of columns, the cylindrical shafts of which are entirely 
destitute of i^apitals, but bear huge blocks of stone forming an aba- 
cus for the support of the architrave. This peculiarity is simply ex- 
plained by the fact that the columns in the third row are shorter 
than the others, owing to their raised platform, so that the architect, 
by omitting the capital, brings thi; abacus of all on the same level 
and avoids the unpleasant effect which different elevations of the 
ar(;hitrave would make on the eye. When processions of worshippers 
filed in and out, performing pious ceremonies, this hall must have 
prese'ited a very imposing spoi'tade. Inscriptions below the open- 
ings leading from tl\e first hall to the second inform us they were 
formerly filled with doors of bronze (asem). The inscriptions and 
representations on the walls and iiolumns repeat themselves weari- 
somely and are of little general interest. Here we see the king re- 
ceiving from the gods such attributes of the royal dignity as the 
crooked sword or the scourge and crook (symbols, perhaps, of the 
royal duties of incentive on the one side and restraint on the other) ; 
there we behold him ofl'ering burnt- offerings to a single god, a 
triad, or a group of gods. If the king is rei-.eiving gifts, he is 
generally represented on his knees; wlien he sacrifices, he leans 
slightly forward, holding the burnt-offering in the left hand and 
libations in the right. Sometimes he is seated, receiving the bless- 
ings of tin: gods; he appears thus in the fine piiture on the N. Wall 
of the second room, with Isis, Ainenti, and N(iplithys in front, and 
the goddess Ma and Uenpet behind. Jlis profile is evidently a faith- 
ful likeness and is everywhere portrayed with great artistic skill. 
The unusual handsomeness of this king is still recognisable in his 
mummy at Gizeh. Tlie sacrificial implements should also be noted. 
Censers like that in his hand have been found, but in bronze, while 
his were do\ibtless of gold. They are in the form of an arm, the 
hand holding a small vessel from which the smoke of the incense 
arises. The hatullo shows the carefully i^xecuted sparrow hawk's 
bead of ilorus. The libation vessel was in the form ol' a golden lo- 
tus fiower, wi(h small vases rising above the open corolla, from which 


of Set i I. ABYDOS. 4. Route. 61 

essences were poured out iu houour of the goil. The framework of 
each scene, the mouldings separating the lines of hieroglyphics, 
and the hieroglyphic symhols themselves are all executed with in- 
imitahle care. The side-walls of this hall, to the right and left, and 
the walls near the gates leading to the chapels, hear symbolic re- 
presentations, like those in the first hall, of the nomes of Upper 
and Lower Egypt. 

At a considerable interval,' beyond the third row of columns in 
the second hall, and on the same level with them, is a series of 
Seven Vaulted Ciiambbks or Chapels, forming the Sanctuary of 
thoMemnonium. The metal doors with whiih they were once closed 
have long since disappeared. In the piers separating the doors arc 
rectangular niches, which probably contained images either of the 
deities to whom the chapels were dedicated or of King Seti. Each 
chapel is vaulted and the vaults are profusely and beautifully de- 
corated with stars and the name Ra-ma-men (prasuomen of Seti I.). 
Dedicatory inscriptions on three of the vaults prove that Osiris must 
be regarded as the chief divinity of the temple. It must be noted 
that the roofs of these chapels are not vaulted in the strict archi- 
tectural signification of that word; they consist rather of blocks of 
stone cut in a rotnid fashion and crowned by a key-stone which is 
hollowed out in the interior. The chapels were dedicated (beginn- 
ing from the left) to the king, Ptah, llarmachis. Amnion, Osiris, 
Isis, and llorus. All the chief figures in the Osiris cycle of gods are 
represented here with the exception of Seth, the antagonist of Osiris, 
and his wife Nephthys. "With them is associated the king who has 
become Osiris (see p. 57}. Ptah, who becomes Sokar-Osiris when 
regarded in his relations to life beyond the grave, is of course re- 
presented. In the place of honour in the midst of the seven is Am- 
mon, 'who is the only one and whose years flourish among the gods', 
who is 'loftier in his ideas than any other god', 'to whose feet the 
gods crawl, recognising their lord and master', who is 'lord of 
eternity and creator of the unending', of whom indeed the other 
gods may be regarded as attributes. To the right and left of Am- 
nion are two groups of throe. To the right are Osiris, Isis, and Ho- 
rns ; to the left are Ptah the primseval, the lord of the past ; llar- 
machis, who announces the new day rising in the East, who strug- 
gles for the victory of life over death, and assures the future 
triumph of good over evil; and King Seti, the temporal incarnation 
of divine power in the present, in the sphere of human activity. • — 
To these gods, conceived as filling these chapels with their pre- 
sence, were broiight the mummies, to be sanctified for their eternal 
Lome. The way to the different chapels was indicated on the very 
threshold of the temple, where Seti I., as we have seen, constructed 
seven doors in the rear-wall of the pronaos. Most of these, how- 
ever, were closed by Ramses, probably to intensify and preserve the 
secret and mysterious character of the temple. But the pathsjo the 

02 lioule 4. ABYDOS. Mcmnoniuin 

different chapels arc still easily distinguishable, partly from the 
plan of the buildin;^, partly by the representations and inscriptions ; 
for from each, of the seven doors a processional approach led through 
the two hypostyle halls straight to tlio entrance of the correspond- 
ing chapel; while the representations on the columns flanking each 
approach refer oidy to the deity to whom the chapel at the end of it 
was dedicated. In the vaulted chapels, amid the fumes of in- 
cense and the murmuring of muffled singing, waited the minis- 
tering priests of the sanctuary, pouring out libations and uttering 
benedictions as the processions wound along tht! aisles, either 
bearing a mummy to be sanctified or consisting of a group of privi- 
leged laymen bringing offerings to the Osiris gods for the soul's 
welfare of the deceased. — The dedications are inscribed on the 
door-posts in the traditional forms and with little va«ation. Similar 
vaults oci'ur at Benihasan and Dcr el-Bahri, and also in the lids of 
the sarcophagi in the museum at Giz(di. In each case the monu- 
ments to whi(!h they belong serve funerary purposes; the shape ol 
the vault is, however, intended to represent the vault of heaven, 
whii-h the Osiris-soul has to traverse, and they are usually decorated 
with stars. An inscription preserved on one of the vaults of the 
sanctuary informs us that the Pharaoh erected this structure for his 
father Osiris in the interior of the temple of Ha-nia-men and fitted 
up the chapel to resemble the heaven of the ninefold deities, imi- 
tating its constellations, etc. 

The intcrnul fitting up and appearance of llie chapels vary little. As the 
middle place had to be assigned to Ammon, (ho chief of the gods, it, was 
necessary to mark the special dignity of Osiris, to whom indeed tlio temple 
was consecrated, by makinp: his chapel (PI. d) wider than the others. The 
roar-walls of the latter are, in each case, occupied by two niches, with a 
lotus-llowcr between them, from which rises the slender form of Osiris, 
symbolisinf; the blossoming of the soul in a 'haiipicr sphere'. In the buck- 
wall of the sanctuary of Osiris, however, is a door, leading to a structure 
(PI. E) which, including the adjoining smaller columned chambers, is as wide 
as the whole sanctuary. This was the scone of the mysterious rites cele- 
brated in honour of the Pivinc-Peccasod (Osiris, whose name even the Greek 
Herodotus shrank from breathing) by the esoteric priests of the highest class 
(see Bacdeker^s Lower JCyppt, p. 124). The inscriptions in the chapels inform 
us that the priestly proccssionst, which came from all parts of (he kingd<im, 
made a complete circuit of the chapel, keeping to the right wall on entering 
and returning to the door along the left wall. Thirty-six rites or ceremonies 
had to be performed during this circuit. First came a recitation to prove the 
worthiness of the worshipper to approach the holy place and the image ot' 
the god. Then the veil was lifted. The worshipper was next allowed to 
witness the investiture of the god by (ho priests with his tillcts, garments, 
ornaments, and the attriliutes of his divine power. Not before this was 
accomplished did the pilgrim prostrate himsclt in adoration, bringing drink- 
ollerings, lijjations, and burnt-otl'crings. Tlic hymns to be sung at these 
ceremonies are all prescribed, and the pictorial representations show how 
the gods were to be clothed and in what attitudes they were to be wor- 
shipped. Possibly all these rites were performed only by tbo priests of 

+ In the inscriptions the expression invariably used for the processions 
is the Kiny, who is regarded as the embodiment and rei)rcsentative of all 
his subjects. 

ofSetil. ABYDOS. J. Route. 63 

the temple. In any case the chapels are too small to have admitted more 
than the heads of the deputations from other parts of Egypt. Great weight 
is laid upon the sacred number seven, as shown in the number of the 
chapels themselves and in the seven heads of sparrow-hawks represented 
in each. That the king should appear as the seventh object of worship 
along with six gods is undoubtedly unusual; but it may be explained by 
the fact that Seti built the seventh chapel, not for the adoration of him- 
self while alive, but for a future period when he hoped to be merged in 
Osiris. Neither Seti nor his son could avoid the interment of their mum- 
mies near the royal residence of Thebes; but it may be assumed that their 
earthly remains received consecration at Abydos, and that the Memnonium 
of Seti is to be regarded as a cenotaph, in which the Name of Pharaoh, 
as a symbol of the king himself, was to be honoured and preserved. The 
Pharaohs of the early empire possessed similar monuments here. These, 
however, fell into decay during the Hyksos period; and Seti was enabled 
to do what unfavourable times had hindered his predecessors from doing 
— i.e. to build a new and costly Memnonium, in which a place was re- 
served, near the tomb of Osiris, for the Names of his royal ancestors. In 
the arches above the niches in the rear-wall of the chapels are several 
represent ations of the king offering his Name^ symbolised by the cartouche 
or ring C J l which surrounded royal names. In this way Abydos 
came to be the most important place for the preservation of lists of kings. 
The columned aisle leading to Scti's Chapel (PI. a) contains inscriptions 
and representations relating to the king alone and showing us his relation- 
ship to the gods in its proper light. On the walled-up door to the first 
hall we see Thoth, the Reason or Intelligence, the god of the sciences and 
of historical records, ofl'ering a sacrifice in front of an image of the king 
(the latter unfortunately much damaged). The inscription reads 'I, Thoth, 
the dweller in Abydos, come to thee on account of thy greatness and thy 
glory. For the sake of thy sanctity as king, for the sake of thy might 
and thy constancy on earth, and to make thee great% etc. — On the col- 
umns of the first hall the king is represented as sacrificing and receiving 
the attributes of the kingdom from Thoth, Anubis Apheru, Horus the son 
of Isis, and Henmutef, the high priest of Abydos. The paintings on the 
S. wall of the same hall show us the king as a boy, held in the arms of 
Isis and suckled at the divine breasts of the Hathors. They admit him 
to the place of Horus, that he may increase in strength and ascend the 
throne of Osiris as a man. Hathor, the queen-deity of Heliopolis in Aby- 
dos, calls herself the mother of his beauty, and says to him: 'Thou hast 
been nourished by my milk, thou vpho art adorned with the crown of Upper 
Egypt'. The Hathor of Denderah calls herself his nurse, who raised her 
arms to embrace his beauty. On the left side of the door farthest to the 
left, also leading to the second hall, we see the king, wearing a helmet, 
while Thoth pours over his head the signs of life and dominion. To the 
right the king appears with the richly decorated royal crown, holding the 
sceptre and scourge in his hands. The priest Henmutef burns incense be- 
fore him, and the Nile brings him gifts, of which he is the producer. The 
king has now passed from the boy Horus to the man Osiris; Henmutef 
says : 'I burn incense to thee and to thy name, O Osiris, King Ra-ma-me i'. 
The words put in the mouth of the Kile are: 'I bring to thee in my anus 
the superfluity as an offering, O King, lord of both worlds !' On the sides 
of the columns facing the aisle leading to the royal chapel are represenled 
Anubis-Apheru handing to the king the attributes of constancy and might; 
Thoth, either pouring the water of life and dominion over the king, or 
addressing him in set speech, with a roll in his left hand; Henmutef ex- 
horting him, sacrificing to him, and reaching him the sign of approval 

r""^ ^, thus remindingus of the passage in Dicdorus which fells us that 

it was the duty of the priests to praise and warn the kings. The king 
has instituted festivals in honour of Horus, and Horus in return throws 
him the symbol of life. Isis, holding in her hand the lotus-staff", entwined 
by the Urii^us-serpent , also invests him with life, which here as else- 
where included life beyond the grave, which the Egyptians termed the 
true life. On the S. wall of the second hall Seti is represented as seated 

64 lioule 4. AI'.yDOS. Menmonium 

(in the throne of Osiris. In front of him stands Hnrus, 'the avenger of 
his father', investing him with iminorlality, while behind is the jackal- 
headed Apheru (Anubisi, ready to protect hiui from danger. .*bovc the 
dedicatory inscripti(jn, Thoth, the god of divine eloiiiieuce, promises Osiris 
Ua-ma-mcn that the Cycle of the Kine Gods will endue him with ever- 
lasting life. In the chapel itself the representations are very numerous. 
The king, in one, appears a.s a sphinx, resting on a base bearing the 
names of si.v nations that he has conquered. A somewhat singular scene 
represents standard-bearers with the ensigns of fho nonies, personifyini^ 
the emblems of life, constancy, and power in threefold repetition; these, 
like the inscriptions lietweeii the standard-poles, teach us that Set! was 
endued with couraj.'e, length <'f days, uninterrupted safety and strength, 
victory, abundance, and the kingdom of Egypt for life. It would be weari- 
some to enumerate the multitude of other inscriptions of a similar tcnour. 
Among the 22 representations in the king's chapel, many of which arc in 
a very dilapidated condition, the TUost noteworthy is one itf which the 
king appears on the throne of Osiris, embraced by the goddesses Nekhcb 
(Eileithyia) and Kuto. Thoth and Horus draw tighter the stems of the 
plants symbolising Upper and Lower Egypt, which enfold the sign of union 

sam. Safekh, the goddess of history, behind Thoth, inscribes the name 

of the king. In another scene Scti is seated on a throne supported by 
three figures in the form of Horus and three in the form of Anubis. Un- 
der a canopy adorned with I'riTus-serpents appears the state barge of the 
king, probably a rupresontalion of the vessel kept in this temple and home 
on high in the processions. Similar representations of the ship in which 
the Sun-God was supposed to traverse the heavens have lieen found made 
of bronze or the precioxis metals and may be seen in the museum at Gizeh 
(see Saedeker's Loiter Egypt) and elsewhere. Rclow arc canopi (Vol. 1., p. 301), 
in front sacrificial offerings, and behind Thoth and Henmutef. — We 
observe that everything here refers to the king, whose name recurs in weari- 
some iteration, and w-ho here receives back again as Osiris the oflerings 
he had himself made, during his mortal life, to Osiris and thus to his 
future self, the Osiris-apotheosis of his soul. 

A door in the Osiris Chajiel (I'l. e), the third from the right wall, leads 
to the rear-structure (I'l. E) mentioned at p. t)2. Though the structure is 
in a very ruinous state, its ground-plan can easily be made out. A colon- 
nade, the roof of which, once sujijiorted by ID columns, ha.s fallen to the 
ground, stood in direct connection with the Osiris chapel. It contains 47 re- 
presentations, some of which are almost wholly ellaced. l$y the wall, to 
tlio right on entering, lav three small chambers a'lorned with line sculpture. 
The first of these (t'l. i)" is dedicated to ilorus, the second (PI. k) to Osiris, 
the third (I'l. 1) to Isis. Behind them lay another room (I'l. h). In the 
wall to the left on entering Room K is a door leading to a room (I'l. m) 
with four columns, which was adjoined by three smaller ajiartmeuts (PI. n, 
o, p). Though the most sacred mysteries were celebrated in this suite of 
rooms, they ofler little that is mn-el ; the imjilements of the priests were 
kept in the side-rooms. Here, no doubt, many a spectacle was prepared 
which, when displayed in the Osiris chapel, filled the pious worshippers 
with awe and wonder. 

South Building. Ar.\uT.MiiNT with tiir Tahlkt or the Kincs. 
— This building consists of a scries of rooms, all more or less 
ruinous and most of tlicin roofless, a court, and some smaller 
chambers. The most iinjxirtant, to whi<-h a visit should be paid, 
even if all the others bt; omitted, is a long (05 ft. ) and low Corridor 
(PI. 8), entered from the, left- side of the second hypostyle hall, 
between the second and third row of colnmiis. Tlie flat ceiling is 
adorned with a rich network of ornamentation, combining the name 

of Sen J. ABYDOS. 4. Route. 65 

of the king, the symbol of the 'panegyric tent' lOJ, and a number 


of stars. A dedicatory inscription, dividing the ceiling into two 
parts, records that 'this Memnonium was erected in the temple of 
Abydos to his forefathers and all the cycles of gods of heaven and 
earth, by the king, lord of the diadems, who is born again, who 
surpasses all in strength and annihilates the barbarians, the vic- 
torious Horus, who appears in new glory, bearing sway over the 
barbarians in all countries, the king of Upper aud Lower P'gypt, 
who achieves noble deeds, the lord of both worlds, Ra-ma-raen. 
He erected to them these venerated sanctuaries outside the Necro- 
polis, building them of stone and inlaying them with gold, in 
an everlasting work outlasting human life, etc' — By the right 
wall on entering the corridor from the second hypostyle is the cele- 
brated *Tablet of Abydos, consisting of three long rows of royal 

shields or cartouches , before which Seti and his son Ramses II. 


stand in adoration. The praying king raises his right hand and holds 
a censer in his left hand ; the boy-prince, standing in front of him, 
still bears the lock of youth, hanging over his temples. In his 
raised hands he bears written rolls. The adjoining inscription reads : 
'Recitation of songs of praise by Prince Ramses, son and firstborn of 
the king who loves him'. Above the shields is another Inscrijjtion, 
which describes the king's offering as made to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, 
the lord of the sarcophagus in the Memnonium of Abydos and (uah 
khet) the royal forefather of Seti. lie enumerates his gifts: 1000 
loaves of bread, 1000 barrels of beer, 1000 cattle, 1000 geese, 
1000 incense-offerings, 1000 oil-offerings, 1000 pieces of cloth, 
1000 garments, 1000 barrels of wine, 1000 holy offerings. The 
figure 1000 here, which occurs in almost all sacrificial lists and also 
in other formula, is not, of course, to be taken literally but simply 
as equivalent to many. The king, as we see, brings his youthful 
son into the hall dedicated to his ancestors, where the earlier rulers 
of Egypt, under the symbol of their name, dwell beside tlie tomb 
of Osiris. He teaches the boy to offer rich gifts, such as hereafter 
he would wish offered to his own manes. It is beyond doubt that 
Seti was still living when this inscription was set up, and yet 
he already adds his own name to those of his predecessors; it 
occupies the whole of the lowest row (the third from the top) of the 
royal table, being repeated 19 times with prefix and affix. The 
living Seti provides for the future Osiris and for his worship at the 
holy grave. — In the first volume of this Handbook (p. 85) it has 
been shown that the establishment of the chronology of the Egyptian 
kings was rendered possible only by a collation of the lists of Manetho 
with the lists of Pharaohs preserved in the monuments. Among 
the latter none approaches in importance the royal tablet of the 
Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 5 

66 Route 4. AinOOS. Memnonium 

Memnonium atAbydos, \vhi(^li contains no fewer than 7G cartouches, 
only two of which are slightly injured. The tablet from the temple 
of Karases (p. 68), now in London, contains 16 entire and 2 half 
destroyed cartouches, while the list of Sakkarah, discovered by Ma- 
riette, has 39 whole and 3 damaged cartouches. 
^ — N. Mena, i.e. Menes, the first historic king of Egypt, heads 

' 1 the list. The names following his are those of the most 

prominent monarchs, at least those whose legitimacy was 
unquestionable. The Heracleopolitans and the Ilyksos are 

!\ naturally left out, but other rulers, of whom we possess 

ij monuments, have also been apparently deemed unworthy of 
I I inclusion in this important roll of honour. The merit of 

^ ^ first observing and publishing this inestimable historical 
document belongs to Prof. Diimichen. 

On the left wall of the I'orridor we again meet Seti and the 
youthful Ramses. The father holds a censer in his left hand, while 
the son, adorned with the priestly panther-skin, pours a libation on 
the altar in front of him. The titles of the right wall re-appear 
here. The inscription, which the royal pair faces, contains in syste- 
matic order the names of these objects of worship, with their homes, 
whom Seti has honoured with sacrificial gifts. The sculpture in this 
corridor, consisting of alto-reliefs on the fine-grained limestone, is 
all executed with tlie greatest delicacy. In the centre of the right 
wall a door leads into a narrow Chamber (PI. t), vaulted in the same 
manner as the sanctuaries (p. 61), and preceding the stair (PI. u) 
which leads to the hill at th(! back of the temple. The inscriptions 
here are in excellent preservation, being injured only in a few places ; 
the adjoining figures of Seti and Ramses show the latter arrived at 
manhood and the throne. Safekh, the goildcss of history, 'the great 
mistress of books', addresses her darling son Seti. The ceremoiiy of 
foundation, which we find more fully reprt'sented and described in 
the Ptolemaic temples, is also depicted here. The praises of the king 
are sung, and his merits arc, at the command of Ra, to be i-ommitted 
to writing by th(i goddess of history. Tlioth also congratulates the 
king in the emphatic manner usual to such inscriptions, and promises 
him an eternal existence and the stal)ility of his kingdom for hundreils 
of thousands of years. Thoth is named the tongue of Ra and lord 
of the speech of the prophet of truth. This staircase was completed 
while Ramses shared the throne of his father as co-ruler. 

Tlie otlier rooms of tliis part of the building are all more or less 
in ruins. From th(; S. end of the kings' gallery we enter a kind of 
peristyle Court (PI. G ), with seven columns, which perhaps was 
never completed. The sculptures and hieroglyphics are not very 
carefully executed and appear 'en creux' instead of iji high relief. 
The most interesting sci-iies are those on the lower part of the walls, 
representing the slauglifer of tlie cattle, gazelles, and antelopes 
which Seti had so lavishly vowed (in the adjoining king's gallery) 

ofSetil. ABYDOS. 4. Route. 67 

to the gods of tlie temple. Some of the resisting oxen are remarkahly 
true to nature. Probably the sacrificial animals were actually slain 
in this court, a conclusion strengthened by the broken pottery fouiul 
here by Mariette and the two springs of turbid water. A well has 
also been discovered outside the E. wall of the temple, which may 
be the spring described by Strabo. 

The Room marked F on the plan is the most interesting of the 
other apartments in this wing. The entrance to it is on the left 
( S. ) side of the space between the sanctuary and tlie third row 
of columns in the second hypostyle hall. The door leading to it is 
named 'the great door of lia-ma-men {i.e. Seti), the favourite of 
8okar'. To this deity, Osiris-Sokar or Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, keeper of 
the realm of shades, this room is consecrated, though other gods, 
such as Nefer Tum, Horus, and Thoth are also represented here. 
The king appears in the act of offering sacrifice. To the extreme 
right on eTitering, on the wall between the doors, are reliefs of 
richly adorned Nilometers, the symbols of the state of stability 
and permanence aimed at by Pharaoh; the inscriptions inform 
us that they were dedicated to the Osiris of the under-world, Ptah- 
Sokar-Tatunen, who was worshipped in the Memnonitim of Abydos. 
On the entrance-wall, to the right of the door, is the barlv of jSokar, 
and a list is given of the titles of this god of the many aliases, 
who was revered in so many different spots. The form of the three 
columns preserved here is peculiar. The cylindrical shafts, which 
liear the abacus withovit any transitional member, are flattened at 
the poiTits where their periphery would touch an cxscribed square, 
and hence their section is in the shape of an octagon with four 
straight and four curved sides. — The doors to the right, on each 
side of the above-mentioned Nilometers, lead into two oblong rooms 
with vaulted ceilings, which have partly fallen in (PI. q, r). — The 
other apartments of this wing contain nothing of special interest. 
They are all ruinous, and five of them cannot be entered except from 
the outside. — In visiting the Memnonium of Abydos, the traveller 
should bear in mind that he has to do with a cenotaph, dedicated 
to the manes of a king apotheosised as Osiris and to his forefathers ; 
and lie should also remember that the site of the building was de- 
termined by the belief that the souls of those who been 'sancti- 
fied' near the Holy Tomb could look forward with confidence to the 
highest joys of the world to come. 

Monuments to the North. Not only Seti, but also his son has 
erected a cenotaph to himself near the tomb of Osiris. To reach 
this Sepulchral Temple of Ramses II. we turn towards the N. and 
skirt the margin of the desert for a few minutes. It is in a very 
ruinous state, but still presents many features of interest. The 
ground-plan of a peristyle court, several rooms, and the sanctuaries 
beyond them can still be traced ; but the average height of the re- 
maining walls is only 5-0 ft. The picture of ruin presented to us 

G8 Routed. AliYDOS. Temple of Ramse.t II- 

here is all the moro striking from the obvious pains of the founder 
to make a costly and enduring moiiiinient. "Where Seti contented 
himself with limestone, Ramses made lavish use of granite, Oriental 
alabaster, and black graywacke. The remaining fragments show 
that Ramses erected obelisks of granite in front of his cenotaph, and 
that caryatide-like figures of Osiris, now long since shattered, stood 
at tlie sides of the first peristyle court. Plastic ornamentation was 
freely used and so richly painted that the colours have to this day 
clung to some of the fragments. Ramses followed the example of 
liis father in consecrating a cliambcr to the manes of his ancestors. 
In 1818 Mr. Baiikes discovered in the chamber to the left (E.) of 
the first octostyle room a royal list of eighteen names, two of which 
were partly destroyed, and the relics of these tablets are still in situ. 
M. Mimaut, the French Consul General, tore down the walls on 
which the important cartouches were represented and sent the stones 
to Paris, whence they passed by purchase to the P)ritish ^Museum. 
Almost 710 inscription has been left iiita -t here. We learn, however, 
that Ramses was much more anxious than his father to record his 
own achievements. Not a few names of peoples and towns which he 
subdued or captured may still be discerned among the ruins. 

The visitor will gladly arrest his steps by the representation of 
a grand procession, wliich is to be found inside the great court, to 
the right and left of the entrance. The procession, beginning at 
the N.W. corner of the hall, which was formerly surrounded witli 
Osiris-pillars, extends over the whole of the N. wall. Four temple 
officials are represented, one described as a secretary , two with 
leopard-skins as priests of Osiris and of the house of Ramses Mc- 
riamon Khnumt Abdu (connected with Abydos), and the fourth as 
Kerhub. Animals, sorne living and some dead, are brought to them 
for sacrifice. Among these are antelopes, geese, and oxen of extra- 
ordinary size and fatness. On the right side of the fore-court are 
similar scenes, in which the procession is still more grandly equipped. 
Here appear the royal war-chariot, numerous officials, and negroes, 
while incense is burned before the statue of the monarch. The co- 
louring of these figures is surprisingly well preserved. 

On the outside of the temple, N. side, is an insi'rijjtion relating to 
the Khcta war, discovered l>y Eisenlolir in 1870; unfortiinatelir only the 
lower parts of lines arc preserved. Adjacent, to the W. and N., are 
represent. itions of events in the Kheta war, similar to those of the 
Raracssenm at TLebcs. The exterior of the S. wall is covered with a 
loni^ inscription, recountin;; the building of the temple, of wliich the 
following is a translation. 'Behold his Majesty, Life, Salvation, an<l 
Health, the beloved son representing his father Unnofcr and making him 
a beautiful and lordly dwelling, built for eternity of white, good, fair 
stone, the two pylons of finished workmanship, the door-ways of 
syenite. The doors therein of bronze, plated with real elcctrum ; the 
great seat (i.e. the inner sanctuary) of alabaster; its sanctuary covered 
with granite, and its exalted scat of sep tep, the mcshen (cradle) for its 
cycle of gods. His exalted father lies within, even a.s Ka is united with 
heaven; his lordly portrait is by him that begat liim, even ns Uorus on 
the throne of his father. He lias daily multiplied the oll'erings for all 

Necropolis. ABYDOS. J. Route. 69 

times, for the feasts of the seasons ami the feasts of the year, the feasts 
for each day for himself. He tilled the temple with all things, a super- 
abundance of gifts of nourishment, hulls, calves, oxen, geese, incense, 
wine, and fruit, filling it with labourers, enriching it with fields, pre- 
senting cattle, filling the storehouse with superabundance, the barns 
reaching to heaven, the servants of the domains of the oQ'ering being the 
captives of his brave sword. His treasure-house filled with all gems, 
with silver and gold in bars, the storehouse full of all things sent as 
tribute from all countries. He has constructed numerous canals, and has 
planted timber of all sorts, fragrant plants from the land of Punt; he 
has done all this, the son of Ra, the lord of the diadems, the beloved 
of Osiris and of the gods the lords of Abydos\ 

Like the temple of Seti, that of his son Ramses was also a 
sanctuary dedicated to Osiris, thongli in ea(-h case the predominant 
feature is the glorification of the monarch in his apotheosis as 
Osiris. Mariette was therefore on a wrong tack when he saw a 
spei'ial temple of Osiris in the enclosure (PL III; p. 52) to the N., 
near the village of El- Kherh eh, and spent much time and money in 
an attempt to find the actual grave of Osiris. Obviously this was 
merely an older sanctuary, erected by the kings of the 12th and 
13th Dynasties on the site of a still more ancient temple. [Two 
steles in the Louvre, numbered C 11 and C 12, and the great stele 
of Mentuhotep, now in the museum of Gizeh, give us information 
concerning these buildings.] Nowadays this temple is a mere heap 
of rubbish, and the few interesting 'finds' made here, such as the 
statues of Usertesen L and Usertesen III., and some inscriptions of 
the time of Tutmes IIL, have been sent to the museum of Gizeh. 
The same institution received the many hundred steles found partly 
on tlie site of this temple and partly in the Necropolis of Abydos. 
Three such cemeteries are distinguished. The first, containing 
tombs of the New Empire , from the 19th Dynasty downwards, 
lies to the S. of the temples of Seti L and Ramses II. Another 
(Necropole du Centre) lies to the W. of the path leading from the 
temple of Ramses II. to the so-called temple of Osiris, and contains 
graves mainly of the 6th and 11th Dynasties. Here was found the 
historically valuable tablet of Una (see Baedeker s Lower Egypt, 
]). 307), who accompanied three successive rulers of the 6th Dynasty 
in their campaigns. The third or N. necropolis, to the W. of tlie 
so-called temple of Osiris, contains numerous graves of the 12th 
and 13th Dynasties, but also many of the new empire. Among the 
interesting steles found here were those of a Neferhotep of the 
18th Dynasty and of Sheshonk, the latter erroneously pronounced 
by H. Brugsch to have been a Persian satrap. The pyramidal struc- 
tures found in the N. and central cemeteries are also interesting. 
Still farther to the W. lies a quadrangular enclosure surrounded by 
a lofty wall and named Shunet ez-Zeblb (PI. IV; p. 52; magazine of 
the Zibebes), which probably served as a place of defence against 
the incursions of tlie Beduins of the Great Oases. A Coptic Convent 
(PI. V; p. 52) to the N.E. of this point, dating from the year 1306 
of the Coptic era, scarcely repays a visit. 


5. From Belianeh to Keneh ( Demlerah). 

Coiiq). Afap, p. S. 

50 Jl. Steamboat in 4V2 lirs. Com]), p. 45. 

Between Belianeh and Keneh the l>u7n Polin (Ilyph.ena tlie- 
baica) becomes more and more common, generally occurriiif; in 
groups and increasing in size and beauty as we travel southwards 
(^comp. p. 28^. It is a fan-leaved palm of moderate height, dividing 
into two parts at the iipper end of the stem and sometimes repeat- 
ing this bifurcation two or three times. It extends far to the S. of 
Egypt, and whole forests of it are found on the upper Nile. Its 
large nuts contain a soft and fibrous pulp, which is edible and 
tastes like sweet cake; while various objects are made out of the 
hard rind. Its timber and bast are also of considerable industrial 

The ancient LepUlotum must have lain on the E. bank of the 
river opposite Belianeh ; but, though des(;ribcd by Ptolemy as a 
large town, no trace of it remains. The l.epidotus (the Cyjirinus 
Icpidotus of tieolTroy, and Cinex deutex of Savigny ) was held here 
in high honour, though, according to Plutarch, it was one of the 
fishes that swallowed the Phallus of Osiris and was hence generally 
regarded with special abhorrence. 

From Belianeh to Keneh the Nile valley lies almost due E. and 
W. About 4 M. from tlie S. bank lies Sdmltud, on ancient rubbish- 
mounds. Ndgi-Htimddi, also on the S. bank, 19 M. from Belianeh, 
is the station for FarsMt, 3 M. to the 8., now an uninteresting 
village with a large sugar-factory belonging to the Khedive. 

So late as tbe 18th cent. thi.s wn.s .still the .scat of the jrreat .shi-kh, 
who was the head of the Famiris (jil. of Faris, here ])rnii. Ilavaris), or 
tribes of mounted Arabs on the left bank of the Nile. The comparative 
width of the river-plain makes horsc-breedinp; an important occupation 
among these tribes, and thoir shagpy prey do^'s are also celebrated. The 
latlers are fre()uently seen guarding the flocks of sheep, and are easily 
distinguishable from the worthless and cowardly curs that haunt the 
streets of the towns and villages. When encouraged to attack by their 
owners, these lirave animals are exceedingly dangerous antagonists.— 
From Farshut to the Great Oasis, see R. 35. 

9V2 M. Hou (W. bank) and Kasr es-Saiy&d (E. bank) lie nearly 
opposite one another, at one of tlie sharpest bends in the stream. 
liou, a large btit miserable-looking village, was the home of Shckh 
Selim, who diei1 a few years ago, at a very advanced age, after 
sitting stark naked on the bank of the Nile for 53 years; ho was 
regarded by pious Moslems with great honour and was deemed to 
possess great powers in helping navigation and barren women. His 
grave here is covered with Arabic inscriptions and votive gifts in 
the form of small boats. 

Those who wish to vi.sit the scanty ruins of the ancient Siospolis 
Parva traverse the village in the direction of tlic mountains, cross two 
deep ditclios, near whicli .stand the finely built jiiers of a ruined 
bridge, and reach (25 min.) a large mnund of debris, known as Oebel //or 
(i.e. Iloriis). This is the only ri'niuaiil of (lie ancient Piospolis, with the 
excoptiuu of a fraguicul of a leuiplc of the I'tuleuiies iu the village, 

KASR ES-SAIYAD. 5. Route. 71 

where, too, some stones bearing the cartouches of Ptolemy Philometor 
project from the ground in a clear space. Nothing of interest is to be 
seen here except one of the largest and oldest lebbek-trees in Egypt. 
The extensive cemetery contains numerous Cutic inscriptions. Hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions have been found in grottoes in a hill to the W. of 
the tovrn. 

Kasr es-Saiydd (mail steamer station) marks the site of the an- 
cient ChenoboBkion, which is mentioned by Ptolemy, by Stephanus 
of Byzantium, and in the Itinerary of Antonine, and belonged to 
the Nomas Panopolites. No remains are visible except a few frag- 
ments ofthe river wall, with an unimportant Greek inscription of the 
Roman period. It owes its name, meaning 'geese pasture' (XtjVO- 
PoaxeTov, Copt. ujenecH'V; from the ancient Egyptian Geese lake\ 
to the fai't that immense quantities of geese, a favourite food and 
sacrificial offering of the old Egyptians, were reared here. Its pro- 
pinquity to the home of Menes (This-Abydos) makes it seem quite 
natural that graves of hoar antiquity (6th Dynasty) should be found 
in the neighbourhood. These are reached from the village of Kasr 
cs-Saiyad in about lY4hr. Donkeys, but no saddles, may be ob- 
tained, through the Shekh el-Beled. We lirst ride through a well- 
tilled district, cross a bridge over a canal which waters the district, 
pass the village of Isbali, and reach the Arab hills. The ancient 
tombs, constructed of light-coloured and unusually flne-grained 
limestone, now come in sight; they date from the reigns of Pepi, 
Merira, and Raneferka, all of the 6th Dynasty. The large tomb 
situated farthest to the left contains representations and inscriptions 
which are identical in style with those in the most ancient part of 
the Necropolis of Memphis. The ceiling was leftrough-hewn. Some 
of the small inscriptions cut in the living rock near the entrance 
are in Coptic. The representations on the inside of the entrance- 
wall have been almost wholly destroyed, but some ships may be 
distinguished to the right ofthe door. On the right wall are figures 
bearing funereal gifts and a large sacrificial table. The rear-wall 
is divided into two distinct portions, as the left side of the tomb 
has been pushed much farther into the rock than the right. In the 
latter are two niches. That to the right contains an image of the 
deceased, one ofthe chief dignitaries under the Pharaoh Raneferka, 

nauud Zuta { /C'^^ \\^^l\ )• From the second niche, farther 

to the left, a mummy-shaft descends obliquely; adjacent is a Cop- 
tic inscription. In the deeply recessed rear-wall of the left side 
are four smaller niches, probably intended for the coffins of members 
of Zuta's household deemed worthy of special honour. — The next 
tomb, farther to the right, is of even greater interest than the one 
just described. It belonged to an official named Atkhenu, who lived 
in the reigns of Pepi, Merira, and Raneferka, and was not only en- 
gaged in the construction ofthe pyramids of these monarchs, but was 
also a distinguished warrior. The pyramids were named 'Good Place', 

72 liwleS. TABENNA. From Belianeh 

'Fine Ascent', and 'Scene of Lile' I A r\X \ \ \ 

The names of the three kings and their pyramids were found in the 
inscriptions to the right and left of the entrance (outside). The 
tomb is in thu form of a rectangle, with the mummy-shaft open- 
ing in the back-wall. The representation of Atkhenu, to the left 
of the entrance, is very lifelike and derives peculiar interest from 
the fact that the grandees of the early period are seldom represented, 
as here, in full military activity. Uur hero, another Una (see 
Baedeker's Lower Eyypt, p. 307), lifts the arm vigorously to strike 
his foe. The mode of wearing the liair and headdress, seen Loth 
in this figure and that of Atkhenu's wife, is unusual. Atkhenu was 
a rich man, possessing, according to the inscriptions, 2350 oxen. 
On the left side of the rear-wall are represented several scenes from 
the private life of the deceased. Cattle are being slaughtered, cooks 
are busy at their work, etc. Above the door leading to the mummy- 
shaft we see a large altar, adjoining which is a long but much dam- 
aged inscription. — The smaller tombs in the \icinity are less 
interesting. Several Coptic inscriptions testify that anchorites found 
retreats in these tombs during the Christian period. We are now 
approaching the region which, in the time of Pachomius, was most 
thickly populated with monks and anchorites. 

Farther on we pass a tine mountain-mass, which looks especially 
imposing by afternoon light, and see several thriving villages, often 
situated close to the river. Deshneh, a steamboat-station on the 
N. bank. 13 M. from Kasr es-Saiyad, is situated on the ruins of an 
ancient town. 

The site of the celehratcd Tabenna, which lay lietweon Hoti (nioapo- 
lis) and Dendcrah (Tcntyra). must he sinipht for either here or close to 
Keneh. It belonged to the noine of Teiityra and its Coptic name was 
Tabenneselt, which may be translated 'place of the Isis palms'. The (ireeks 
sujiposed that 'nesi" meant •irprjz (nesos) or island, and hence it eonies that 
the town of Tahennetns, situated on the mainland, is generally spoken of aa 
the Island of Tabetina. It is said that the Arabs name it Oeziret el-Oharb 
or Isle of the ^\'est, l)ut no support of this could be found on the spot. 
St. Jerome relates that at the end of the 4th cent, no fewer than 
50,000 monks assembled in the district of Tabenncsus to celebrate the 
Easter Festival. All of these followed the rule of Pachomius and be- 
longed either to the chief monastery (Monasterium Waju.s) or to the 
smaller c(tn(jbia, iaurue, and anchorite cells dependent on it. It is mar- 
vellous that the t-'mjile of Dendcrah (p. 80), so close to this community 
of fanatics, should have been left almost intact. Perhaps the explanation 
is that at the time the monks settled here the strife about dof,'mas aroused 
much more excitement in the eccleaiastical breast than the dislike of 
heathen gods that had long since become harmless. 

56 M. (17 M. from Deshneh) Keneh (steamer-station), a town 
with 15,400 inhab., lies on theE. bank of the Nile at the point where 
the river, suddenly abandoning its nortliward course, turns to the W., 
almost at right angles. It is the capital of the fifth Mudiriyeh of 
Upper Egypt, which is597sq. M. in extent and contains a population 
, of 406,858. The Greek name of the town was KaivTj-o'/.tcor 'Newtown'. 

toKeneh. KENEH. 5. Route. 73 

At the tiiue of tlie pilgrimage to Mecca Koneh presents a very lively 
scene, as it is then frequented by large numbers of the participators 
in that great religious picnic. The spiritual and material wants of 
the pious Hedjadj are catered for by six spacious mosques, nume- 
rous coffee-houses, and a large number of places of amusement, among 
the attractions of which Egyptian dancing-girls are prominent. For 
the rest Keneh differs little in general character from the other 
towns of Upper Egypt. The traveller should not fail, however, to 
see the most valuable piece of land near Keneh, which is about one 
Feddan (3500 sq.yds.) in area and yields an excellent variety of 
potter's clay that has made Keneh pottery, like that of Assiut, famous 
throughout the country. Keneh has a special reputation for its 
Kuhd (pi. of Kulle), or cool porous water-bottles, and for its Ballas 
and Z7r, large vessels used in carrying, purifying, and preserving 
water. In some of the early Egyptian inscriptions figures of the 
Ballas and Zir appear as distinctive symbols, in the exact forms in 
which they are made to-day. Hundreds of thousands of these clay 
vessels are annually exported from Keneh in boats of a primitive 
but not unpractical description, constructed for the purpose , in 
which they are piled up in pyramidal form, fastened together with 
ropes made of the bast of the date-palm and attached to rectangular 
frames. A trustworthy report fixes the number sent away in 1860 
at 900,000. Considerable activity is also manifested in the manu- 
facture of kiln-dried pottery, generally either red or black, used for 
chibouk-heads, bottles, pitchers, vases, drinking-vessels, etc., of 
every size and shape. The almost invariably graceful forms and 
tasteful decorations of these utensils may be unreservedly set down 
as a bequest from ancient Egypt. 

6. Routes through the Eastern Desert. 

Keneh is a place of some importance as the starting-point of the 
caravans traversing the Arabian desert to Koser (p. 77} and as an em- 
porium of the trade of Upper Egypt with the coast-districts of the Red 
Sea. It consequently afl'ords a good opportunity of making a short and 
comparatively eai^y desert journey, as the interesting excursion to Koser 
can be made without any very great privation or danger. The caravan- 
route leads via llanv'undt., traversing the rocky Arabian Desert, which is 
not only of great scenic grandeur but also full of interest for the natu- 
ralist and the archteologist. Koser, a port on the Red Sea, is about 
110 M. from Keneh, and the journey can be made comfortably in four, 
or at most five days. 

These descrt-roules were important even in antiquity for the trade 
with the seaports and the land of Punt (Arabia) on the one side and the 
valuable quarries in the mountains of the Arabian Desert on the other. 
Spices and other costly products were sent across the desert to Keneh, 
at first on donkey-back and afterwards on camels, while green breccia 
and several varieties of granite were sent down to the sea in return. The 
most important points on the Red .Sea, named from N. to S., were ilijos 
Ilormos (now Ahu Sar el-KibU), in the latitude of Jlonfalut; Leukos 
Limen, now Ko^er ; and Ber'eiiike, in the latitude of .Vssufm. The route 
from Keneh to Myos Hormos leads to the N.E., and a short detour may 
be made through the Wddi Faiireh, with its granite-quarries, and past 

74 Route (1. BIR 'AMBAR. Eastern Desert. 

the Roman town and colnny of Iludreuimi or Fom Trnjanuf, wliicli lies 
in the latitude of Kfiii, aliout I) days' .journey from Keneli. Oiitsiilc tlie 
walls lie a temiile and other biiildiiiyis, and sonic lar^e columns and (jrcck 
inscriptions have been found in the <iuarries, which were worked chiclly 
in the time of Hadrian and Trajan. About two days' journey farther to 
the N. is Gdiel Duklu'ui ('smoke mountain'), the ancient porphyry quarries 
of which were worked by the IJonians. Here are the ruins of an Ionic 
temple of the time of Tra.jan (never completed), some remains of an irre- 
gularly built town, and two larjie water-reservoirs. The old route led 
hence to Afiios Iloriiws, the harbour of which has been silted up and is 
now practically useless. Travellers makini; for the Sinai Peninsula jour- 
ney to the N. from the porphyry quarries for two or three days more, 
and cross by boat to Ti'iv (see Bwdekers Loicur K'jypl^ p. 515). Those 
who undertake one of these jotirneys should study the 'Reisebriefc' of 
Lcpsius and Wilkinson's well-known work. 

A much more interesting journey than that to Gebcl Dukhan is the 
trip to Kost-r, or at least to iVddi llamamdl^ where there are numerous 
Egyptian inscriptions. For the journey (there and back) 10-11 days should 
be allowed, and Egyptologists will probably want ~-'d days more. It is 
generally undertaken from Keneh, but we may also choose the old route 
from Kuft (Koptos, p. 98), or we may start from Lu.xor. The first two 
routes unite at el-Karn and are joined at Lakiluh by that from Luxor. 
The necessary camels may be obtained in Keneh with the aid of one of the 
consular agents (comp. p. 72). The route from Keneh (telegraph-wires from 
Kus to Koser) leads first through the villages 'of SlK-kh liekdh.^ l)6mch, and 
Kwii'Imrdn, which follow each other in quick succession, the first on the 
left, the other two on the right side of the road. The first night is 
generally spent at the caravanserai of Bir '^Ambar, about ^^j■> hrs. from 
Keneh, where the lofty palms and shady sycamores and niimospe ofler a 
inost inviting halting-place. The large caravanserai was erected at the 
expense of an Ibrahim I'asha for the use of the Koser caravans and the 
Mecca pilgrims. The structure comprises several separate buildings, 
covered with dome-shaped roofs and surrounded by courts and colon- 
nades. It has no owner and is free to everyone to use as he likes. As 
nothing is done to keep it in repair, it is rapidly falling into decay, like 
most of the Oriental buildings of the kind, and threatens soon to be a 
complete ruin. In the deserts of Upper Egypt the temperature at night 
is so mild, even in winter, that stnmg and healthy persons may safely 
sleep in the open air if warmly wrapped up; and for various reasons this 
is preferable to a ni;;ht in the caravanserai. Those, however, who prefer 
to take their chances in the interior should not fail to make the most 
minute examination of the room in which they intend to sleep, in order 
to clear out the vermin with which it is almost certain to be infested; 
scorpions and venomous snakes are by no means uncommon visitants. 

it is the duty of the JOttddr, or guide in charge of the caravan, to see 
that everyone ami everything are ready lietimes in the morning, so that 
a sufliciently early start may be made to cover the ground allotted to 
each days march, lie is held responsible for the safe conduct of the 
entire party, and e.xpects implicit obedience to his marching orders. We 
soon turn our backs on the verdant green district bordering the Nile 
and enter the liarren desert, almost entirely destitute of vegetation, which 
lies between the great river and the coast of the Ived Sea. The first part 
of the route is vcr.v} unedifying. We advance steadily, ascending almost 
irapcrceptibl.v, through a monotonous plain, intersected in all directions 
by small undulating heights. All around us extends the interminable 
yellowish gray, sun-bleaehed rocks of the desert; not a trace of organic 
life is visible, not a single green tree or shrub. At the hill of el-Karn 
('the horn'), which rises to the left of ibe caravan- route, about midway 
between Bir 'Amhar and Lakitrih^ the road from Keneh is joined by that 
from Kn/i. Not Keneh but J\optot, the modern K\ift, a little to the S., 
was the starting-point of the mad constructed by the ancient Egyptians 
for the traffic between the Thchaid and the Hed Sea. From this point 
onwards we therefore follow one of the most ancient trading routes 

Eastern Desert. LAKliTAH. 6. Route. 75 

kiuivvn. From the hieroglyphics on the rocks and temple-walls at Ilama- 
mat we learn that the ancient Koptos road formed a link, as early as 
3000 years before our era, in the intercourse carried on between the Nile 
valley and Arabia, via the desert and the sea. 

We now ride in a S.E. direction through a dreary district, in which 
the only variety is afforded by an occasional Mohwala or Mahalta. The 
Jlobwalas are simply spaces covered with camel's dung, easily distin- 
guished from (he surrounding soil by their darker colour and their smooth, 
cement-like surface. They occur on every great caravan route at regular 
intervals and are of the utmost importance as sign-posts showing the road. 
Hence no khabir or camel driver passes one of these places without giving 
his camels an opportunity to contribute their quota to the maintenance 
of tlic Moliwala. The Mahaitas or halting-places are 7>/2-9 M. apart and 
serve also as measures of distance. The swift-running camels take their 
name from the number of mahattas they can reach in one day. Thus a 
camel which can cover 10 mahattas, i.e. 75-90 M., in one day is known 
as an 'Ashari (runner of 'ten'). Other milestones of the desert are afforded 
by the skeletons of camels, horses, and asses, and by small cairns above 
the remains of unfortunate travellers who have [lost their lives in this 
dreary waste. 

TheKo.ser caravans usually pass the second night in the village of la- 
ketah (9 hrs. from Kuft and BIr 'Ambar, I2V2 hrs. from Keneh), which is 
chiefly inhabited by 'Abahdeh; it is also a halting-place for caravans com- 
ing in the opposite direction. The small oasis has two wells, five palms, a 
small piece of tilled ground, a few mud-huts, and a half-ruined Arab cara- 
vanserai. It is a characteristic specimen of a desert-village and oilers much 
to interest the stranger. It is a place of great comfort and convenience 
to the traveller, as its resources include the materials for a solid and 
satisfying supper in the shape of mutton, goat's flesh, poultry, eggs, etc. 
The dogs here are great thieves, and care should be taken to I'cave nothing 
within their reach at night. Near the chief well are some fragments of 
a Greek inscription of the reign of Tiberius Claudius. 

The first Roman military station, the Hydreuma, now called by the 
Arabs Kasr el-Bendt. ('castle of the maidens'), is 3 hrs. from Lakefah. It 
lies to the S. of the caravan roiite and forms an oblong 125 ft. in length 
and 101 ft. in breadth. The wall inclosing the oblong, formed of layers 
of sandstone without cement, was 6V2 ft. high. Within the wall lie 20 
small chambers opening on a rectangular inner court, the only exit from 
wliich is on the N. side. No water is now procurable here. To the N. 
of the path, opposite the ruin of the Hydreuma, stands a rock of sand- 
stone with numerous graffiti in Greek, Coptic, Arabic, Himyaritic, and 
Siuaitic characters. 

At a di.stance of about 2 hrs. from the Hydreuma the rocks close in 
and form a winding pass or gateway named Mutrak es-Seldvi. On the 
Gehcl Abu Kii'eh ('father of the elbow'), the rock at the entrance to the 
pass, are more graffiti, older than those at Kasr el-Benat; one of them 
contains the name of the religious reformer Amenhotep IV. We now 
approach the fine rocky scenery through which the second part of the 
Ko.ser route leads. In the distance, to the right, rise the S. foot-hills of 
the Ilamdindl Mis., while nearer and in front are the S.W. spurs. Through- 
out the whole of the Nile valley from Cairo toSPhiltc the traveller en- 
counters no such picturesque scenery as he sees in traversing the magni- 
ficent rocky formations of this part of the Egyptian-Aral lian desert. Even 
the imposing granite cliffs of the Shellal islands and the quarries of Assuan 
pale before the rocky mass of the Hamdmdt^ rising to a height of 4200 ft. 
The outliers of the range consist of a yellow sandstone, followed by the 
red 'Nubian' sandstone, resembling that of the Black Forest, while the great 
central mass is composed of granite. 

Beyond the Blutrak es-Selam the hills again diverge. Among them, 
to the N. of the caravan-route, lies a second Roman station, with a filled- 
in well. About 2 hrs. farther on the hills of reddish-yellow sandstone 
give place to loftier and almost black hills of breccia, through the valleys 
of which, now wide and now narrow, the caravan [winds its way. Begin- 

76 Route 6. WADI IIAMAMAT. Eastern Desert. 

niiij; with tlie black uiuundiins and atretcliing among theui fiiralong way 
is the Wadi Hamamat, where the green breccia was quarried in the most 
ancient times. In 1 hr. more we reach the Ilir Ilamdmiit, a well Kii't. in 
diameter, witli a stone coping. Near the well are the remains of a Roman 
wall, and between tlie two are live unlinished sarcophafii. some completely 
shattered. Near the well begins a series of short grafliti, including an 
inscription of Phra em }ieb, a siipcrintemlcnt of labourers, and represent- 
ing Ammon with a ram's head bearing the Atef crown. The cartouche 
of Seti II. is also met with. Aliout 1 lir. farther on are longer inscrip- 
tions. In the first a miner named Art en beiiipe is mentioned and the 

I is gi 

symbol of the crow-bar | is given. The numerous inseripti(ms of the 

old empire f(mnd here, belonging to the 5th, 6th, 11th. 12th, and 13th 
Dynasties, have been published by Lepsins (Part II. of his 'Dcnkmiiler') 
and have recently been completed by W. GoleiiischelT. They begin with 
kings Tetkara-Assa and Unas of the 5th, and Vscrkara and Pepi of the Cth 
Dynasty. The most interesting of all is the inscription of the 8th year of 
Sankh knra, in which a military cxpeditinn from Koptos to Koser is re- 
corded; it fiives the names of the stations, mentions the digging of two 
cisterns, and relates the passage from Tuii (the early name of Koser) to 
the 'Holy Land' (i.e. Arabia). The name of Rohannu also occurs. Among 
the later inscriptions of the 20th Dynasty may be mentioned one of the 
3rd year of Ramses CDcnkmiiler'' of Lepsius, III, 219; transl. in Rrug.sch's 
'History of Kgypt', Kn;;. transl., Vol. 2, pp. 175 ct seq.). We learn from 
this inscription that in the part of this desert named Rohannu 

a special district of the namamat Mts. 


known as /-Vx a/v\/w\ || a^aaaa Pa tu en Oekhen, or the 'Bekhen 

... -I CD _ -- 

Mts.', so called from the Bekhen l<iund there, a dark-green, almost black, 
and exceedingly hard diorite, which was hi{;hly prized by the Efryptian 
sculptors. This region is ligured in the fragments of a map of the tiii'C 
of Ramses II. now preserved in the museum of Turin ; and from it it 
would seem that gold also was prncurcd in the Bekhen Mts. In the treasury 
of the temple of Medinet Habu we find mention made of gold from Kush 

(Ethi'ipia), Teb (Kdfu), Nubit (Ombos) and ^ \\ ^. Ry this last we 

should undoubtedly understand fiold brought by the Koptos trading route, 
but not (.'Old obtained there. The Turin Museum possesses the (ilan of 
another map of a gold-mining region (of the time of Scti I.), tlie frold 
from which seems to have been carried over the caravan-route ending 
opposite JSdfu. The inscriptions in the so-called Temple of Redcsiyeh 
(more properly Wfidi 'Abbas; see p. 253) treat of the water-supply on this 
route to the gold mines. 

In the great in.«cription of Ramses IV. a complete list is given of all 
the higher and lower oflicials, as well as of all the workmen, including 
800 Aperiu (from the desert to the K. of the Delta), who had been sent 
to the quarries by command of the king. The total number amounts to 
S3()8 souls, for whose support commissariat cohimns were constantly 
on the move between Koptos and Bekheu. At line 18 we read: 'Total 83()8. 
Provisions for these were brought <ipon ten waggons, and six yoke of 
oxen were attached to each waggon in going from Kgypt to the Rekhen 
Mts.' — Among the later inscriptions is one of the time of Darius, giving 
the genealogy of 25 architects. Xer.xes and Arta.xerxcs are also mentioned 
in the inscriptions of Persian oflicials. 

Just beyond the quarries the route turns from the N.E. to the S. and 
passes the ruins of el-Faicdk/iir, an old mining site. Those who wish to 
continue their joiirney to the Red Sea have still twf) short days" marches 
ahead of them, the route leading through the M'udi lioxa/a/t io Jiiduli (liir 

Eastern Desert. KOSER. 6. Route. 77 

el-Inglis) and thence through the Wddi Amhagi to Koser or Kosseir, on 
the Arabian Gulf, the Leukos Limen (White Harbour) of the Ptolemies and 
the Tua of the ancient Egyptians. About 4 M. to the N. the scanty remains 
of Old Koser, corresponding to the harbour of Philotera, the ancient Aen- 
num, wiich was named thus in honour of the sister of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus. Koscr is now an unimportant town of about 3000 inhab., with 
a quay, a wooden mole 400 ft. long, two mosques, and several bazaars. 
The small houses are all whitewashed. The only edifices of any size are 
the government buildings erected by Mohammed 'Ali opposite the mole, 
the adjacent customhouse, and a large grain-magazine, also belonging to 
the Egyptian government. 

In going from KosSr towards the Nile the Beduins sometimes prefer 
another and more southerly route than that through the Wadi Hamamat. 
This diverges from the route above described at the Bir el-Inglis in the 
Wddi Bcdah (see above) and leads at lirst through the winding Wddi Kabr 
el-Khddim, afterwards passing the Qebel Nuhds and through the pass of 
litat el-G'kazdl into the Wddi Ghazdl. To the right rise the conical Gehel 
Daghaniyeh and Oebel Moshdghir. We next follow the Wddi Homildah, which 
farther on takes the name of Wddi el-Homr from the fine Gebel Homr^ 
which flanks it on the right. The night is spent at Moilah, a village with 
water and a few huts of the 'Ababdeh. At the Gebel Wdkif we cross the 
Tarik e''da!irdwi, a road running from N. to S., and farther on reach 
Amifrah, with another well and more ''Ababdeh huts. Thence our route 
lies through the Wddi Nilr and the Wddi Kash to the Bir el- If ash , a 
dried-up well, heyond which we pass numerous quarries of green breccia- 
Beyond the passes of M'at el-Khil (sandstone formation) and Bi^at el- 
Ilainrah we reach the Mohwala (see p. 75) of Eds ds/ar, whence we go 
on through the Wddi Mdg/dat to Mobwalat KhCr el-Ghir. Lastly we pro- 
ceed via Guhrat e''Dab'ah to Lakeiah (p. 75), where our route unites with 
the more northerly one already described. 

Caravans on the way from Ko.ser to Esneh take a route still farther 
to the S., via the well of Darfdwi. The N. route from Nukhel to Keneh 
is now seldom used. 

The journey to Berenike, on the Arabian Gulf in 24° N. lat., and to 
the emerald mines '/2° to the K. of it, is seldom undertaken. We may 
start from Keneh or Koptos, diverging at Lakctah from the route to Ko.ser, 
or we may" hegin at a point opposite Edfu (Contra-Apollinopolis) or 
Redi^siyeh (p. 253). On both routes traces of old watering stations are 
discernible. Both Pliny and the Itinerary of Antonine (3rd cent. A.D.) 
give a list of the ancient stations, with their distance from each other 
in Roman miles. The list in the Itinerary is as follows: Phanicon 27, 
Didyme 24, Afrodito 20, Kompasi 22, Jovis 33, Aristonis 25, Phalacro 25, 
Apollono 23, Kahalsi 27, Ksenon Hydreuma 27, Berenike 18 — in all 
271 Roman miles = about 250 English miles. 

Golenischeff took 11 days from KedSsiyeh (p. 253) to Berenike, and 
returned thence to Assuan in 8 days. 1st Day. Bir Abbdd iihra.), in the 
Wddi Midh, an ancient station with quarry-marks like those at el-H6sh, 
near Silsileh (p. 254). — 2nd Day. Temple of Seti I. at RedC-sTyeh (p. 253), 
with rock-inscriptions of the 18-19th Dynasties. —3rd Day. More masons' 
marks discovered. Ancient station of Abu Greiah, with 2 cisterns (not to 
be confounded with the place of the same name near Berenike) .-^4th Day. 
Descent through the Wddi Bezah, with its acacias (selem and seyal, Acacia 
Ehrenbergiana and A. nilotica). From this point a diverging route leads 
direct to 'the emerald mines of the Wadi Zabarah (see helow). We cross 
the Wddi Iligdig. (Jn the rocks to the right are rude representations of 
giraffes, camels, and ibexes. Remains of an ancient station named Samunt, 
with a cistern and chambers, occur in the same Wadi. We next enter 
the broad green Wddi MoHheh, and steer for the Gebel Mugef, near which 
is a spring of excellent water. —5th Day. Through huge granite rocks to 
groups of ten and twenty rude stone huts, probably built by miners. 
View of Gebel Zabarah. On a rock to the right is a view of an Egyptian 
bark, with sails and rudder. Farther on is a ruined station, with the 
remains of a stone hut. Kear this point our route is joined by the route 

78 Roule 0. BERENIKE. Eastern Desrrf. 

from Kuft (Koptos), wliich Col. Colston followed in 18(3. [Hcyond (9 Lrs.) 
Laketah (p. 75), Col. Colston's route led via (G'/a hrs.) Marut, (8 Lrs.) a 
higb-lying well, ed-Dagbatj, two old wells (8'/'.i hrs), Bczah ('2 hrs.), and 
Wddi Ocrf {d^j-i hrs.).] — Cth Day. Ancient station of ed-Duehj, with contre- 
furts, chambers, and a larye cistern, opening on the N.E. Adjacent is 
another smaller building. About 3 hrs. farther on we cross the watershed 
between the Xile and the Red Sea. Two more cisterns. We pass the 
granite hill oi Abu Had. — 7th Day. Descent into the Wddi Oemdl. Station 
in the form of a right-angled triangle. Two round cisterns. Lateral 
valley diverging towards the emerald mines. The mountains (GeOel Abynd) 
now rise to the right, instead of, as previously, to the left. — Sth Day. 
We proceed through the Wiidi Ahijad and the Wddi I/iijelig, leaving the 
Oebel Ilamdta to the right; then along the Wndi Uiiinit. On a height in 
the Wddi Husthi are some curious shckhs' graves, in a circular form. — 
9th Day. Seven other circular tombs; the well of el-JJaratrali lies to the 
right; old structure of a large cistern in the Wddi el-JIaslr. Through the 
Wddi AmrugUin to the Wddi Ldhemi, which descends fr<jm the mountain 
of that name, crosses our route, and proceeds in windings to the iled 
Sea. The last station is Abu - Greiah, comprising several buildings, the 
largest of which, GO paces long and 47 paces wide, contains the remains 
of rooms. Another building seems to have been a reservoir for rain water. 
— 10th Day. .\rrival at the ruins of the old temple of Berenike. 

The town of Berenike (lierenice), situated in the same latitude as 
Assuan, was founded in B.C. 275 by Ptolemy I'hiladelphus, who revived 
the commerce of the Red Sea by the establishment of several new jiorts. 
The town, which was named by Ptolemy after his mother, survived fur 
400 or 500 years. The ruins, still extant, surround the Temple, which 
faces the E.N.E. In front is a fore-court '28'/2 ft. in width and 12 ft. in 
depth, which was adjoined by the temple proper (inner length 31 ft.), 
comprising two rows of apartments. The central apartment, with some- 
what sloping sides, seems to have been the main (jne, as its right and 
left walls and also the outside of the entrance-wall (to the left) bear 
traces of paintings, representing a king sacrilicing to various deities. The 
name of the Kmp. Tiberius, sacrificing to the god Khem, appears here. 
The representation on the left outside-wall shows an emperor (probably 
Hadrian) appearing before a goddess, who seems to be, from the legend, 

the tutelary deity of the green ( ^pN ua/. ) emerald mine. To the left 

("fl "•'■) 

of this main apartment is a covered corridor, with a window, and ad- 
jacent is a staircase leading to the roof. The temple was cleared from 
rubbish in 1.ST3 by Purdy Pasha, an American in the Egyjitian service. 
The Emerald Mines, which were visited last century by liruce (17(58 
-73) and in this century by Cailliaud (1815 18), Hcl/oni, and Bccchcy, 
were worked by the Arabs, according to Makri/.i, down to the year 7G0 of 
the Hegira (1370 A.D.), after which they were abandoned. Mohammed 
'All made an unavailing attempt to reopen them. They lie partly in the 
Wddi Hukel and partly on the Oebel Xabdrah, 14 M. to the N.K. They are 
best visited from Contra .Apollinopolis, but may, like Kerenike, be a))- 
proached by following (be coast of the Arabian (julf from Ko.ser. The 
iirst route diverges from the road to Berenike at I'halacro. Between 
Contra-Kdfu and the mines are three old stations. At the first of these 
is the name of a sun-worsliipi)ing king of the 18th Dynasty. Close to the 
second, 13 hrs. from the Nile, is a temjile hewn in the rock, the Temple, 
of Jtedi'siych (so called alter the place of that name on the Nile; see p. 263), 
which Seti I. dedicated to Ammon. No precious stones are now founil 
ill the emerald mines. To the S. of the Oebel /.tibdrah lies the village of 
,Sttki'l, with the huts of miners and a rock-hewn temple, with a few (j reek 
inscriptions. Among these is a reference to Serapis and the Isis of Senskis. 


7. Lender ah. 

Both the 'Three Weeks' and the 'Four Weeks' Tourist Steamers stop 
at Denderah in ascending the river, the first halting 3 hrs., the second a 
whole day. The mail-steamer also halts here for a few hours in descend- 
ing the river. 

For a visit to the temple the steamboats and dhahahiyehs moor at the 
hank opposite Keneh. The distance to the temple (about 2 M.) is easily 
accomplished in '/.; hr. by the well-equipped donkeys standing in readiness. 
Those who wish to make a prolonged stay may procure the necessary 
conveniences for a night in the temple from the keeper 'AH Effendi, who 
lives in Keneh. The Arabs, however, are afraid of the "afrit' or ghosts. 
The visitor should not fail to be provided with candles or (better still) a 
magnesium lamp for exploring the crypts and other parts of the temple. 

The capital of the 6th nome of Upper Egypt (Aa-ti, 'the district 
of the place of the presentation of gifts') appears in the inscriptions 

under several names. The two most frequent of these are 

iin, 'the town of columns', and the secular name <:^:> Ta-rir 

^^^^^ <cr>® 

or *'°°° ^ ' <r~-> Ta en ta-rir, 'the town of the district enclosed 

by ramparts'. From the latter are derived the Greek Tentyra and 
tlie modern Denderah. 

We follow the bank of the Nile towards the N., through palm- 
tree.s, and then proceed to the W. through well-tilled fields, pass- 
ing (right) a farm-enclosure guarded by yelping dogs; or we may 
ride at once towards theW. in the direction of tlie Gate of Augustus 
[p. 88) and proceed thence to the N., passing a door with unfilled 
cartouciies, to the N. entrance, where the cards of admission (see 
Introd., p.xiv) are shown. The wall enclosing the temple is formed 
of Nile bricks, and there is another entrance on the W. side. The 
total enclosure is 317 yds. long and 306 yds. wide, and besides the 
large temple of Hathor contains a small sanctuary dedicated to Isis 
and a so-called 'birth-house' (see below). The N. door, which is in 
a straight line with the temple, is only 15" to the E. of N. ; but in 
the temple-inscriptions it is always spoken of as the E. entrance, 
while the long sides of the temple are called the N. and S. sides. 
In the following description we follow the true geographical posi- 
tion. The N. gate was built under the Emp. Domitian, who is here 
named Germanicus. On the side next the temple appears the name 
of Nerva Trajanus, also with the epithets of Germanicus and 

From the N. gate a modern brick passage leads to the temple. 
To the left of this passage lies a building deep-sunken in the de- 
bris and wanting its front. Round it ran a colonnade, the capitals 
of which, with the dwarf-like figure of the god Besa, project from 
the sand. The remains include a rather large vestibule (33 ft. by 
I6Y2 ft.), a long central room, two narrow side-rooms, some small 

80 Route 7. DENDERAII. nathor 

chambers, and the fragments of a staircase (to the right). This 
building is dedicated to the birtli of Jlorus, witli whom the son of 
each successive monarch is compared. Similar Birth-Houses (Egypt. 

pa-mes), called byChampollion Mameisi(Copt., 'place of 

birth'), occur in many other Egyptian temples (pp.253, 289, etc.). 
The cartouches of Autokrator Kisres, which llathor presents to Ho- 
rus Sam taui, have been supposed to refer to Augustus ; but the 
fact that the latter had no son makes this very doubtful. The 'birth- 
house' also contains the names of Trajan and Hadrian, to whom it 
probably owes its existence. The paintings represent the care of 
the young Horus, who is nursed ami ministered to by goddesses and 
women witli cows' heads. — We now proceed to the temple, either 
by ascending over the heaps of rubbisli, or by returning to the N. 
gate and walking thence in a straight direction. 

**Temple of Hathor at Denderah. 

This interesting and much-admired building was dedicated to 
Hathor, the Egyptian Venus. The Portico (PI. iC), which is sup- 
ported by 24 columns, is 139 ft. in breadth. Each of the columns 
has a capital formed of four heads of Hatlior, with cows' ears, 
surmounted by a house, in reference to the meaning of Hathor, 
Hut {i.e. house) of Horus. Tlie columns next tlie entrance show 
an open door. The six columns in the front row, three on each 
side of the entrance, are united by balustrades. Tlie rubbisli round 
the temple reaches to the balustrades in front and nearly to the 
roof on the E. side ; hence the floor of the temple appears sunken 
and is reached by a flight of wooden steps. Originally, however, 
the temple stood level with the ground, and its present appear- 
ance, like that of the temples of Esneh andEdfu, is due to the ac- 
cumulated rubbish of centuries. In accordaTice with the plan of 
other temples, a colonnade and a pylon should stand in front of this 
portico; but perhaps the means to add these were not forthcoming. 
The date of the temple is given by a Greek inscription of three 
lines, which runs round the cornice on the exterior of the building 
and reads as follows: 


SEBASTOr. eKor. XEliASTtir. Yior. eiii. ataot. ayia- 

Aior. <I)AAKKot. 


TiiroY. 5:APAiii<>N()i: TPrxAMiidV. i:rPATnn)rNTOx. 

01. AnO. THS. MIITP 




'Under the rule of the iMiip. Tiberius, and under the prefect Aulus 

y a ij ij y y ■' 

Temple. DENDEKAH. 7. Route. 81 

Avilliris Flaccus, tlie governor Aulas Fulvius Crispus. and the dis- 
trict-governor Sarapion Trycliambos, the inhabitants of the capital 
and of the nome dedicated the Pronaos to the great goddess Aphro- 
dite and her fellow-gods, in the twentieth (?) year of the Emp. Ti- 
herius . . . .' An inscription recently found by Diimichen on the 
E. side of the temple informs us that this outer wall of the temple 
was decorated in the second year of the Enip. Tiberius Claudius 
(42 A.D.). There are, however, many representations of the Enip. 
Nero both inside and outside the temple. The crypts of the temple 
date from the reigns of Ptolemy X., Ptolemy XI., and Ptolemy XIII. 
(Sotcr II. ; Ptolemy Alexander ; Neos Dionysos). The inscriptions 
running round the temple refer to Ptolemy XVI. Ci'esarion and the 
Emp. Augustus. On the exterior of the rear-wall of the temple ap- 
pears Ptolemy Kisres, accompanied by Cleopatra VI. and the little 
CiBSarion ; the inscription is Ptulmis, surnamed Kisres. In both 
cases the Csesarion referred to is apparently the son of C;esar and 
Cleopatra. The temple would thus seem to owe its present form to 
the last of the Ptolemies and the first Roman emperors. It is, how- 
ever, obvious that the site was previously occupied by older temple 
buildings , going back to the earliest period of Egyptian history. 
King Pepi of the 6th Dynasty is repeatedly represented in the crypts. 
In one of these crypts (No. 9) the ancient building plan of Den- 
derah is mentioned twice. The first of these mentions occurs in the 
description of an excursion of the goddess to Edfu on the first of 
Epiphi : 'The great building-plan (senti) of Ant (Denderah) was 
fo!ind written in ancient characters on hide, of the time of the suc- 
cessors of Horns. Found in the interior of the wall of the royal 
palace in the time of King Pepi'. Another passage reads: 'The 
great plan of Denderah, a restoration of the monument made by 
King Ramenkheper (Tutmes III.}, after it was found in ancient 
characters of the time of King Khufu'. The priests of Tentyra thus 
ascribed the foundation of their temple to Khufu and Pepi. There 
are, however, stones bearing the names of Amenemha I., Tut- 
mes III., Tutmes IV., Ramses II., and Ramses III., all of whom 
probably either built or restored parts of the old temple. 

If we compare the temple of Denderah with a similar structure 
of the earlier period, such as the temple of Abydos or the great 
national sanctuary ofKarnak, we find it not less beautiful in its 
own way, though of course far from competing with these gigantic 
structures in magnificence or extent. Its chief characteristics are a 
flue symmetry of proportions and dignified adaptation to its pur- 
poses. A happy blending of Egyptian seriousness with Grecian 
grace, Avhich meets us unmistakably at every turn, has a peculiarly 
pleasing eifect, and we feel much more at home in the halls of the 
Hathor of Tentyra than in the great hall of the god of Thebes, with 
its forest of gigantic columns. Neither the figures nor the inscrip- 
tions sculptured on the walls compare in masterly execution with 

Baedekee's Upper Egypt. 6 

82 Roule 7. DENDERAH. Uathor 

those ill tlie tuiubs of tho ancient kingdom or with those peculiar 
to the times of a Seti or a Tutiues ; but we cannot refuse our ad- 
miration even to these products of later Egyptian art. Here and 
there (as in several chambers of the upper story) we meet speci- 
mens of hasty and poor workmanship; but as a rule the sculpture 
of Denderah is pleasing and harmonious in style and executed with 
a care that docs not overlook the smallest detail. The eye is uni- 
formly pleased by the harmony of the whole with its details aud by 
the great variety of composition which manifests itself in spite of 
the prescribed form to which the artist was confined. 

Neither the general architectural scheme of the temple as a whole 
nor the style of the details shows any essential variation from those 
that may be traced in the earlier Egyptian temples. The first 
apartment, here as elsewhere, is a handsome Hypostyle Halt (PI. E), 
open in front, with 24 massive columns supporting the roof (comp. 
p. 93). Next follows a room with six columns (PI. D), with three 
apartments to the left (xviii, xrx, xx) and three to the right 
(xxi, xxir, xxiii), from the last of which (xxiii) a passage leads 
to the festal chambers beside Hall B. The next room (PI. C), 
with no columns, has apartments xvi and xvii on the left. A 
fourth hall (PI. 1>), adjoined on the left by a single apartment 
(xii) and on the right by the suite of three festal chambers (xrii, 
XIV, xv), leads to the Adytum (PI. A) , a long narrow room in 
which the sacred boats were kept. I'rom tho passage (PI. a) which 
encircles the latter, entrances lead into eleven side-chambers (left 
IV, V, VI, VII, III, II, right viir, ix, xi, x), which are grouped 
round the main chamber (PI. I) behind room A. There are also a 
number of secret passages (crypts), constructed in the hollow wall 
of the temple on the E., W., and S. sides. Those passages, which 
arc diflkult of access, are in three stories, one above another (comp. 
p. 96). Finally from the central hall C, doors lead on the right 
and left to the two stairs which ascend to the roof of the temple 
(comp. pp. 91, 97). 

The Egyptians had special naiiies for each hall and side-chamber, 
for each corridor and staircase, for each door and window, in fact 
for each part, great or small, of the more or loss complicated temples. 
In not a few cases these names explain tho use of the different 
rooms; but the only certain information as to the special nature of 
the various apartments is obtained from tho Inscriptions, which 
are arranged as a kind of ornamental border above and below the 
paintings on the wall, much like the borders socwi som(^tiiiios on old- 
fashioned wall-papers. These inscriptions, which are of the greatest 
importance both for tlu^ history of architecture and for the explana- 
tion of tho temple-cult, usually have their contents arranged in the 
same order. The iianio of the king, with all his titles and official 
epithets, is first mentioned, followed by the statement that he built, 
repaired, completed, or adorned such aud sucli a room, or such and 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. Route. 83 

such a staircase, the name of which is in each case given, followed 
by as full a description of the room in question and of what took 
place there, as space will allow. Prof. Diimichen uncovered the 
inscription at the foot of the exterior wall of the temple in 1875 
(p. 97), and found that, as at Edfu, the names and dimensions of 
the chambers lying to the north were inscribed on the N. side, and 
on the S. side those of the chambers lying; to the south. He has 
published the inscription with a translation t. 

In our description, we begin with the Hypostyle Hall or *Khent 
Hall (PI. E). The first large hall of an Egyptian temple frequently 

bore the name fwT\ Khent, i.e. front room, as is the case here, at 

Edfu, at Philae, and elsewhere. It has several other names as well. 
Apparently with reference to the astronomical representations which 
adorn both halves of the ceiling, it Is frequently named in the in- 

scrlptions \, o ll cli <dr> ^Nut usekh ur V i.e. Great Hall of 

o ^^ ^ ^ 
the Goddess Nut, who as the symbol of the vault of heaven was re- 
presented as a tall woman bending her face towards the earth and 
letting her arms hang down f? )\. A colossal representation of this 
figure is met with twice on the ceiling of the hypostyle room at 
Denderah, and it is repeated twice more, in the apartment marked 
XV. on the plan and in the central Osiris-room on the N. side of 
the temple-roof. In the two last instances it occupies the entire 
surface of the ceiling. Astronomical reprMMitations, whether simply 
golden stars scattered promiscuously on a blue ground, or actual 
copies of the constellations as seen at some particular time, have 
been adopted as a suitable ceiling-decoration in nearly every Egyp- 
tian temple and tomb. The two names above given are by far the 
commonest for this first room, but it is also called 'the seat of Osiris, 
Horns, and Isis', and it is named in the inscriptions 'the dwelling 
of Hathor, the house of the sistrum-playing, the house in which the 
tambourine is sounded, the seat of the rapture of joy, the birth- 
place of the celestial goddess Nut'. The hall is 143 ft. broad, 80 ft. 
deep, and about 50 ft. high. 

On festal occasions the imago of the goddess was conveyed in her 
boat to this Hall of Heaven, to meet there the sun-god, her father. 
The decorative designs in this room chiefly consist, after the ancient 
Egyptian custom, of representations of the royal builders of the 
temple. The Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, 
and Nero are in turn depicted, each bearing some dedicatory gift 
for Hathor or some other of the gods worshipped at Denderah. The 
central wall-spaces between the columns to the right and left of the 
main portal are each occupied with four designs, referring to the 

t BaugescMchte des Denderatempels, Strassburg, 1S77. 


84 Route 7. DENDERAH. Hathor 

eutraiico of the lulev into the sanctuary and to the ceremony of 
incense, to which he must submit in the first chamber according to 
the prescribed ritual. In the first we seethe king (Nero) quitting 
his palace, preceded by five banners with sacred figures, while the 
high-priest (named Aiiniut-f) otYers incense before him. In the 
second design, Horus and Thoth sprinkle the king with the symbols 
of life; in the third, the goddesses of the south (Nekhebl and ol' the 
north (Udz) present him witli the white crown and the crown 
'Nefert' ; in the fourth and last, the king is conducted before Hathor 
by the gods Month of Thebes and Tum of lleliopolis. Admission 
into the temple proper was not granted to him until after this cere- 
mony had been gone through, the sacred garment assumed, and the 
purification by incense and holy water completed. The represen- 
tations referring to these, and the explanatory inscriptions, are 
quite in the same manner as thoso wo have already noted in the 
earlier temples of the time of Tutmes and Kamses. 

The sculptured ornamentation on the ceiling, dealing with 
astronomical subjects, is divided into a W. and an E. half. The 
figures in the W. section are turned towards the N. (outside), those o f 
the other to the S. (inside). Each section is di\i(lei.l into tlnec bands, 
most of which consist of two or more rows. The exterior bands of 
each section correspond to each other, as do also the central and 
inner bands. Between the two sections is another band, containing 
10 sun-discs and 11 vultures, explained by Prof. Lauth as referring 
to the '21st year of the reign of Tiberius. — The exterior bands, 
which are embra"WlH^(^aIl figure of the goddess of the heavens, 
contain the twelve si^^of the Zodiac in their upper rows; to the 
right those of the N. sky (lion, serpent instead of the virgin, balances, 
scorpion, archer, goat), to the left or S., those of the S. sky (water- 
carrier, fishes, ram, bull, twins, crab). In this row appear also the 
principal constellations (Orion, Sirius, Sothis) and five planets 
(Saturn, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury). Mingled with the 
other figures are the gods of the twelve hours of night, on the E. side 
in ascending ordiT (1 to XII}, and on tlie W. siile in descending order. 

The second rows of the exterior bands each contain 18 ships, 
with the 'Decani" or presidents of the weeks, mentioned elsewhere 
in other inscriptions. This long series begins in the W. section and 
ends in the E. se(!tion. The second bands, both on the right and left, 
consist of two rows each. At the four ends of the upper rows are the 
four Winds, with expanded wings, which are adjoined on tlie right 
(next the entrani'o) by four figures of gods referring to Ra, aiul on the 
left by four similar figures referring (o Tum, the god of evening. 
Then f(dlow8 a scries of 'Decani', beginning in the \V. and con- 
tinued in the E. section, consisting of the above-mentioned thirty- 
six 'Decani' arranged in twelve groups of three, each conducted by 
a president usually in the form of a serpent. The lower rows of the 
central bands contain, on the right (W.) the twelve hours of the 



7. Roule. 85 

night, on the left (N.) the twelve hours of the day, each with their 
eponymous divinities. 

The interior band on the W. side exhihits three designs re- 
ferring to the moon, which is here represented as ^^^ 'uza', eye. 
In the first are the 14 days of the waning moon, In the second the 
14 days of the waxing moon, represented by 14 divinities ascending 
a flight of steps, while the victorious Thoth appears as a fifteenth 
divinity beyond the moon-disc. Finally appears (Jsiris as the moon- 
god, seated with Isis and Nephthys in a boat, floating above the 
symbol of the sky \, o, which is supported by four female forms. — 
In the E. section the interior band exhibits the course of the sun- 
disc tlirough the 12 hours of the day, represented by 12 boats. In 
each disc appears the figure of the divinity to which the particular 
hour was sacred. 

On the W. side of the hall, between the second and third row 
of columns (to the right of the entrance), and on the E. side be- 
tween the third and fourth row (on the left) are Side-Entrances, 
through which the sacrificial olTerings used to be brought into the 
hall (com. p. 88). 

Of the three Prosekos Halls which we next enter, by far the 
largest is the hexastyle first hall, the ■ — 

Hall of the Appearance (PI. D), called in the inscriptions uselch 
kha or Hall of the Appearance, and 'Hall of the Appearance of Her 

Higliness", i.e. Ilathor, tlie golden-rayed.^^ 


inscription at the foot of the external ^il 
gives the measurement of this hall as 26 ells 
square, which closely coincides with its actual 
size, 4572^'- square. On festal days the image 
of tlie mighty sun-goddess was carried in so- 
lemn procession from its place iii the holy of 
holies, and was not seen by the multitude as- 
sembled in flie vestibule until it reached this 
hall, when the lofty double doors were thrown 
open. Hence probably the name of the haU. 
It is a remarkable fact that except in the 
Kheiit Hall, the secret passages, and Room xx 
(p. iSS) , the cartouches of the kings in all 
the interior rooms of the temple remain 
empty. In Room xx the accompanying royal 
cartouches are found : 'Lord of the rulers, 
chosen by Ptah', and 'Kaisaros, ever-living, 
beloved by Ptah and Isis'. The latter, which 
is also found on the exterior W. wall of the 
temple, probably refers to Augustus, though the same designation 
was also used for Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. On the E. exter- 
nal wall of the temple at Denderah and in the temple of Isis at Phi- 

86 Route 7. PENDERATT. Hathor 

lae , Augustus is constantly uulicated by tlie acfompanying car- 
touches ^Autokralnr Kisres'. The temple was probably built in the 
unsettled times of the later Ptolemies, and the priests were there- 
fore left in doubt whether to All in the cartouches with the name of 
Ptolemy or of Augustus. 

The representations on the walls and columns, many of which 
well deserve special attention, exhibit here also the Egyptian ruler 
worshipping llathor or some other of the divinities revered in her 
temple. They illustrate several most remarkable ceremonies, which 
the king performed according to the prescribed ritual in presence of 
the images of the gods in the temple. We have seen reason to be- 
lieve that the sculptured decorations of all the temple-chambers 
were executed about the end of tlie period of the Ptolemies and the 
beginning of the Roman empire. (The scTilptures in some of the 
chambers in the sunk-floor and in several of the higher secret pas- 
sages, date from the reigns of Ptolemies X., XI., and XIII. ) Yet in 
spite of that, the entire adornment on the wallsis arranged according 
to early Egyptian patterns ; so that the ceremonies here depicted 
were not first introduced under the empire, and probably no Roman 
emperor ever took part in these ceremonies in this temple of Hathor. 
The walls of the temple at Denderah exhibit exclusively Early Egrjp- 
tian Manners and Customs. What we here learn are the ceremonies 
imposed by the priesthood on the early Egyptian monarch who de- 
sired to worship the goddess. Thus in a representation to the right 
of tl>c entrance the kii^ appears twice over in the same design. 
First we see him, clad in a long robe and carrying a staff, entering 
the hall, preceded by the priest weariiig the panther-skin and 
sprinkling incense on the burning censer. Next we see him stand- 
ing before the image of Hathor, his robe laid aside; bending for- 
ward he goes through the motion of cleaving the earth witli the 
short hand-plough in his hand , because it was an immemorial 
custom that the Egyptian king should turn the first sod on the site 
of a temple. (In the explanatory inscription here, as elsewhere, 
this ceremony is nanioil '6ai ta\ cleaving of the ground.) The king 
also smote tlie first blow with the hammer at the laying of the foun- 
dation-stone, and shaped the first brick for the enclosing walls, 
which were usually built of unburned bricks of Nile-mud dried in 
the sun. All these ceremonies performed hy early Egyptian monar<'hs 
at the foundation of a temple, are here faithfully recorded according 
to early models, both in visible shape and by explanatory in- 
scriptions. They are also recorded in the lowest of the four rows 
on tlie W. and E. exterior walls of the temple. In the temple of 
Horus at Edfu the king is represented performing similar cere- 

Another picture, also referring to the founding of a temple, 
appears on tlie immediatily adjoining wall. Here the king once 
more appears liefore Hatlior. licaring in his band the building-tool 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. linute. 87 

khus. The ceremony is named in the inscription ^the Building 

of the Temple^ ; and the words placed in the mouth of the king and 
arranged above the Khus run: 'I have built the monument, the great 
one, as a perfect building to all eternity'. The ceremony represented 
in the following design also refers to the building of the temple. 
The king, kneeling before Hathor, is shown shaping the flrst burned 
brick for the girdle-wall of the temple. As has already been men- 
tioned in the description of the cult of Hathor, that goddess is fre- 
quently extolled in the inscriptions at Denderah as the goddess of 
joy, at whose festival wine flowed freely and the air was fragrant 
with incense and aU the perfumes of Arabia. Thus, as the inscrip- 
tions here inform us, the king mingles grains of incense and wine 
with the material out of which he moulds the brick. On both sides 
of the portal admitting to the hall are two long inscriptions, each 
consisting of 14 vertical lines, and containing a list of all the names 
under which the great Hathor was worshipped at Denderah and else- 
where in Egypt. This is followed by a list of the chief gods and 
divine geniuses, those of the temple at Edfu being named in great- 
est detail ; and finally comes a list of the sacred serpents of Denderah, 
which were probably not kept in the temple itself, but in the ad- 
joining sacred groves. 

We now enter the Side Chambers, of which there are three on 
each side. All are of the same size, defined in the inscription on the 
E. external wall as 11 1/3 ells long and 61/2 ells broad. The flrst 

on the left side fPl. xviii) was called ^ Ast.t, or in the fuller 

form (shown e.g. on one of the staircase-walls) U 7 ^ ^ c^ 

Asi.t. The inscriptions here clearly indicate that the incense, so 
lavishly used at the sacred festivals, was compounded in this room 
according to strictly observed recipes in which all kinds of sweet- 
smelling ingredients were employed ; and that the holy oils and 
ointments for the various ceremonies were also here prepared. We 
may therefore name this apartment the Temple Laboratory. + All the 
designs and inscriptions on the four walls of this apartment refer to 
the incense prepared and preserved here ; to the oils and ointments 
used in the temple services ; and to the various ingredients of which 
they were composed. Two seven-lined vertical inscriptions on the 
two parts of the entrance-wall contain what is to a certain extent a 
summarized description of the representations on the adjoining walls 
to the right and left. On each wall are two representations, i.e. four 

r 1^ 

t Chemistry derives its name from the land of Ahem , called 

f © 

•black land' from the dark colour of its soil. 

88 Jioute 7. PENDERAIT. Hathor 

in all. They exhibit the royal builder of the laboratory worshipping 
before Hathor, Isis, Hathor with theHonis ofEdfu, and Isis with Ho- 
rns Samtaui. In two of tlie designs the king is accompanied by one of 
the lords of the laboratory, once with the divine Master of Anointing 

Mazet, once with Horus, the lord of the labo- 

ratory \^ ci , ill the other two, by a goddess and two ram's- 

headed divinities, who also stand in some relation to the work of the 
laboratory. 15oth the king and his companions offer some of the 
costly perfumes of the laboratory to the gods above named. 

The room next the laboratory (PI. xix) is namod in the inscrip- 

tions here found simply Sahi, whii-h means 'assembly- 

room', 'room', 'hall', 'apartment'. An indication as to its former use 
is afforded by the representations on the walls, which depict the 
king offering the flrst fruits of the fields, plants, flowers, and fruits, 
to Hathor and her fellow-divinities. Several times in the accom- 
panying inscriptions Hathor is extolled as 'she who produces all 
things', 'the nourishment-giving', 'she who provides food and drink, 
from whom everything comes tliat heaven bestows or the earth 
brings forth'. From these representations and inscriptions it may 
safely be concluded that this room was specially dedicated to the 
great Hathor as the deity who bestowed life and created and pre- 
served all things, and that the offerings intended for Hatlior were 
placed here on her festal day. 

The next room fPl. xx) is called in the inscriptions „ 

Her-iib, i.e. 'the inner central room', or the Middle Room, probably 
because it lay between Hall D and the E. side-entrance of the 
temple, whi(-h opened into this room (comp. p. )^9, Room xxii, on 
the opposite side). From the inscriptions we learn that it was used 
for the reception of the offerings which were brought into the 
temple by the side-entrance. It has been mentioned above (p. 
85) that in a representation in this room (beside the door of exit) 
the royal cartouches above the monarch worshipping Hathor have 
been filled in with the official name of Augustus, whereas elsewhere 
the cartouches are left vacant. 

On the opposite (W.) side of tlie liall are the side-chambers 
XXI, XXII, and XXIII. The last two appear from their representations 
and inscriptions to have been used for precisely the same parposes 
as th(! corresponding chambers on tljp E. side. 'J'he flrst (I'l. xxi), 
ho\vev(;r, to the right of the entrance, is shown by its adornment 
and its inscriptions to have been one of the two treasuries of the 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. Route. 89 

temple. It bears the name Of -i i.e. Silver Room, and its re- 

^ An 

presentations and inscriptions reter almost exclusively to the pre- 
cious metals and precious stones, or to various kinds of ornaments 
for the divine images or other costly temple-iitensils made of the 
precious materials deposited here. In the doorway the monarch is 
represented in the act of entering, and presenting to Hathor a 
jewel-casket, which a hieroglyphic inscription at the monarch's feet 
states to contain gold, silver, lapis- lazuli, and malachite. The 
goddess thanks the prince for his offering, with the words: 'I bestow 
upon thee the mountains to produce for thee stones to be a delight 
for all to see'. 

The Marginal Inscriptions afford farther information as to the former 
use of this room. The lower marginal inscription, in the half running 
from right to left, is as follows: 'He has built the Silver Chamber for 
the golden one, as a building for eternity, he has adorned it wilh a mul- 
titude of stones, with all the wonderful gems of the mountains, so as to 
use them for all manner of work in the temple of Denderah\ In the 
other half the inscription reads: 'He has built the lordly abode for the 
Hathor of Tentyris, as a noble monument for eternity. He has furnished 
it with precious stones and all the products of the mountains, so as to 
use them for all manner of work in the Gold Chamber. These were re- 
quired to make of them the furnishing there, according to the sacred 
precepts for the execution of the work for the Thrice a day (i.e. for the 
sacrilicial ceremonies that took place thrice a day). All the noticeable 
gems are placed in its interior as the threefold beautiful, on both sides 
of the Princess's silver-chamber, which is furnished with its requirements, 
according to the precepts of the ancients referring thereto'. The room 
here and elsewhere named the Gold Chamber is in the central story of 
the temple, and is entered from the W. staircase. In this room, if we 
have interpreted the inscriptions aright, were made all kinds of statuettes, 
necklaces and bracelets for the sacred images, amulets, and other precious 
articles used in the temple-services, by goldsmiths working according to 
strictly prescribed rules and under the immediate control of the high 
priests. Possibly, however, such articles were only repaired here. 

The lower part of the wall of the silver .chamber is decorated 
with a representation of considerable geographical importance. At 
the farther end, on the wall to the right of the entrance, appears 
the emperor offering 'a golden necklace set with precious stones' to 
Isis, who is accompanied by Horus, and on the opposite wall the 
emperor again appears with a similar ornament before Hathor and 
the sun-god Horus-Samtaui. In each case the monarch is followed 
by thirteen men carrying offerings, all of whom are typical repre- 
sentatives of foreign tribes, some from the mountain-districts of 
Upper and Lower Nubia, some from the districts lying to the E. 
and W. of the Nile valley. The name of the home of each is in- 
scribed over his head, and over the casket or vase which each bears 
in his hands appears the name of its contents, among which are 
silver, gold, electrum, malachite, lapis-lazuli, mineral dye-stuffs, 
and other precious products of the mineral kingdom. 

The second room on the right or W. (PI. xxii) shares with 
Room XX fp. 88) the name Middle Room., because it has two en- 

90 Route 7. DENDERATI. Hathor 

trances, one from Hall D, the other from without. A(:cor(liiig to 
tlie exterior marginal inscription this was the room set apart for the 
libations, and tlie door from the outside is named in an inscription 
on its exterior, 'the portal for the entrance of the priest of the 
libations, with the ewer for the Mistress of the gods'. This room 
also has an interesting geographical representation on the lower 
part of the wall, in wliidi seven water-districts of Lower Kgypt, 
conducted by the ruler of Lower Esypt, are seen approaching Hathor 
and Ilorus. — The third room (I'l. xxiii) on this side Is named in 
the marginal inscriptions 'the room for the Mistress in the town 
of the House of Hathor', 'the room of the hall that lies behind the 
hall of the altar', and 'the divine hall of the Golden One, the 
daughter of the sun, (lying) on the left side, where the left stair- 
case ( is situated)'. The chief exit from this room leads into Hall I), 
while another smaller door (to the left of the entrance) admits to 
a narrow passage communicating at one end with the Hall of the 
Altar (PI. (!), and at the other with thii Staircase (p. 91) leading 
licuce to the roof. Farther on this passage leads to the 'Chief Festal 
Koom' (I'l. XIII ; comp. p. 94). Mariette included Room xxrii in 
the suite of festal chambers, because it has direct communication 
with the festal Hall xiii and Rooms xiv and xv lying behind the 

Proceeding now in our course through the temple of Hathor, 
we next enter the central Prosekos Hall, or Hall of the Altar (PL C) 

^ D©D 
as it is termed in the inscriptions || oTl b^ . It is about 

ILjH^ D X 

4.0 ft. wide and 18 ft. deep. The E. inscription on the external 
tumple-wall states that the ceremonies of the 'offering of the divine 
tilings' (sacrifices) were carved in this room, along with the gods of 
the sacrilli-ial altar; and the W. inscription names it the 'resting- 
place of the Mistress of the Goddesses'. The inscriptions on the 
upper and lower margins afford additional information as to the 
orginal purpose of the room, its decorations, and the festivals cele- 
brated within it. The upper inscription, in the half running from 
right to left, is as follows: 'He has built the Hall of the Altar for 
tlie Prim-ess adorned with the vulture and the Urseus-crown, the 
wise goddess. It resembles heaven, with its lord the sun-god. He 
has richly loaded the altar for the revered goddess within it. — The 
gods arc carveil within it, as is seemly; the sacred offerings are 
laid at tlie foot of her throne with the ceremonies appropriate to 
tiic cult of Hathor. The names of the gods and the names of tho 
plare are inscribed on one of the walls in it, and tlie serpent-deities 
(if Denderah are likewisi' recounted within it'. The last sentence 
refers to a list beside the door to the side-room xviii, which re- 
counts the names of the temple of Denderah and its cliief rooms, the 
deities worshipped thc^re alonj: witli Hiithor. and the titles of the 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. Rotite. 91 

priests and priestesses ; details by name the sacred ponds, groves, 
trees and serpents of tlie temple-enclosure, and the sacred hoats of 
Hathor used at the festivals ; mentions the day of the chief festival 
at Denderah ; and concludes with the name of the temple-domains 
and that of the territory behind it in the nome of Tentyris. The 
representations on the walls correspond to the marginal inscriptions. 
Thus over the portal by which we enter is a double representation 
of the ruler of Egypt. In one case he stands before the altar of 
Hathor, in the other before that of Isis, performing the ceremonies 
of offering incense and libation. This he does in his capacity as 
chief pontiff, as the accompanying inscription implies: 'The sun, 
the son of the sun (the emperor Augustus), as priest of the incense 
('lord at the seat of fragrance'), offering incense to his mother, and 
as priest of the libations, holding the vessel of libation'. The rear- 
wall opposite bears several representations of the monarch express- 
ing his homage in offerings to Hathor, who is accompanied by Horus 
or her son Ahi. 

The first side-door, to the left of the entrance to Hall 0, admits 

us to a narrow Ante-room (PI. xvii), named 

Staircase-Room, in the inscriptions. At the farther end are four 
steps, beyond which a door, opening on the right, leads into the 
large Hall, whence an easy stone staircase ascends 
straight to the roof. This hall is in complete darkness as it is 
roofed over and admits no light from the sides. Another ascent to 
the roof is found on the opposite or W. side of Hall 0, reached by 
a door to the right of the entrance to that room, and also by a 
smaller approach from Room xxiii (comp. p. 90). This second 
ascent is not by a straight and dark flight of steps, but by a kind 
of spiral staircase, with ten rectangular bends to the right, lighted 
by means of openings piercing the wall diagonally and widening 
towards the interior. The representations and inscriptions in the 
ante-rooms to the right and left and on the walls of both staircases 
refer exclusively to the entrance to the halls and the ascent of the 
staircases on the Great Neui Year's Festival. On that occasion the 
ceremonial procession of the priests with the images of Hathor and 
her fellow-gods, after completing the circuit of the lower rooms, 
ascended to the roof of the temple, in order that 'the goddess Ha- 
thor might be united with the beams of her father Ra, on this noble 
day, the festival day of the beginning of the year'. 

The most comprehensive idea of the festival is given by the 
representations on tlie two walls (each about llo ft. long) of the 
straight East Staircase, which begins from Room xvii. The left wall 
presents us with a view of the procession ascending from the lower 
rooms of the temple, so that it is advisable to begin our inspection at 
the top of the staircase. An explanatory inscription of 13 lines 
closes with the following words : 'She comes at her beautiful festival, 

92 Route i: DENDERAH. Haihor 

the festival of the beginning of the year, that her spirit may unite in 
the heavens with her father (the sun-god Ra). The goddesses are fes- 
tive, the goddesses are joyful, when the right eye unites with the left 
eye. She rests on her throne in the place for heholding the sun" s 
disc, when the bright one unites with the bright one. Her cycle 
of gods is at her right hand and at her left; slie protects her be- 
loved son, the sun (i.e. not the sun-god but his earthly represen- 
tative, the reigning king of Upper and Lower Egypt/. The above- 
mentioned union of the right eye with the left eye, \.t. of the sun 
with the moon, at which the New Years festival at Denderah took 
place, is one of the astronomical epochs of the calendar veiled 
in mythological language by the Egyptian priests. We next dis- 
cern upon poles the images of a jackal and of an ibis, the sym- 
bols of Anubis as guide of the dead and of the god Thoth, which are 
described in an eight-lined vertical inscription , after which the 
explanatory inscription is closed by live more lines, as follows: 
'0 Hathor, thou ascendest the staircase in the town of tlie double- 
sweet life, in order to gaze upon thy father on the day oftlie New 
Year's festival. Thou betakest thyself to the roof of thy temple in 
company with thy cyrle of gods. The Bukenkenu of Denderah are 
before thee , to avert liarm from thy path , to purify thy way, to 
cleanse thy road from evil , at the double union in the sun's room 
on thy temple-roof, whose doors are opened to thee. Thou takest 
thy place on thy throne opposite the sun-god with his beams, at 
thy sides thy terrible attendant spirits on the seats of Hathor's Out- 
look on the Sun's Disc (a name of the temple of Denderah). An- 
cestral mother of the gods, thou unitest thyself with tliy father Ra 
in thy festal chamber {i.e. probably the small kiosque-like pavilion 
on the roof of the tcmplej". The above-mentioned Hukcnkenu 
were images borne upon poles — small figures of gods and !.;od- 
desses, sacred animals, and other symbolical objects — which wore 
carried in front of solemn proi;essioiis. Then follow representations 
of the persons t;iking part in the procession ; the king and queen 
of Egypt, and priests and priestesses, some carrying the Piukenkenu 
(thirteen in number) or liolding the prescribcil offerings in their 
hands, and some personating different gods and goddesses, and wear- 
ing masks representing lions, bulls, oxen, etc. Anions the latter may 
be pointed out the lion-headed person (No. 16 in order), walking 
behind the chief master of ceremonies who is chanting a hymn en- 
graved on the tablet in his hand; the priestess (No. 24), bearing 
a cow's head as representing the milk -yielding Isis-cow, 'who 
nourislies the mothers with what comes from her breasts'; and the 
two priests (Nos. 2S, 29) with bulls' heads, representing Apis and 
Mnevis, the two sa<'red bulls of Memphis .nnd Uoliopolis. Tlie rear 
of the procession is brought up by men bearing tlie sacred shrines 
with the divine images. Eirst comes the shrine with the chief image 
at Denderah, that of the goddess Hathor, then tlie ten shrines of her 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. Route. 93 

fellow-gods, among whom were three other images of Hathor, four of 
Uorus, aud one each of Ahi, Osiris, and Isis. 

The Second Side -Boom (PI. xvi) on the left side of Hall C, is 

named in the inscriptions If 1 iT^ll ■Olail' n|jg ante- 

y II II CT^^^ty llo D Li 
chamber belonging to the Hall of the Altar' ; while in the exterior 

marginal inscriptions it is called j | -^ Seh tua, interpreted by 

Diimichen as Room of Purification. It was probably used in the 
preparations for the festival cerenioines that took place in the ad- 
joining Hall of the Altar; and among its inscriptions in honour 
of Hathor is one that seems to indicate that the temple at Denderah 
is to be regarded as a replica of a celebrated temple of the sun-god 
of Heliopolis, of which however no trace now remains. Here a 
reference is made to the gilding and painting of the sculptured or- 
namentation, which are so often mentioned in the inscriptions. 
A careful examination of the walls in some of the rooms will still 
detect traces here and there of this painting. 

We now pass through the central portal in the rear-wall of Hall 
C, and enter the last of the Prosekos Halls. This is the Hall of the 

Cycle of Gods (PI. B), named in the inscriptions | ^ vSt ' 

L'sekli pnut neteru, or ij "ole ^ Hir ab, i.e. Middlle Hall. 

The whole of the sculptures aud inscriptions in this room refer to 
Hathor in her capacity as goddess of light, who has her seat in the 
sun's disc rising from the horizon, and who was as such represented 
under the figure of an hawk with a woman's head in the middle of 
the disc rising on the sun-mountain. (With this we may compare 
tiie representation of the goddess above the central portal in the 
rear-wall, i.e. above the entrance to the Adytum A.) 

The adjoining room to the left (PI. xii) is named in the in- 
scriptions I Q i.e. the CLoth Room or Wardrobe. It was the 

repository for the sacred wreaths and garments, with which the 
images of Hathor and her fellow-gods were adorned at the festivals 
celebrated in the temple and sometimes at the great new year's 
festival. According to the sculptures and inscriptions the prepared 
perfumes were also placed here. One half of the room was devoted 
to the garments, the other to the sacred perfumes. Over the latter 
presided the divine Mazet, previously mentioned among the man- 
agers of the manufacture of the incense and anointing oil as one of 
the lords of the laboratory (p. 88); over the former Uathotep, god 
of woven fabrics, with his companion the goddess Tai, held sway. 
The sculptured ornamentation on the walls is also arranged iu har- 
mony with this division of the room. 

94 Route?. DENDERAH. Hatlwr 

The opposite siile-door on the right side of the hall, leads to 
three connected Rooms (PI. xiii, xiv, and xv), which to a certain 
extent form a special enclosed sanctuary, within the large temple. 
Wc sec here (1) the small temple (PI. xv), open in front and some- 
what higher than tlic two preceding rooms, and entered hy a portal 
between two llathor columns, approached by seven steps; (2j the 
unroofed fore-court (PI. xiv) ; and (3) the small ante-room ( PI. xiii), 
forming a connecting link between the staircase and Room xxiii as 

J ^ "^ZEP 
well as between Halls C and B. The name n _ i.e. 

U CT^® D 
Chief Festal Chamber, is occasionally bestowed upon all three rooms 
in the inscriptions, both on account of the preparations here made 
for the chief festival at Denderah, the great new year's festival on the 
morning ofThoth 1st, and on account of the preliminary celebration 
before this festival, which was also conducted in this suite of rooms 
with great splendour by the priests of llathor, 'on the day of the 

Night of the Child in his Cradle'( ITl T ^=^ S) T 

the 4th Epagomene or Intercalated day, on the night of which the 
closing festival of the Egyptian year began. Most of the represen- 
tations and inscriptions refer to these festivals. Resides this common 
name each of the three apartments had a special name. No. xv was 

called fi [1 [\ j.e.'Roomof the Bright Light', after the large and 

beautiful painting on thereof. As on the two halves of the ceiling of 
Hall E (p. 83), the heavenly vault is here personitied as a woman 
with pendent arms, the 'celestial Nut, the bearer of the light-beam'. 
She is here depicted with the sun rising from her lap, its beams co- 
vering the sun-mountain placed in the centre and siirruunding with 
their splendour the head of Hathor, which is represented with 
radiating tresses as resting upon the sun-mountain. 

The entrance -chamber adjoinina; Ihe uncovered fore -court 
(PI. xiv), and affording also comuiunication with the AV. staircase 
(p. 91), is indicated by its sculptured ornamentation as a second 

treasure- chamber. Like Room xxi (p. 88) it was named 

^ A ^ n 

i.e. Silver Chamber; and it was also called the 'store-room'. 

We now return to Hall R in order to visit thence the innermost 
part of the temple, 'the hidden secret chambers', as they are called 
in the inscriptions, the rooms of the Sekus. These consist of the 
Adytum, or JIolij of Holies^ occupying the centre, and the 11 side- 
rooms around it, i to vi on the right, viii to xi on the left. The 
entrances to these are from the corridor a, which surrounds the 
Adytum on three sides and is reached from llallR by the two doors 
on till! right and li ft. 

The Holy of Holies was the central hall A, which was named 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. Route. 95 

^. v-> . , the 'Dwelling of the golden one', or the 'Chamber of the 

golden-beaming one' — 'of the noble — of the beautiful — of the 
goddess', also 'the room of the great throne' — 'the repository of 
the sacred boat', the 'sanctuary' + . Here the lord of Egypt alone 
is depicted. He, the living type of the beautiful Horus, the son of 
the sun, the child of Hathor (as the Pharaoh is frequently named 
in this temple of Hathor), the visible representative of the deity, 
ami as ruler of Egypt the incorporation of all the temporal interests 
of the state, he it was alone, to judge from the representations and 
inscriptions, whose sacred person might enter the holy of holies and 
in solitude commune with the deity. Only once a year was this 
permitted even to him, at the great festival of the New Year. We 
here see the monarch opening the door of the sacred cella, closed 
with a sealed band of hyblos. He breaks the seal and removes the 
strip of byblos (sesh tebtu and seker atera), he places his hands in 
the two rings on the door and thrusts back the bolts, ascends the 
steps leading to the cella, and finally gazes upon the hidden figure 
of the goddess, and offers his homage. Other designs exhibit the 
monarch performing the prescribed ceremonies of offering incense 
before the two sacred boats of Hathor and her companion, Horus of 
Edfu, and before the boats of Isis and her companion Osiris. The 
portable boats [Tes-nefru, i.e. 'the bearers of beauties'), which are 
here depicted on the side-walls, formerly stood in Room A, and 
held the shrines in which were the sacred images of the deities. 
The shrines were carried in solemn processions by the priests, 
sometimes without the boats, as e.g. at the new year's festival re- 
presented on the staircase (p. 91), and sometimes standing in the 

The Side-rooms of the Adytum are, as mentioned above, eiitered 
from corridor a. Behind the Adytum, to the S., lies No. 1, the 
Large Chamber, the largest and most sacred of these side-rooms. 
The sanctity of this chamber is evidenced by the painting, in which 
the king is portrayed exactly as in the Adytum itself, ascending the 
steps to the shrine of Hathor, breaking the seal, and opeiiing the 
doors, grasping the handles in his hands. Noteworthy also are the 
representations of the king offering vases of wine to Hathor and 
to Ahi, her son, in each case followed by a liarp-playing goddess of 
the north and of the south. Two other pictures represent Fepi, the 
original builder of the temple (p. 81), kneeling before Hathor, 
bearing Ahi in his hands, and the later builder with a mirror before 
the goddess in a double shrine. The inscriptions give the dimen- 
sions of these images and state that they were made of gold, so that 

+ Mariette recognises only a st<irc-room in this Hall A, and places 
the Adytum proper in Room I behind Hall A {Dendivah , Description 
Oinirale, p. l48). 

9G Route 7. DENDERAH. Hathor 

tliey weri; iiioliably preserved in this room or its recesses. The 
room is also named tlie Chief Ayartment ;iiid tha DwelUny of Hathor. 
— lioom II is (■ailed the Vase Room. The ■wall-sculptures shew 
the king offering vases to the goddess. — Room iii is the Sisirum 
Room, with corresponding representations. — Room iv (imme- 
diately to the left of the entrance to the corridor a) is the Room 
of the Restoration of the Body. — Ivoom v is named the Birth- 
place ( meshlonj. Here Isis was brought to bed in the form of a 
black and red woman. A largt^ representation shows Thoth and 
Khnum, and the king and queen before Isis and Nephthys. — 
Room ■yi was the Solair Room, in which Osiris-Sokar renewed his 
limbs. The adjoining Room vii also belonged to the worship of 
Osiris. It is named Sam taut, 'union of the two lands', because, 
according to an iTiscription 'the rays of his son unite in it with his 
body at the noble new years festival'. 

Ixoom vni, on the right side of the Adytum, -was called the 
(Jhamher of Flames. Hathor is here represented as the goddess 
Sekhet, who exterminates evil with fire. — Room ix is the Throne- 
room of Ra. Here the monardi before Horns transfixes the crocodile 
with Ills lance, symbolizing the slaying of his enemies. — The lirst 
door on the right side of corridor a admits to Room x, named after 
its sculptures the Room of AM (son of Hathor), but also Room of 
Purifying. ■ — Room xi adjoining is the Room of the Mena Necklace. 
A design in the doorway shows the king presenting the necklace 
to Hathor. 

We have now concluded the survey of the apartments on this 
floor. Refore ascending to the roof of the temple, we should visit 
two of the subterranean chambers which claim attention not only 
for their remarkable construction but also for the fresh tints of their 

The temple at Denderah contains, no fewer than 12 Crypts (or 
14 if we reckon separately the parts of those that are diviiled), 
constructed in the thickness of the temple-walls, and lying both 
above and below the level of the temple-tloor, some isolated, others 
in two or three stories. The walls of these are no less richly adorned 
with sc/ulpture than the rooms we have already inspected. They were 
doubtless used for storing the precious articles and imag(\s required 
for the temple -services. Their decorations date from the reign of 
Ptolemy XIII. A\iletes (.Sl-a'i R.O.), ami arc therefore older than 
the decorations of the temple proper, which were linished under the 
Roman emperors from Augustus to Nero. The arrangement and 
entrances of these passages in the difTcrcnt stories are shown in the 
small Plans ii, in, and iv. Some are approached by narrow (lights 
of steps descending from the temple-paveim^nt and formerly con- 
ccale<l by movable stone-slabs; others we enter by climbing or 
creeping through very narrow openings, sometimes low down, s(ime- 
times high up close to the roof, but always in the inner wall of the 






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Mi i 

J^J L....J 






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K A 


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Q a u 

n n n 

Temple. DENDERAH. 7. Route. 97 

corresponding temple room. Six of the twelve crypts are beneath 
the ground-level, and of these two are in the first hypostyle hall E 
(Nos. 11 and 12 In PL ii). The entrance to crypt No. 10 is in 
Roomxxin, adjoining Hall D. Of the remaining three subterranean 
crypts (Nos. 1, 4, 7), the lirst is only accessible by a flight of steps 
descending from crypt No. 2, whii'h lies above it and is entered by 
an opening in the wall of Room vii. The discomforts of the climb 
are compensated in this case by the sight of two crypts, the lower 
one, the largest of all, consisting of 7 chambers, and the upper one 
adorned with representations and inscriptions in unusually good 
preservation. No. 4, entered from Room viii, and No. 7, from 
Room XIV, are closed with doors, which tlie temple-keeper will open 
on request. Good stone stairs lead to both, and no visitor should 
fail to visit at least these two crypts. Magnesium wire or a lamp 
will be found useful In examining the painted walls. On the stair- 
case leading to No. 4 occurs a mention of a festival celebrated on the 
4th Epagomone day, and within the crypt is a painting of king 
Pepi, kneeling and offering a golden statue of Ahi. All these 
statues, whose dimensions are given, were probably kept in the 
crypts. Still more important are the inscriptions in crypt No. 9 
(mentioned on p. 81), which is entered by a very narrow hole high 
up in Room x. The calendar-dates of festivals instituted by Tut- 
mes III. (1700 B.C.) are here found. Mention is also made of the 
fact that the ancient plan of the temple under Cheops was re-dis- 
covered in the reign of King Pepi (6th Dyn.). 

We now ascend one of the staircases mentioned on p. 91 to 
the Temple Roof. Caution must be observed on account of the holes 
made in the roof to admit light and air to the rooms below. At the 
S.W. angle of the roof stands a small open pavilion, supported by 
12 columns, which played an important part during the solemn 
procession at the festival of the new year (p. 91). We pass through 
this pavilion in passing from the E. staircase to the W. chambers. 
The W. staircase, which ascends in successive fliglits, leads past a 
room in the middle story, probably used as a workshop for restoring 
and repairing the statues and utensils of the temple. Six chambers 
on the roof, three on the W. and three on the E., the first in each 
case being unroofed, were used in the worship of the slain and risen 
Osiris, as curious representations indicate. The second room on 
the E. side formerly contained the famous Zodiac of Denderah, now 
in the lUbliotheque Nationale at Paris. 

Finally a walk round the outside of the temple will be found 
interesting. The Inscriptions, so frequently referred lo above, wliich 
contain the names and dimensions of the various apartments of tlie 
temple, were laid bare by Prof. Dihnichen in 1875, and after being 
copied were again covered up. The projecting lions' heads on the 
sides of the building, probably intended to carry olT the rain-water, 
should be noticed. At the left corner of the rear-wall is a Fortrnil 

Baedeker's Ujipei- Egypt. 7 

98 Route 8. KITT. From Keneh 

of Cleopatra, with the sistrum ami tlie Meiia-necklace. Before his 
mother stands Ptolemy Kisres, orCaesarion, the son of Caesar, offer- 
ing incense. I'oth are worshipping Isls ami her son Horns. 

Beliind the temple of Hatliov is a Temple of Isis, consisting of a 
vestibule and tliree chambers. The unattractive and uninteresting build- 
ing, which is partly covered with rubbish, owes its orit;in to the emperor 
Augustus. The gale taring the E. bcar.s the Egyptian cartouches of Claudius 
and Xero, and two tireok inscriptions on the entablature mention the 
Hist year of Tiberius. This gateway uiaiks the limit of the temple area 
in this direction; and about 10 min. farther on we reach another gate, 
which apparently belonged to another temple-precinct. It hears the car- 
touche of Antoninus. 

8. From Keneh to Thebes (Luxor). 

47 31. Steamboat in about 5 hrs. Cook's niail-steamcr halts for 
2'/2 hrs. at Keneh on Wed. and Sat. mornings on its downward voyage, 
and crosses thence to Denderah. 

Keneh, see p. 72. The stoamor passes three islands. On the 
W. bank lies the village of Ball'is, with clay-deposits from which 
most of the 'Keneh pottery' is made (p. 7;5). I'.alalis (pi. of Ballas, 
named after the village), Krilal(pl. of Ki'illo), and other kinds of jars, 
some of considerable si/.o, lie on the banks awaiting shipment. 

12^/2 M. (E. bank) Kuft, the ancient Koptos, nearly opposite 
Ballas. Though now of no importance, this place was down to the 
time of the Khalifs a populous and thriving trading-town. 

Even in antiquity a canal, mentioned hy Strabo and still 
traceable, led fron\ the Nile to the walls of the town, past which the 
Canal of Senhur (p. 100) now flows. One of the stones of the bridge 
is said to bear the name of an Antef (11th Dyn.); and there Is also 
a Greek inscription from the same place, of the 8th year of Trajan 
and dedicated to the tricoloured Isis. To the S. of the town and on 
the road leading to the desert arc various remains of ancient build- 
ings. (Jne of these is a square pillar of red granite, bearing a 
dedication by Tutmes III. to Ammoii lla, and apparently a relic 
of a temple built by that monarch. Still farther to the S. is a 
narrow passage, with inscriptions of the reign of Caius Caligula, 
dedicated to Khera Ra of Koptos upon his Staircase (comp. p. 178). 
The stair-case with 14 ascending and 14 descending steps typifies 
the waxing and waning moon (comp. p. 85). The hoat of Khem, 
borne l)y four priests, is here depicted, and beside it is an address 
to the priests of Khem upon his Staircase. The most I'onsidorable 
relic of antiquity, a fragment of black granite, probably part of 
an altar, lies to the N. It comprizes an exaltation of Khem, Isis, 
and Heh (eternity) by I'tolemy XIII. Neos Dionysus. 

Koptof is nienlii ned (in very early monuments and also by Greeks 
and I.'omans iit a lati' period. Theiiplirastu.s, I'.iu3;inias, Alhenutis, I'lutarch, 
Josephus, vidian, Lucian, .Stephanus of liy/antiuni, Agatharehides, Pliny, 
Animianus jr.arcellinus, Apuleius, and many other authurs, all mention 
it, priiving the widely-spread fame of the city. It was especially famous 
for its commerce. The trade-route, which m.w leads from Ko.stir on the 
Itcd .Sea to Keneh, formerly ended at Koptos, where Nilc-ltdat's received 

•m bylLKicpt'rl 

Em.l-;rrf a by V.'hCT't * DebcK, Li^inip. 

to Thehea. KtS. ft. Tioute. 99 

tlic gofds transported hither on camels, or, at an earlier perioil, on assos, 
as is expressly mentioned in the yreat Harris Papyrus (Ramses HI., 
1320 B.C.). The desert-route to Koser unites with that from Keneh at el- 
Karn before Laketah (p. 75). Koptos early became an emporium for many 
kinds of goods. Inscriptions of the 6th Hyn. are found by the side of the old 
trade-route to the Red Sea at the Wadi Hamamilt (p. 7G). In a tomb at 
Bcnihasan belonging to Ameni, a princely official under the 12th Dyn., is 
an inscription recording the treasures brought liy Ameni to Koptos in 
the train of the crown-prince Usertesen. Koptos was the capital of the 
fifth nome of Upper Egypt, which bore two hawks on its banner. Its 

name appears in hieroglyphics as A \\ Keht and A |l '^\ Kehli; 

in Coptic it is Keft and Keblo ; in Greek Koitxo?, Kotttii;, Kotpxo'?, etc. The 
Arabic Keft corresponds to the Coptic Keft. Tlie deity chiefly worshipped 
here from a very early period was Khem Min (Vol. I., p. 138), whose wife 
was called Isis, and son Horns. Osiris also had a burial-place here 
(Ha nub, 'Gold house''), in which a part of his body (called Kab) was 
preserved. The book of magic, the search for which is narrated in the 
demotic romance of Setnau, was sunk in the Nile at Koptos. A medical 
leather-roll found at Koptos, and now in the British Museum, is said to 
have been written in the reign of Khufu or Cheops (4th Dyn.). Koptos 
was fortified as early as the 12th Dynasty; for the weaKhy city and eth 
routes leading to it required to be defended against the warlike tribes 
who lurked between the Nile and the Arabian mountains, and who, even 
under the Roman emperors, were a source of danger. Guards were 
especially necessary at this point, for there is no doubt that a considerable 
number of Phcenician merchants had settled in Koptos at a very early 
date along with the Egyptians, and were engaged in importing the products 
of Arabia, and at a later date even those of India, which were conveyed 
via, Arabia to the Egyptian Red .Sea ports afterwards called Bereuike and 
Leukos Limen, and thence across the desert to the Nile. The green 
breccia, used for many buildings even under the Romans, was quarried 
at Hamamal, on the desert-route to Ko]itos. It is even probable that 
Keb't-town or Keft-town means 'place of the Phrenicians", for the Phoe- 
nicians were named Keft or Kaft in Egyptian. Strabo and Pliny expressly 
state that the population of the town was mixed, containing both Egyptian 
and Arabic (i.e. Semitic) elements. The hieroglyphic name of the town 

also occurs with the^determinative-sign of the post , which is only used 

after the names of foreign places or of places in which foreigners were 
conspicuous. The reports of Plutarch, iElian, etc., concerning the strange 
cults at Koptos farther indicate that a consideralile Semitic community 
dwelt in the town, and was regarded with hostility by their Egyptian 
neighbours. /Elian's statement that the inhabitants of Koptos worshipped 
the crocodile (Seth) and crucified the hawk (Horns) can only refer to these 
Semites. The true Egyptians revenged themselves by throwing an ass 
from a rock (as Plutarch narrates), because Typhon (Seth) was red-haired 
and of the colour of an ass. Red-haired men (and many red-haired 
Semites are represented on the monuments) were despised, and like all 
foreigners were stigmatized as 'Typhnnic'. Many non-Egyptians are com- 
memorated at the "sides of the trade-route from the Red Sea to Koptos; 
names of Persian kings are nowhere more numerous. 

The camp of the Beduins, who hired their camels to the caravans 
and escorted them through the desert, must have anciently existed within 
the circuit of the town. These Arabs appear to have been the instigators 
of a great insurrection in Upper Egypt, which broke out under Diocletian 
in 292 A.D., and led to the siege and destruction of Koptos. The town 
revived s'unewbat under the Khalifs, but finally decayed with the gradual 
transference of the Egyptian trade to the rovite from Koser to Kench. 

About 7 M. above Koptos, on the E. bank, lies Kiis (mail- 


100 Routes. KUS. From h'eneh 

steamer station), now an insignificant village, occupying the site of 
tlie ancient Apollinopolis Parva. According to Abulfeda (d. 1331) 
this town was second in size only to Fostat (Cairo), and was the 
chisf centre of the Arabian trade. To-day heaps of ruins are the 
only remains. A few stones with fragmentary inscriptions have 
been built into the houses of the town; and the mosque contains 
a basin formed of a single stone, with the name of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphiis upon it. A pylon, which stood here 30 years ago but has 
now disappeared, bore a Greek inscription, announcing that 'Queen 
Cleopatra and King Ptolemy, the great gods and Philometors, and 
their children dedicated the temple to the god Arueris and to the 
deities w'orshipped along with him'. Arueris is the earlier Horus, 
usually identified by the Greeks with Apollo, whence the name of 
the town Apollinopolis. The modern name Kus appears to be 

X X 
derived from the Egyptian __^_ Keskes. Near Senliur (E. bank), 

<=^ © 
3 M. to the S. of Kus, Prisse d'Avenncs discovered the ruins of a 
small temple of Isis, in which the llorus of Apollinopolis, Khom- 
Min of Koptos, the triad ofThebes|(Ammon-Ka, Mutb, and Khunsu), 
and other gods, were also worshipped. To the E. of Senliur passes 
the canal of Seiihur (p. 98), which begins above Thebes and 
extends N. to Keneh. In the 12th cent. B.C. Kus was notorious for 
the number of its scorpions. Numerous Christians dwell here and 
also in Nakadeh, on the W. bank of the Nile, about 3 M. to the S.W. 
Nakadeh (mail-station), with numerous dove-cotes, a Coptic and a 
Roman Catholic church, has old and narrow streets, but presents 
a picturesque appearance from the river. The traveller who lands 
hero near sunset on a Sunday or festival (recommended) will be 
pleasantly surprised to hear the sound of church-bells. The churches 
themselves are uninteresting. Great success has attended the 
labours of Christian missionaries here and still more in Kus; and 
a considerable proportion of the Coptic community (including the 
■worthy ai\d learned bishop of Kus) have embraced Protestantism. 
The missionaries of the United Presbyterian Church of North 
America have also had considerable success at Luxor, Esneh, and 
other towns in Upper Egypt, their converts, however, being ex- 
clusively from among the Copts, never the Mohammedans. 
Demetrius II., patriari'h of the Copts (d. 1870), excommunicated 
both the converts and the missionaries. In 1866 he instigated a 
persecution of the proselytes, whom he sought to terrify by fines, 
stripes, and imprisonment; and ho destroyed the publications of 
tlic missionaries (who have a printing-press of their own) wherever 
he could lay bands upon them. The Hritish and American consuls 
thereupon interfered eiierg(!ti(;ally on behalf (if their felbiw- 
belicvors, and now the Coptic Prote.stants enjoy coriipiete inimniiity 
from every form of religions persecution. 

to Thebes. KAMULEII. 8. Route. 101 

Pietween Nakadeli and Luxor (E. bank) the Nile makes a bend, 
beginning at ed-Denftk CW. bank), after wbicli we continue in a 
S.W. direction. — Kamuleh, a mail steamer station on the W. bank, 
formerly possessed extensive plantations of sugar-cane. In 1824 it 
was the residence of Shekh Ahmed , and of 'Ali Kashef Abu-Tar- 
bush, who bravely defended it against the insurgents. — On the 
E. bank, about 31/2 M. from the river, lies tlie temple of Medamut. 
Tlie ruins are not without interest , but it is better to visit them 
later from Luxor (p. 151) if time permit, tlian to interrupt the jour- 
ney so near Thebes. 

On the left bank, as we draw near Thebes, rise high limestone 
liills, presenting precipitous sides to the river, from whicli, however, 
they are separated by a strip of fertile land. The riglit bank is flatter, 
and the Arabian hills retreat fartlier into the distance. Before 
reai'liing tlie point where the W. chain projects a long curved mass 
of rock towards the river, we see to the left first the great obelisk, 
and the pylons of the temple of Karnak, half -concealed by palm- 
trees. When we clear the abrupt profile of the W. cliffs and new 
formations are visible at its foot, we may catch a distant view of 
Luxor towards the S.E. None of the buildings on the W. bank are 
visible until the steamer has ascended as high as Karnak; then first the 
Colossi of Memnon and afterwards the Kamesseum come into view. 
The telegraph-posts and wires, whicli here obtrude themselves upon 
the view , seem strangely out of place beside the majestic relics of 
Egypt's golden period. As we gradually approach Luxor, we distin- 
guish the flags flying above the white houses on the bank and from the 
consular dwellings, and the re'is applies himself to find a suitable 
ancliorage beside the other dhahabiyehs, which are always to be 
found here. Those who desire to keep by themselves may first halt 
off Luxor, lay in provisions and other necessaries, visit Karnak, and 
then land on the W. bank. In this case the re'is will probably raise 
objections, and the sailors (for whom a sheep should be bought, as 
they have tasted no meat on the voyage") prove mutinous, so that 
watchmen will be necessary. 

9. Thebes. 

Arrival. The three-weeks tourist steamers halt for three days (8th, 
9th, and 10th) at Luxor on the upward journey ; the four-weeks steamers 
for live days. Travellers hy the mail-steamers and by Gaze's seventeen 
days steamers spend 3 4 days in a hotel. — The Quay lies in front of the 
Luxor Hotel (see below); porters await the arrival of the steamers. Tra- 
vellers should see that all their luggage is landed and conveyed to the 
hotel, and should not quit the quay till this is done. — Pos^ 0//fce beside 
the Karnak Hotel; Telegraph Office (line via Keneh) near the Luxor Hotel. 

Hotels. 'Luxor Hotel , with a fine large garden in which several 
interesting stones are placed, pens, per day 15s. or 19fr. in .Tan. and Feb., 
13s. or IB'/zfr. : the rest of the year (hottle of Medoc is. , buttle of beer 
2s. 6d.), cheaper for Egyptologists and 1 hose making a stay of some time. 
Pension includes morning colTee, lunch about noon, supplied also to those 

102 Route 9. THEBES. lUstribution of Time. 

luukiiii; excursions, and a substaulial dinner aliout Cii.ju. TLc rooms are 
clean Isut not luxurious. Tin' niaiiaircr of the bolel , which belongs lo 
Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son, is M. Fagnon. — 'Kausak IIotef,, ^Iz M. lower 
down on a terrace on the river, also belon^^ing to Messrs. Cook, with si- 
milar cliarjics. — Ckanu Hotel Thewfikif.u (Messrs. Gaze & Son), pens. 
J2s.. wine from '2s. 

Consular Agents. British and Kussian: Ahmed Effendi, who fre- 
quently gives 'fantasiyas' (p. lO'i) and Arabian dinners. American: AH Mdrad. 
German : Moliurb Todrus. All the consuls sell anti(iuities; best from Todrus. 

Distribution of Time. The ruins of the city of the hundred gates are 
so huge, so widely scattered, and so profoundly interestinj;. that at least 
5-6 days arc necessary to inspect the chief points alone. Those who are 
specially interested in K^fvptology will of eoiwse devote a much longer 
time to Thelies ; weeks or even months may be spent in a careful study 
of its monumenis and tombs. — Cook's tourist-programme devotes the 
1st day to the temple of Scti I. at Kurnah and the Tombs of the Kings, 
the return being made at tlie choice of the tourist either direct or over 
liie hill to Der el-Babri, the Kamcsseum, and (he Colossi of Mcmnon. — 
2nd day: Temple of Karnak ; Luxor in the afternoon. — 3rd day: l!a- 
messeum, Toml)s of Shekh '.\bd el-Kurnah, Der cl-Medineh, Medinet Habu, 
and Colossi of Memnon. Those who are fatigued by the previous ex- 
cursions should at least make an eft'ort to proceed to Medinet Ilabu where 
the party lunches (and in the interval visit Der el-Medineli). — A moon- 
light ride to Karnak may be taken (at the tourist's private expense) on 
one of the evenings. 

Those who are at liberty to arrange their time for themselves will 
find the following programme of a Three Davs'' Visit convenient. 

1st day. Luxor and Karnak (K. bank). Though visitors arc some- 
times advised to reserve this, the most gigantic of the monuments, lo the 
la-^t, it is really desirable to visit Karnak first of all, before fatigue has 
bc'^run. The traveller who visits Kainak on the first day proceeds then 
to view the otlier linns , with the satisfactory feeling (hat Tliebes has 
fulfilled his highest expectations; and he will not fail to taUe a later 
opportunity!, by nioonlight or at any free time, to return to refresh and 
confirm his first impression. Visitors should ride early to Karnak , while 
the temple of Luxor, easily reached in a few minutes from the dhahabiych, 
may be reserved for an afternoon-visit. 

2nd day. Cross the river early, visit the Colossi of Memnon, the 
Ramesseum, Medinet Habu, and l>er el Medineh, in the morning if possible, 
if lime permit also one of tlie tombs in the part of the Necropolis of 
Thebes known as Kurnet Jlurrai, ami finally some of the Tombs ol Sliekh 
'Abd el-Kurnah. 'I'he view at sunset from this point is of incomparalile 
beauty and interest. 

3rd day. Cross the river early, visit the temple of Scti I. at Kurnah, 
ride to the valley of the Tombs of the Kings (liibrm el-Muluk) with the 
famous graves of the Pharaohs, then cro.'s the ridge which divides the 
latter from tlie other valleys of the Necropolis, and visit the terraec-temjile 
of Der el-Bahri and some of the tombs of cl-Asasif. A visit to the Tombs 
of the Queens may ibe combined with an expedition to Medinet-Habu. 
Otlier less important monuments may be included according to their 

'1 he /'bur rfa.v*' programme of Gaze's steamers is still better: — 1st 
day. Luxor and Karnak. 2nd day. Tomplo of Seti 1., Tombs of the 
Kings, Der el-1'ahri, and the Ramesseum. 3id day. Colossi of Memnon, 
Medinet Habu, Der ol-Medineh, and Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah. 4thday. Great 
f«mple of Karnak. 

A five days'' visit may be spent as follows. — 1st day. Visit the 
tenij)le at Luxor and the great temple of AmiiKm at Karnak. — 2ud day. 
On tlio W. bank. Colossi of Jlemnon, Medinet H;ibu ; Der cl-Medireb. — 
3rd day. Kamessemn ; Tombs of Shekh 'Alid el-Kurnah; terrace-temple of 
Der ol-l!atiri ; el-Asasif; Drah Abu'l Neggah. — '5lli day. Second visit to 
K^irnak : visit to the various side-lcmiiles and pylons; excursion to Me- 
damiit (p. 151) if desired. 

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Aiitviuilks. THEBES. 9. Route. 103 

Other claims upon tlie traveller's time will te made iu Thebes. If he 
have paid a visit to one of the consular agents , he will he invited to a 
Fantnsii/a , and if he have brought good introductions, the fantnsiya will 
he jireceded hy a dinner. Among the modern Arabs the word 't'antasiya' 
is applied to every kind of amusement, from the aimless discharging of 
nmskefs, to the greatest festivity. In the present connection it signifies 
an evening party, at which the chief entertainment is the more or less 
skilful dancing of hired ghawazi, and which is recommended especially 
to gentlemen who have not before seen anything of the kind. Chibouks, 
cigarettes, colTee, and liqueurs are offered to the guests. 

Antiquities. The traveller in Thebes is frequently tempted to purchase 
antiquities. Half the population of Luxor is engaged in traffic with an- 
ticjuities, and the practice of fabricating scarabfei and other articles 
frequently found in tombs is by no means unknown to the other half. 
Many of the articles otfered for sale are so skilfully imitated that even 
experts are sometime J in doubt as to their genuineness; the ordinary 
traveller seldom or never secures an authentic specimen. Only as many 
piastres as they ask shillings should ever be offered to the importunate 
hawkers of antiquities at the temples and tombs. Those who desire a 
genuine memorial of antiquity should apply to the director of the hotel 
or to one of the above named consular agents. Even in this case, however, 
absolute certainty is not attainable; for though honourable traders them- 
selves, the consular agents are liable to be deceived in the purchases 
they make. Caution should be observed in the purchase of unopened 
Papyrus liolls; for dishonest vendors are in the habit of pasting torn 
fragments of papyrus (frequently found in tombs) xipon canes so as to 
present the appearance of genuine papyrus-rolls. Egyptian antique bronzes, 
with artificial rust, are made wholesale in Trieste, Paris, and Hanau; 
Cairo and Luxor have the best factories for the fabrication of antiques in 
terracotta and carved wood. Valuable and genuine antiques may, however, 
still be obtained in Luxor by those who are prepared to spend money. 
The prices are high; il. being now charged for a genuine scarabseua. 
Good and reliable specimens, including papyri, may be obtained from 
Hfohammed M'h:issob and 'Abd el-Megid. 

Photographs. Good phot' graphs are produced hy A. Beato in Luxor; 
l)ut even in Shepheard's and other hotels in Cairo, excellent photographs 
of Egyptian temples are sold at moderate prices. Those by //. Bechard 
are distinguished for arti'^tic taste; those by Sibah are also good. — Photo- 
graphs of the Royal Mummies (p. 230) about is. Qd. each. 

Guides and Donkeys. A guide is of great assistance in saving time. 
The charge is 4-5 fr. per day, or more for a largo party. Guides on the 
E. hank are not allowed to serve on the W. liank, and vii-e versa. The 
following guides may bo recommended: On the right bank (for Karnak), 
Hasdii Ahmed, Sedan, and 'Ahd el-Megid; on the left (W.) bank, 'AH, who 
can take good rut)bings ; Mohammed 'Ali, Ahmed Gorgdr, 'Abd al-Mans-dr, 
Jsiiui'il Ilusen, Khali/eh and' his son Selim, Ahmed 'Abd er-Ras&l, etc. 

The 'Donkeys on the E. side of Thebes are good and have good saddles. 
To Karnak 1 fr. or is., and as much more when the traveller is called for or 
keeps the ass for the day. On the W. side the donkeys, which are much 
more heavily worked, are not so good, but tliey are fairly well saddled. 
Charge 2 fr. per day. The hotels on the E. bank provide donkeys; on 
tlie W. bank they must be ordered beforehand. — Little girls with water- 
botth;s run after the traveller, especially on the W. bank, keeping up 
with the donkeys with tireless agility. One should be selected and repaid 
with a few piastres on the return. The attractive faces of these merry 
children sometimes vividly recall the portraits of Egyptian women of the 
time of the Pharaohs. . 

Sport. Sportsmen mav have an opportunity of shooting a jackal, the 
best time and place being'at and after sunset near Kil>an el-Muluk or the 
Kamesseum. An experienced hunter is to be found at the Luxor Hotel. 
Hyenas are sometimes shot on the Karnak side. In March numerous quail 
are found here. 

Literature. The following are the chief authorities for ancient Thebes : 

104 Routes. THEBES. Topography. 

— Mariette, Karnak, Etude topograpbique et archeologique. Leipzig, 1375. 

— Brugsch, Re'petierirhte, 1855. — E. de Rougi, Ktudcs des inonunicnts du 
massif de Karnak, in the 'Mt'langes d Archeologic t'gyptienne et ;i8«yrienne'. 

On each side of the Nile, hero interrupted by three i.slands, 
stretches a wide bolt of fertile land, bounded both on tlio E. and 
\V. by ranges of hills, displaying a bolder and more dellnitc; for- 
mation than is usually the case with tlie mountains that flank the 
river-valley. On the E., the ridge, overtopped by finely shaped 
peaks, retires farther from the stream than on the W. Tlie fertile 
strip ends as abruptly at the foot of the barren limestone- cliff.'s 
as a lawn adjoining a gravel-walk In a garden. Most of the ruin- 
ed temples are situated in the level district and are reached by 
the waters of the Nile when the inundation? are at their higliest; 
while the tombs are hewn in the flanks of the hills, where their 
dark openings are s-o numerous, tliat the E. .slope of the Libyan 
range might be aptly compared to a piece of cork or to a honeycomb. 
Viewed from the river, the site of ancient Thebes presents the ap- 
pearance of a wide mountain-girt basin or valley richly endowed with 
the gifts of nevei -failing fertility. Nature hero revels in perpetual 
youth, while the most enormous edifices ever reared by mortal liaiid, 
though grey, desolate, and succumbing to the common fate of all 
human handiwork, yet (compel the admiration of posterity for the 
wonderful race that has left such mighty memorials of its existence 

— memorials that have indeed been injured but not annihilated in 
the flight of tliousatids of years. The verdant crops and palms which 
everywliero cheer the traveller as .soon as he lias quitted the desert, 
the splendid hues tliat tinge tho valley every morning and evening, 
tlie brilliant, unclouded sunshine that batlios every object in tlie 
winter season, and the inspiring feeling that every hour is enriching 
the imagination with new and strange pictures, wholly prevents in 
Thebes the rise of that melancholy which so often steals over the 
mind in presence of the relics of by-gone greatness and of vanished 

The various monuments are situated as follows. On the riglit 
(E. bank) rises the Temple of Luxor, now occupied by dwellings, 
and to thoN. are the immense ruins of Karnak, formerly connected 
with it. Beyond tliese monuments lay the streets of ancient Thebes. 
Farther to tho N. is another extensive temple-site at Medaniiit, 
which must bo regarded as occupying the site of a suburb of Thebes. 
On the left.(\V.) bank was the Neiropolis, witli vaults in tho rock 
and many^t'mortuary temples. Each of these liad its largo annexe 
for the priesthood, sdiools, or libraries. The temples were adjoined 
by (proves and lakes, and from ancient commenial contracts wa 
gather that one quarter of the citizens dwelt here. Nearer the 
mountains stood the houses of the embaliners, refuges for visitors 
to tlie necropolis, shops for tho sale of numerous articles which tho 
Egyptians were accustomed to bring as offerings to their ancestors, 
Mablcs for the sacrod animals, and .slaughter-houses for tho cattle 

Topoyraphy. THEBES. 9. Route. 105 

brought to be sacrificed. The landing-place on the other bank, op- 
posite Karnak, was united with the temple of Kurnah by rows of 
sphinxes. As the ancient pilgrim continued on his way towards the 
N.W. and crossed the hill of the cemetery now called el-Asasif, he 
came in sight of the rocky amphitheatre which enclosed the terraced 
precincts of the temple of Der el-Bahri. Northwards from Kurnah a 
well-made route led to the valley of the Tombs of the Kings, now 
called Biban el-Muluk, which could also he reached by a shorter 
though more fatiguing mountain-path from el-Asasif. Between the 
entrance of the valley of the Kings' Tombs and el-Asasif and close 
to the mountain lay the necropolis known as Drah Abul Neggah. 
Thence following the edge of the fertile strip towards the S.W. we 
reach the magnificent Ramesseum. Behind rises the mountain-ridge. 
The tombs on its E. slope, partly occupied as dwellings by the 
fellahin, belong to the village now called Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnali. 
As we gaze down upon the plain from the higher-lying graves, the 
Colossi of Memnon are conspicuous in the midst of the fertile belt. 
Behind these are the prominent ruins, known as Kom el-IIetan, 
rising near the central point of an imaginary line connecting tlie 
Ramesseum with the temple of Medinet Habu , the magnificent 
Memnonium of Ramses III. Turning from Medinet Habu to the 
S.W., we reach a small temple of the Ptolemies; to the N., near 
the mountains, lies the valley with the Tombs of the Queens; and 
skirting the line of hills to the N.W. we reach the scanty tomb- 
remains of Kurnet Murrai, to the W. of which lies a valley with 
the small but interesting temple of Der el-Medineh. Two points 
are of special value for taking one's bearings. One is the summit 
of the mountain lying between el-Asasif and Biban el-Mulftk; the 
other is the door of eltlier of two tombs at Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah. 
One of the tombs, in which Lepsius lived, is known to the guides as 
Kasr Lepsius; the other was inhabited by Ebers, who is remembered 
by the fellahin as Abu Bulos (Father of Paul). 

The name Thebes is probably the Greek form of the Egyptian 

X ] V\ j v\ T Uabu, with the feminine article t prefixed, i.e. 

Tuabu. The Hellenes, familiar with the name Thebes (O-^jBai), which 
was borne by cities in Bceotia, Attica, Thessaly, Cilicia, near Miletus 
in Asia Minor, etc., believed that in Tuabu they had met it once 
more. Possibly, however, the name may be derived from the words 

I [" apt dsu, which were applied to the temples on the E. 

I^ill II ^ , , 

bank at least. Among the Greeks the town was known as AioottoAi;, 
a translation of Pa-amen, city of Amnion, also called Diospolh 
Megale or Diospolis Magna to distinguish it from Diospolis Parva 
or Hou (p. 70). 

The famous capital of Upper Egypt was certainly founded un- 
der the ancient empire, but whether earlier than the 11th Dyn., 

IOC Route i). THEBES. IHxtory. 

of wliicb lombs liave been found, is open to question. Hardly any 
traces of earlier monuments have been discovered. The earliest 
prosperity ol' Tlnbes dates from the eclipse of the first flourish- 
ing period of Memphis. Previously it was named the southern On, 
in distinction to Heliopolis, the northern On. A legend, known 
to us, however, only from inscriptions of a later date, narrates that 
Osiris Mas born here. Such a myth can scarcely have been invented 
in later times, for from the beginning of the Now Empire onwards, 
Osiris fell into a position ipiite subsidiary to the other gods of Thebes, 
especially to Ammon-Ka with whom Muth and Khunsu formed a 
triad. Only in connection with the worship of the dead did Osiris 
retain his loading rank. Among goddesses a Hathor seems to have 
enjoyed especial honour from the earliest times; and even till a coni- 
jjaratively late date the iiome Phatliyrites (the Pathros of the IJible), 
of which Theles was the nourishing capital, was called after her the 
'Hathor district', lender the early empire the afterwards gigantic city 
was not conspicuous. It is seldom mentioneil, and even under the 
liith Dyn. Assiut-Lycopolh (p. 31) is described as the chief town of 
Upper Egypt. When the llyksos invadedthe Nile valley, the legitimate 
princes, who had ruled fron! the .Mtiditerranean to the Cataracts, were 
driven to the south. Here they reigned during several inglorious 
centuries, until Kaskenen and King Aahnies (p. xxxi) arose and under 
the banner of Ammoii of Thebes expelled the strangers. The succeed- 
ing princes, won important victories not only on Egyptian soil but 
also in Asia, always tigliting under the auspices of Anuuon with 
whom was joined the Ka of Lower Egypt, and who, as we have .seen 
(Vol. I., p. 138), was speedily placed at the head of all the national 
gods. The liberation of the country was directed from Thobes, and that 
city continued for centuries to be the favourite seat of the Pharaohs, 
and the reservoir into which flowed the untold treasures exacted as 
tribute or brought as booty from Asia to I']gypt. A large share of this 
wealth was bestowed upon Amnion. 'J'he magnificent and gigantic 
temple, erected at this jieriod to the god, is still one of tlie chief 
sights of Thebes. The grandees of the kingdom esteemed it an honour 
to become priests of Ammon , the schools beside his temples flourished, 
and the kings offered their ricliest gifts to this god, from whom they 
expected a surer fulfilment of llicir petitions than from any other. 
'J'Imis Thebes became the city of Ammon, the No or A'^&-/l»(iOJiof Scrip- 
turcaud tho l>ionpotis of thcGreeks. Victory over foes was the burden 
of every prayer of the Pharaohs at this culminating period of Thebes, 
and the warriors led out by the monarchs were drilled under the eye 
of the god. In the introductory remarks on the history of Egypt 
mention has already been mad(; of the great warrior-princes who 
placed Thebes at the zenith of its fame, and In the description of 
the various monuments reference will again ho made to them. Here 
it may bo added that the fame of the huge city early reached the 
ears even of the Greeks. In a possibly interpolated passage of the 

nidory. THEBES. y. Route. 1U7 

Iliad (IX, 379-384), Acliilles, uuragcd with Agamemnon, assures 
Ulysses that he will never more unite in council or in deed with the 
great Atrides : — 

"Ton times as much, and twenty times were vain; the high pil'd store" 
"Of rich Mycena-, and if lie ransack wide earth for more," 
"Search old Orchomenus for gold, and hy the fertile stream" 
"Where, in Egyptian Thebes, the heaps of precious ingots gleam," 
"The hundred-gated Thebes, where twice ten score in martial state" 
"Of valiant men with steeds and cars march through each massy gate." 

(Blacklegs T7-anslafi07i.) 
The epithet £y.aT6,az'jXo;, i.e. 'hundred-gated', here used by 
Homer, was also applied by later classical authors to Thebes. Diodonis, 
Strabo, Pliny, and liato of Sinope all make use of it, referring, 
liowever, to the pylons of the temples in the capital of Upper Egypt. 
With the rising importance of the god and with the increase of Ins 
wealth, of which they had the disposal, the archpriests of Ammon 
gradually grew to regard themselves as the chief persons in the 
state; and, after the way had been prepared by a series of weak 
princes, they succeeded in usnrping the throne and by their rnle 
prepared the ruin of Egyptian power. From the '20th Dyn. onwards, 
Thebes began to decay. Ramses III. indeed adorned the left bank 
especially with elaborate buildings ; bnt his immediate successors 
did no more than hew out for themselves deep and richly carded 
graves in the valley of the Kings' Tombs, and the princes of Lower 
Egypt who succeeded the priests of Ammon of the '21st Dyn. were 
the less able to bestow attention upon Thebes, the more eagerly 
they strove to adorn their homes in the Delta with gorgeous struc- 
tures. Yet even these princes did not wholly abandon Thebes, and 
they did not omit to inscribe pretentious reports of their mighty 
acts on the walls of the temple of Ammon. The armies of the Assy- 
rians penetrated as far as Thebes and plundered it; the Ethiopians 
planted their rnle here and honoured Ammon with buildings and 
inscriptions; the princes of the 26th Dyn. did for Sais what the 
princes of the '18th and 19th Dyn. had done for the city of Ammon, 
but they also paid their homage to the great god of Thebes by 
erecting smaller buildings there. The invading army of Cambyses 
ascended as far as Upper J2gypt, but seems to have done little or 
no damage at Thebes. Nei'tanebus I., one of the native Egyptian 
princes who maintained themselves against the Persians , found 
time and means to add a handsome pylon to tlie temple of Ammon. 
Alexander the Great and the princes of the house of the Lagidae 
probably found Thebes still a great though decadent city, and they 
assisted to embellish it, as many buildings dating from the period 
of the Ptolemies still attest. After the 22nd Dyn. the treasures of 
Ethiopia had ceased to enrich Thebes; and when the harbour of 
Alexandria began to attract to itself the produce of Egypt brought 
from the Red Sea to the Nile valley, the vessels of Koptos, with 
their lading of Indian and Arabian goods, but seldom found their 
way S. to the great city of Ammon. Thebes still remained con- 

108 Route 9. THEBES. Hhtonj. 

spicuous as a city of templet; and priests, but its inhabitants de- 
clinocl in wealth. It may be easily conjectured that these, Ibrnierly 
the chief amonft the citizens of i'lgypt, bore but ill tlie fate which 
now placed them far behind the Alexandrians. Strangers sat on the 
throne of Ka, and cared not to take the trouble to visit in person 
tlie remote Diospolis, the coronation-town of the Pharaohs, who 
had been accustomed to make a triumphal entry after each victory 
and to otfer thanks to Ammon. The earlier noble Lagidae were suc- 
ceeded by worthless rulers, whose extravagant tastes forccil tliem 
to drain the resources of the Thebaul and other provinces. Un- 
der the gluttonous Euergetes II. and his consort CIeoi)atra Cocce 
the Alexandrians rose in revolt and expelled Alexander I., the 
king's son. The citizens of the capital of Upper Egypt dared also 
to rise in the attempt to win back their lost independence ; and 
they refused to lay down tlieir arms even when Ptolemy Soter II. 
[Lathyrus) was recalled from banishment by the Alexandrians and 
was universally recognized in Lower Egypt. The army of Uathyrus 
besieged the town, whose inhabitants bravely defended tliemselves 
in the liuge temples, each of which served as a fortress. Finally, 
however, Thebes was stormed; its treasures were plundered and 
its venerable monuments terribly mutilated. Thenceforward Tliebes 
is only mentioned as a goal of inquisitive travellers, who under the 
Koman emperors were attracted to the Nile by two monuments in 
particular — the pyramids and the musical colossus of Memnon on 
tlie W. bank at Thebes. Diodorus (60 15. C) and Strabo (2415.C.) 
describe Thebes as it was after the destruction. The latter found 
only a few relics on each side of the Nile, just as the traveller of 
to-day does. An earthquake, no common occurrence in I'^gypt, 
had done more than the hand of the tierce warrior to destroy the 
monuments of thousands of years. In 27 or 24 U.G. a convulsion 
nf this nature wrought such havoc that luisebius declared, thougli 
not without exaggeration, that the I'.gyptian Thebes had been 
levelled with the ground. In the absence of some sucli natural 
force, we should be tempted to declare that the annihilation of 
many parts of the monuments of Thebes must liave been a task 
only less difficult than their construction. At many points, especi- 
ally in the temple at Karnak, the injury is plainly to be ascribed 
to human hands. The representations, dating from the period of 
the Ptolemies, within the second main pylon, to the left as we ap- 
proach the largo hypostyle hall, have been removed with axes or 
hammers. Some smaller injuries, especially to the names of the 
kings, were due to political reasons, as when Tutmes III., after he 
obtained the sole jjower, destroyed the cartouches of his too ambi- 
tious sister and guardian ; others are to be ascribed to the evil habit 
of certain Pharaohs of apjiroiniating the monuments of their pre- 
decessors by substituting their own names for those of the real 
builders; and yet others had religious causes, as when the name of 

Eaut Bank. LUXOR. 10. Route. 109 

Seth was obliterated at various epochs. The introduction of Christ- 
ianity and the edicts of Theodosius were followed by the destruc- 
tion of many pagan statues and the obliteration of many pagan in- 
scriptions. At all events the new religion and the closing of the 
temples dedicated to the ancient gods removed all possibility of 
anything being done to preserve the monuments of the Pharaohs. 
The Nile, which annually overflowed as far as the temple of Karnak 
in particular, and the saline exudations of the soil, wrought harm ; 
jackals and other animals sought shelter in the subterranean cham- 
bers; many tombs, at first occupied by Christian hermits, were con- 
verted into peasants' dwellings; Christian churches were erected in 
the temple-halls, and houses were built between the columns of the 
temple at Luxor. Carefully hewn blocks and slabs were removed 
from the monuments, which were used as quarries, and many 
limestone details were thrown into the furnace and reduced to 
lime. Whither the enormous population of the hundred -gated 
Thebes betook itself is unknown. A few widely-scattered villages 
alone now represent of the giant city. These have given names to 
the various edifices and tombs, whose holy names might only be 
uttered with pious awe in the time of the Pharaohs. The ruins of 
Thebes remained long forgotten. On the revival of learning classical 
students recalled their fame; Pococke rediscovered, described them 
and drew them; and finally the publications of the great French 
Expedition revealed to astonished Europe how much of the ancient 
magnificence of the Pharaohs had survived to our time. Each 
succeeding scientific expedition made its longest halt here and 
found here its richest rewards. The names of Champollion, Wil- 
kinson, Lepsius, and other Egyptologists are familiar words on the 
site of ancient Thebes ; and Mariette, who carried on excavations 
under the auspices of the Khedive, must also be mentioned. 

10. The Temple of Luxor. 

The name of Luxor is derived from the Arabic el-Kasr, pi. el- 
Ktisur, and means 'the castles', having reference to the extensive 
teniple in which part of the village of Luxor was built, and which 
is adjoined by another part. The mosque still stands within the 
temple. The house of the British consul, as well as the so-called 
Kd^r Fransilvi, and other buildings, which formerly stood here, 
have been removed witliin the last few years , the S. side of the 
temple laid free, and the interior cleansed. The chief entrance on 
the N., with tlie pylons and their obelisks still on their ancient site, 
is also to be thoroughly excavated. Seen from the river, the temple 
now presents a highly imposing appearance, previously interfered 

110 Route 10. 


Fa fit r„ink 

witli by luoileni buililiiigs. Tlio 
lionso of Moliarb Todrus, the (>er- 
iiiaii fonsiilar agent (p. 102), lies 
farther to the N., near tht' landing- 
place, where traces of an ancient 
construction may be seen, which 
is unfortu7iately disappearing be- 
fore the annual inundations, and 
not far from the principal py- 
lon. To the left of the main pylon 
is the village, with a shop, kept 
by a Greek, at which provisions 
of all kinds and porter , ale , can- 
dles, etc. may be purchased. Far- 
ther to the N.E, dwell numerous 

The removal of later buildings 
from the *Temple of Luxor has 
rendered it easy to reconstruct its 
gronnd-pla!i (see opposite), and to 
see that its erection was gradual 
and more or less affected by the 
existence of still earlier buildings. 
The general main axis of the temple 
lies from S. W. to N.R.; but the 
axis of the N. portion deviates con- 
siderably from the direction of that 
of the S. portion, partly^n account 
of the shape of the river-bank, 
partly because it was desired to have 
the pylons at Luxor corresponding 
to those of Karnak. A careful 
examination indeed reveals three 
different axial directions. Those 
deviate from the true meridian, at 
an angle of 41' '21" on the S., and 
at an angle of 51" on the N. As 
was the custom, the part of the 
temple containing the sanctuary 
(the S. part) was built llrst, indud-. 
ing the large peristyle hail. This 
took place in the ISth Dyn. under 
Auienhotep III., while the W. por- 
tions were added by Ramses II. 
From the obelisks to the back of 
the sanctuary, the total length of 
the temple is 284 yds. Later kings, 

,it Thebes. LUXOR. 10. lioute. 1 1 1 

including some of the Ptolemies, placed inscriptions witli their 
names on the ancient buildings. The Principal Pylon is easily 
recognized by the obelisks and colossi at its portal. The visitor who 
places himself in front of this perceives at once that rubbish and 
earth conceal one-half of the sloping fa(;ade which is richly adorned 
with carvings and inscriptions now sadly damaged. Like all pylons, 
the one before us consists of tv)0 truncated pyramids with an en- 
trance-door-between them. The latter was 55 ft. in height. The side- 
towers, which rose about 20 ft. higher, were crowned with an ele- 
gant concave. cornice, which has now almost completely disappeared, 
and were framed with the astragal. The entrance -door is com- 
pletely ruined. Under the cornice is a conspicuous Inscription in 
large letters , which may be traced also on the architrave of the 
peristyle court, wherever it has remained visible and entire. This 
inscription contains a dedication, intimating that Ramses IL built 
this imposing edifice for his father Ammon-Ra, the king of the 
Gods. On each side of the entrance were two monolithic Colos.ti, 
40 ft. in height; the most easterly has disappeared, the three 
others arc half-buried in rubbish. In front of the central figures, 
though not quite symmetrically placed, rose two Obelisks of pink 
granite, one of which (the W.) now adorns the Place de la Con- 
corde at Paris. It is to be hoped that a crack, which has been 
noticed in the monument from the days of antiquity, will not lead 
to its destruction under the influence of a northern climate. This 
"W. obelisk was smaller than its E. neighbour which is still stand- 
ing ; and the ancient architects endeavoured to counteract this in- 
equality by giving the smaller obelifek a higher base than the other, 
and placing it a little farther forward. The inscriptions on the 
obelisk still standing at Luxor are clearly and finely cut in the stone 
and are perfectly legible. They name Ramses the Pharaoh, with 
many pretentious titles, as the founder of this gorgeous building 
erected in honour of Ammon in southern Thebes (Apt res). The 
faces of these obelisks, like those of most others, are slightly con- 
vex, as the priestly architects observed that aflat surface was apt to 
appear concave in a strong light. Details supplied by the French 
engineers give a vivid idea of the enormous weight that had to bo 
handled in the erection of an obelisk, although the Paris obelisk is 
comparatively smaU ; considerably larger obelisks are to be seen at 
Karnak. The W. obelisk of Luxor is 75 ft. high, its base is 7"/2 ft- 
square, and its weight is upwards of 212 tons. 

The exterior walls of the pylons of nearly every Egyptian temple 
are adorned with representations referring to victories granted by 
the gods of the sanctuaries to the royal builders. At Luxor these 
representations refer to victories granted by Ammon to Ramses IL 
The rich sculpture with which the broad walls of the pylons were 
covered lias sufl'ered severely from the hand of time. At several 
places the lieliefs en creu.v, deeply cut in the stone, are practically 

1 1 2 Route 10. LUXOR. East Bank 

rubbed out. On the left (K. | wing, however, the lile-liko llgure of 
the king, shooting arrows from his chariot, and the fine rearing 
horses of his chariot, are still clearly to be distinguished. On the 
right ( W.) wall also a good deal may be made out. The king is here 
represented in his camp. He has dismounted from his chariot, which 
waits for him, and lias seated himself upon his throne. His officers 
await his instructions , and farther in the background the troops 
rest in their camp. The inscriptions are much injured, but it can 
be made out froiu them that they were graven in the stone chiefly 
in honour of Ramses II. 's victory over the Kheta (Aramasans) and 
their allies. In the 5th year of the king, on the 9th Payni, the for- 
tress of Katesh on the Orontcs was stormed. The river and the 
contest on its banks are still distinguishable. The Epic of Fentimr 
In 90 vertical lines, covers the lower part of the W. wing and part 
of the E. wing; some of it has recently been uncovered, the rest is 
still concealed by rubbish. This poem was the nationMl epos, the 
Iliad, of the ancient Egyptians. It occurs twice on the E. bank at 
Thebes — on the N. side of the pylon at Luxor and on the 8. side 
of the temple of Karnak (here also partly concealed by earth). It is 
also found, thongh in a very fragmentary condition, on the N. wall 
of the temple of Ramses II. at Abydos (discovered first by Eisen- 
lohr), and in the most complete (hieratic) form in the Papyrus 
Raifet (now in the Louvre) and the Papyrus Sallier III. (now in 
the British Museum). 

The poetic text on the pylons at Luxor is followed by a prose 
text, dealing mainly with the arrival of two hostile spies, who gave 
out at first that the Kheta bad fled into the laiid of Khirabu (llcl- 
bon or Aleppo) to the N. of Tunep, but who on being scourged re- 
vealed the real lurking-place of the enemy to the N.W. of Katesh. 
The king hastily recalled the Egyptian troops, but too late to pre- 
vent his camp being suddenly attacked on the S. by the Kheta. The 
Egyptians were surrounded, and only the personal bravery of the 
king secured the linal victory. This prose inscription, preserved in 
fiiU at the Ramcsseum and in the temple of Abu-Simbel, describes 
the same event as the poem of Pentaur, thougli it dates it a month 

The most important and finest episodes accordin}: to the restoration 
of the text by j;. dc Roufre are as follows. 'Then the miserable and 
worthless "Kheta with liis numerous allies lay hidden behind the fortress 
of Katesh. Jlis majesty found himself alone (wilh his servants). The 
legion of Amnion marched after him; the legion of Ra passed through 
the valley to the S. of the fortress of Shabtun and marched forwards 
.... In the centre was the legion of I'lah, ,sui)ported by the fortress 
of Arnam; the legion of Sutekh (Scth - Typhon) went upon its way. 
The king had summoned all the leaders of his army, who were in the 
valleys of the land of Aniaur. The miserable and worthless prince of the 
Kheta was in the midst of his soldiers; and for fear of His M^esty dared 
not prepare, himself to battle. Yet he ordered forward his archers and 
his chariots, that were more in number than the sand of the sea shore. Three 
men were in each chariot, and they had united themselves with the warriors 
of the land of the Kheta, evpcrt with all weapons. He remained hidden 

at Thebes. LUXOll. 10. Route. 113 

behind the fortress of Katesh. Then they pressed forth on the S. side of 
Katesh and attacked the centre of the legion of Ra, which was on the 
march, and having uo warning was unprepared for the battle. The archers 
and chariots gave way before them. His Majesty alone had made a halt 
to the N. of the fortress Katesh, on the W. bank of the Orontes. News 
was brought to His Majesty of what had happened. And behold, the king 
rose up like his father Mont (the god of war); he seized his weapons and 
put on his armour, like Baal in his hour. The noble horses that bore his 
majesty ('Victory for Thebes' was their name) came furth from the stable 
of Ramses, the beloved of Ammon, and the king dashed in his attack 
into the midst of the miserable Kheta. Ue was alone and no otiier was 
loith him. And as he hastened on before the eyes of those that followed 
him, he found himself surrounded by 2500 chariots of war, (cut off) from 
his return by all the warriors of the miserable Kheta and the nume- 
rous peoples that accompanied them ; by the people of Arados, Mysia, 
and Pisidia (Aratu, Masa, Pidasa). Each of their chariots bore three men, 
and they had all united themselves. 'No prince was with me, no general, 
no commander of the archers or chariots. My soldiers have deserted me, 
and my knights have fled before them; not one of them has made a stand 
to fight by my side'. Then spoke his majesty: 'Who art thou, () father 
Ammon? does a father forget his son? Have I ever undertaken anything 
without thee? Have I not walked and do I not stand ever according to 
thy words? Never have I trespassed thy commands . . . What are these 
Semites to thee? Ammon renders the godless helpless. Have I not offered 
to thee countless sacrifices? Through me thy holy dwelling was filled 
with my captives. I have built thee a temple for millions of years, and 
I furnish thy store-houses with all my goods. I brought the whole 
wor'd to thee to enrich thy possessions; 3000 oxen I sacrificed to thee on 
all manner of sweet-smelling wood. I have not failed to make thy fore- 
court. Stone pylons 1 erected for thee, and I myself erected the flag-staffs 
before them. I caused obelisks to be brought from Elephanta, and it was 
I who caused stones of eternal duration to be brought. For thee ships 
plough the deep and bring to thee the tribute of the nations. Surely a 
wretched fate awaits him who resists thy commands, but happiness will 
be to him who knows thee. I beseech thee, O father Ammon, look upon 
me here in the midst of countless peoples who are strange to me. All 
nations have united themselves against me, and I am alone and no one 
is loith me. My numerous soldiers have deserted me; no one of my 
knights looked out upon me when I called them; none of them heard 
my voice. But I believe that Ammon is of more value to me thun a 
million of soldiers, than a hundred thousand knights and a hundred 
thousand brothers and young sons, even were they gathered together in 
one place. The work of multitudes of men is as nothing, Ammon out- 
weighs them all. This have I accomplished, O Ammon, according to the 
counsel of thy mouth, and have not exceeded thy commands. Behold, 
I have paid honour to thee to the uttermost ends of the earth'. My voice 
sounded to Hermonthis and Ammon came at my cry. He gave me his 
hand, I uttered a cry of joy, and he spoke behind me; "I hasten to thine 
aid, O Ramses, my son, beloved of Ammon. I am with thee". — In the 
farther course of his speech, Ammon says: "Not one of them (the foe) 
finds his hand to fight; their hearts have vanished from their breasts for 
fright; their arms have become weak. They are no longer able to launch 
their arrows, and strength fails them to hold their spears. I thrust them 
into the water, so that they fall in like the crocodile. They lie prone, one 
upon another, and I spread death in their midst. I will not that one 
should look behind him or that another should turn himself. He who 
falls there shall not rise again". The king of course, as the epos goes on 
to narrate, completely vanquished the Asiatics allied against him, after 
hard fighting and after his charioteer himself had lost courage. — Finally 
the prince of the Kheta sends a messenger with a letter. His submission 
is accepted ; and Ammon greets the Pharaoh returning in triumph. 

The general impression produced by the pylon with its obelisks, 

Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 8 

114 Route W. LUXOR. East BanJc 

colossi, aud the various subsidiary details, is stUl uot unimposiiig; 
and the whole entrance to the temple at Luxor is unusually pic- 
turesque, perhaps on account of the very abundance of small details 
M'hich are unrestrainedly placed here side by side with the huge 
and dignified. 

Beyond the principal pylon was the Great Peristyle Court (PI. A), 
which was entirely surrounded by a double row of columns (twelve 
pairs on each of the four sides). It measures 185 ft. in length and 
167 ft. in breadth. This hall was at one time completely built up, but 
the W. side at least has now been laid bare. The most recent excava- 
tions have revealed a portico, dating from Kamses IL, on the inner 
side of the N.W. wall of the court. The architectonic purport of 
this portico, which is somewhat lower than the court and has three 
clustered columns, is not apparent. Between the inner row of co- 
lumns on the S. side of the court arrows and shields pf Ilamses II. 
were placed. A mosque situated within this court prejvents the ex- 
cavation of the E. wall, and considerably mars the general effect. 
Ilamses II. founded the court, but the Ethiopian Sabalio wrote his 
name on the portal, while Ptolemy Philopator wrote his on several 
of the abaci. On the S. side this court was terminated by a smaller 
Pylon, beyond which, though not with the same axis (see above), 
is a Colonnade (PI. B), 58 yds. long, built under tlie 18th Dynasty. 
The last is in tolerably good preservation and contributes essentially 
to the dignified appearance of the ruins of Luxor when viewed from 
the river-banli or .still more from the; isbnid crossed on the way to 
visit the monuments of W. Tht'bcs. Seven couples of columns, 
nearly 42 ft. in height, with calyx-capitals, .still support a heavy 
architrave above a lofty abacus. The whole was built by Anien- 
hotep III., but King IForus, Seti I., and Seti 11. have also recorded 
their names upon it. The marvellous play of colour shown by this 
colonnade with its deep, heavy shadows when the setting sun sheds 
a rosy light uj)on the E. sky, is nowhere excelled. The Second 
Peristyle Court fPl. 0) had double rows of columns on its N., E., 
aud W. sides. These, belonging to the order of sculptured papyrus- 
bud columns, are specially effective as seen from the river-bank. 
The court was 48 yds. long and 55 yds. broad, and ends in a Hypo- 
siyle Hall (PI. D), the roof of which was borne by 32 sculptured 
bud-columns arranged in 4 rows of 8. The two sphinxes at the en- 
trance bear the name of Sfbckhotcp II. (13th Dyn. ). This hall was 
barely 20 yds. deep and 35 yds. wide, and for some unexplained 
reason its E. wall forms an acute angle (instead of a right angle) 
with the S. wall of the preceding peristyle court. The Open Space 
(PI. E), which we next find, is entered from the river side, and is 
specially commended to the traveller's attention. The ancient en- 
trance to the sanctuary-chambers has here been altered into a kind 
of apsidal recess, bounded on the right and left by two granite Co- 
rinthian columns. The court in front of this was used as a church 

at Thebes. KAKNAK. 11. Route. 115 

in later Christian times, and the flue ancient sculptures were co- 
vered with lime and gaudily painted in the early Christian style. 

Beyond this space were the series of chambers forming tlie 
Sanctuary, now accessible only from the side next the river. This 
is certainly the most ancient part of the temple, and unusually 
clearly-cut hieroglyphics inform us that it was built by the same 
monarch who reared the Colossi of Memnon, i.e. by Amenhotep III. 
The first Room (PI. F), with four columns, contains a series of re- 
presentations of homage and sacrifice before Ammon Generator, 
and in the chamber to the E. of it (PI. n) are represented the con- 
finement of the mother of the king (Mut- em-ua) and the nursing of 
the infant Amenhotep. Beyond Room F is the Holy of Holies (PI. G). 
It is doubtful whether Assyrians or Persians destroyed the original 
sanctuary, but at all events after the Macedonians had. conquered 
Egypt and after the death of Alexander the Great, it was restored 
in the name of Alexander II., for whom Ptolemy Soter I. ruled 
as 'satrap'. Alexander boasts in the dedicatory inscription of hav- 
ing restored the work of Amenhotep. The last rooms of this part of 
the temple have now also been excavated, and contain various fine 
sculptures of the 18th Dynasty. Ammon of Thebes, especially in 
his ithyphallic form as the productive power, appears everywhere 
as the chief deity of the temple, receiving sacrifices and bestowing 
gifts. In the chamber adjoining the last square hall traces have 
been found of a staircase ascending to the roof of the temple. 

11. Karnak. 

Travellers who arrive at Luxor iu the morning shoiUl devote the 
afternoon to a lirst visit to Karnak; if they arrive iu the evening they 
should spend on it the next morning:. Karnak is ahout V2 hr's. ride from 
Luxor-, ass 1 fr., for the whole day 2 fr. Guides (Ss. ; p. lOo), who speak 
a little broken, are useful to save time on a lirst visit, but they 
are not indispensable. The donkey -boys and temple -keepers also speak 
broken English. A visit to Karnak by moonlight is exceedingly attractive, 
but travellers are advised not to make it alone, even although there is 
nothing to fear from robbers. 

Next to the Tombs of the Kings, Karnak is by far the most in- 
teresting part of ancient Thebes. Even under the Pharaohs the group 
of temples here was considered the most striking creation of an age 
peculiarly famous for architectural achievements. Centuries have 
here destroyed much, yet there is no other building in the world 
that can match the dimensions of the temple of Ammon at Karnak. 
The brilliant life that once enlivened these halls with colour and 
sound has long slept in silence beneath the dust. Could it bo re- 
called by some magician's wand it would present to the beliolder a 
dazzling and bewildering scene of unique splendour; but it may 
be questioned whether the admiration and interest commanded by 
the temple in its uninjured and frequented days could equal the 
pure enjoyment which is awakened in the breast of the sympathetic 

116 Kuutell. KAKNAK. East Bank 

beholder by the building now, ruined but vpith its whole plan and 
theory still clear and iiitellifrible. There is nothing now to distract 
the eye fioni the lines and forms of the temple; and the pomp of 
banners and the clouds of incense are replaced by the magic of 
dignified antiquity. Amidst these hoary ruins, we realize the short- 
ness of our mortal span and recognize the evanescence of human 
greatness and sjjlendour. 

Starting frt)m the great pylon of the temple of Luxor, we pro- 
coed to the E., then follow the street with the Greek shops, and 
leaving the houses of the ghawazi and the hill with the tomb of 
the shekh to the right, hold towards the N. We soon arrive at the 
first ruins of Karnak, and finally, if we have followed the "\V. route, 
reach an imposing row of Kriosphinxes, i.e. sphinxes with the bo- 
dies of lions and the heads of rams. Near this point, to the S. of 
the temple, are two almost parallel Processional Avenues flanked 
with sphinxes, one uniting the temple of Muth (p. 148) with the 
S. pylons (p. 147), the other leading from the temple of Luxor to 
the temple of Khiinsu (p. 148). These two avenues were connected 
with each other by a third cross- avenue of sphinxes. AVe follow 
the left (W.) avenue, the flanking sphinxes of which are carved in 
the grand style and are placed close to each other. Between the legs 
of each is a statuette with the name of Amenhotep 111. (Ra-ma-neb). 
This leads us to the handsome but almost too slender Pylon XII, 
erected by Ptolemy III. Euergetes L, with a winged sun-disc in the 
casement, with boldly-spread pinions. In the time of the Lagidae 
additional pylons, corresponding to this one, were placed at the ex- 
treme corners of the temple. That on flic N. side (p. 143) is still in 
admirable preservation. Inside the portal Euergetes is represented 
in Egyptian style though clad in Greek costume. To the right of 
the lowest representation on tho left side, the king appears sacri- 
ficing to Khunsu. Between these are tho hawk of Ilorus, the vul- 
ture of ^'ekheb, and the ibis of Tlioth, which are also represented 
flying, to bear to the world intelligence of ihe battles, victories, and 
wisdom of the prince. The inscriptions record that this pylou was 
dedicated to Khunsu of Thebes. Another avenue of sphinxes 
follows, beyond which rises the Temple of Kltuvsu{Vl. V.), a band- 
some building on which, however, we new bestow only a passing 
glance (comi>. p. 14.S). About '200 paces towards the W. bring us 
to the First Main Pylon (el-bub cl-kellr), which faces the river. We 
here begin our description of the temple. 

I. The Great Temple of Ammon. 

a. General View. The First Main Pylon. 

As we stand before the massive pylons of the largest };roup of 

buildings at Karnak, we may casta glance at the rows of Kriosphinxes 

which led from the temple-portal to the Nile, lictwceu these rows 

^^'■■""' '"' " ^■-i^*'"^^ ;:d 

IV PiVuoi oJ-tfi^ Ttmpit nf Amman ( vj 


f Hii CBSAi TKHP-'ii m mmoM m huvrmm. 

at Thebes. KARNAK. U . Unute. 117 

moved the long processions whicli left the temple of Aramon to visit 
the W. parts of Thebes. State-barges, glittering with gold and 
brilliant colours, waited here to receive the priests and the sacred 
images. On the river-steps were ranged choirs, which, at least on 
the tive great festival days of Ammon, greeted the pilgrims from the 
opposite bank with songs. The ancient constructions on the banks 
have long been washed away. In January and February, the months 
in whifh most travellers visit Karnak, the stream is only 100-200 
paces from the procession-avenue-; while during the inundation the 
water penetrates into the interior of the temple, which in ancient 
times it was prevented from doing by huge embankments Ram- 
ses II. constructed this route to the river , yet most of the Krio- 
sphinxes that adorn it have statuettes of Seti II. Merenptah 
between their legs, and two small broken obelisks also bear the 
name of Seti who reigned towards the close of the 19th Dynasty. 
In 1883 a small temple with the name of king Psammutliis, of the 
2yth Dyn., was discovered at the S.W. corner of the pylon to 
the riglit. 
t^ /i The *First Main Pylon (PI. I) is of enormous size. It is still 
124 yds. wide, with walls 16 ft. thick and 14272 ft. high. This 
gigantic portal, which probably dates from the Ptolemies, although 
no record of the fact is known, is destitute of inscriptions. Possibly 
it was covered with stucco and adorned with paintings, as its deco- 
ration with reliefs would have demanded enormous toil and time. 
No one should omit to make the *Ascent_of_thi&. pylon. This may 
be done most easily, and without any danger or special difllculty, 
on the N. side, till we are about half way up, and thence by means 
of a steep and narrow stair in the interior. The top is so broad that 
even those who are subject to giddiness need not fear to trust them- 
selves upon it. After enjoying the extraordinary view of the immense 
ruins from this point of vantage, it is useful and interesting to seek 
to identify, with the aid of the accompanying plan, the various col- 
umns, obelisks, and pillars which at first present themselves in 
apparently inextricable confusion. This is comparatively easy as 
regards the nearer [W. ) portion of the temple; but the more distant 
portions, from among which obelisks tower, are partly out of sight, 
and are partly so foreshortened by distance, that they appear to 
form one confused system of ruins. The view by nioonlight is in- 
describably fine. But on the whole the result is a general though 
ineffaceable impression, rather than a clear idea of the arrangement 
of the various parts of the building. The latter is only to bo obtained 
by wandering, plan in hand, through the ruins. It must, however, 
never be forgotten that the temple of Karnak, so far from having 
one single uniform plan, grew up gradually, and that many of its 
parts owe their character not to any artistic calculation, but to 
such accidental considerations as the space at the disposal of the 
architect, the means and length of life of the builder, and the like. 

1 t8 Route 11. 


East Bank 

Tlie huiMiiig is at once a temple of the frods aTid a temple of fame; 
dedicated 'k toutes les gloires" of the empire of the Pharaoh.«, it was 
compelled to receive addition.';, often in most unsuitable places, 
whenever it was the will of the king to recognize the favours of 
Ammon by new buildings which should record for posterity what 
the god had done for him, and through him for Egypt. 

Before we enter tbe peristyle court, an inscription on the door of the 
pylon, to our right as we enter, merits notice. Ihis was placed here by 
the savants who accompanied tlie army of Napoleon to Egypt, and records 
the latitude and longitude of the chief temples of the Pharaohs, as cal- 
culated by them. 

llepublii|iie Francnise. An VIII. Geographie ilc'' nionnments. 





Ti^^-^- { ^-- : : 





Isle I'hilae .... 

30° 21 
30° 20 4 
30° 19 16 
30° 14 19 
30° 33 4 
30° 38 39 
30° 34 19 
30" 33 46 

2('.° 10 
25" 44 15 
25° 42 55 
25° 49 39 
24° 28 
24° 8 6 
24" 3 45 

This monument of untiring and successful diligence deserves to be 
greeted with respect; it contrasts with the execrable taste of the idle 
tourists who have scribbled over and defaced inscriptions within the 
tem]ile, with their own insignificant names. Opposite the French table 
an Italian learned society (Feb. 9, 1841) have erected another showing 
the variation of the compass (declina/.ione dell' ago magnelico) as lO'oC". 
The inscription is signed 'Marina genio' etc. 

b. The Great Peristyle Court and its Additions. 
The great *Peristyle Court (PI. A) is believed by important 
authorities to have been built by the rulers of the 22nd Dynasty. 
The oldest part of the temple is the sanctuary (p. 134j, situated 
much farther to the E. Probably the clearest view of the growth 
and historical development of the great house of Ammon wouM be 
ol)lained l)y bcfrinning there and thence visiting tho later portions 
in the order of their erection; but in following out this plan we 
should be obliged to diverge irregularly hither and thither from the 
main lines, and so would miss much of tho effect designed by the 
builders. The influi'iu'C of tho god was supposed to radiate from 
within outwards; while the procession ofhis adorers advanced slowly 
towards Ammon from without inwards. The sanctuary was the flnal, 
unapproachable goal of tho pious, few of whom were permitted to 
penetrate farther than the peristyle court. Tho hypostyle hall was 
indeed open to certain privileged worshippers, but only tho 'initi- 
ated' were allowed to approach any nearer to tho holy of holies. That 
s.-icred chamber itself might only bo entered by tho high-priest and 
the king, the representative of tho god upon earth. Tho arrange- 
mi'iit of the peristyle and succeeding chambers indicate in the 
clearest m.anncr the nature of the services celebrated within them. 

at Thebes. KARNAK. 1 1 . Jioute. 119 

The Architectonic Features of the court must be noticed before we 
proceed to examine its uses. It is 275 ft. deep and 338 ft. wide, 
and covers an area of 9755 sq.yds. On each side a kind of colonnade 
or stoa is formed by a row of columns and the exterior wall. Eighteen 
columns still stand on the left side, but the row on the right was in- 
terrupted by Ramses 111., who has here placed a temple (PI. C), pro- 
jecting considerably beyond the S. wall, and at right angles to it. Both 
rows of columns are unsculptured. Another small temple (PI. B) was 
built in the N.E. angle of the court by Seti II. Merenptah. Both 
of these smaller temples are later additions, with no reference to the 
purpose of the court, and they interfere with the effect designed by 
the original builder. The double row of huge columns in front of 
the doorway of the second pylon was, on the other hand, part of the 
original plan. The lofty shafts, which were terminated by calyx- 
capitals of gigantic proportions, taper towards the top, and contract 
rapidly immediately aliove the convex bases on which they stand. 
Y The calyx of the capitals was surroiindeil with petals, from amidst 
which slender marsh-plants sprang. In the centre of each was a 
cubical abacus, serving as a pedestal for an image of a god. Mariette 
conjectured that a small hypjethral temple (like that at Philae) stood 
in front of the second pylon, and that not only was there an addi- 
tional (sixth) pair of columns adjoining the others hut that the 
vaulting of the whole was rendered possible by two central columns 
between the pairs at each end which are about 36 ft. apart. As, 
however , there is not the faintest trace of these conjectural six 
columns , it is perhaps more probable that this colonnade repre- 
sents a processional or triumphal avenue, formerly covered only 
by a velarium, and that the continuation of it is to be recognized 
iu the elevated central row of columns in the hypostyle hall ( p. 125). 
Of the original columns only five can now be traced on the left 
side, and one on the right, close to the second pylon, which termi- 
nates the peristyle on the E. Three still show about '/s of the 
original height, one about t/4, and another about 1/0 ; the only com- 
plete column is on the right. Upon this last Psammetikh I., of the 
26th Dyn., has placed his name over that of the Ethiopian Taharka, 
of the 25th Dyn. ; above, on the abacus, is the name of Ptolemy IV. 
Pliilopator, which also appears on the recently excavated base of 
one of the broken columns. The shaft is composed of 36 courses of 
carefully hewn stone, the capital of 5 courses. The heiglitis 69 ft.; 
the greatest breadth of the capital 16 ft., the circumference at the 
top 49 ft. — • The above-mentioned second pylon, on the E. side of 
the court, is mostly in ruins. Before the doorway is an antecham- 
ber (PI. b), the entrance to which was flanked by two statues of 
Ramses II. The figure on the left side has fallen down ; that on 
the right, broken at the top, displays excellent workmanship, 
especially intlielegs, and recalls the Daedalian figures of the earliest ^ 

120 Route 11. KAUNAK. East Bank 

We may mention here in anticipation thattlie roof of the follow- 
ing hypostyle hall was supported by a perfect forest of papyrus-bud 
columns, through the midst of which a broad passage was marked 
by calyx-columns, closely resembling the detached pairs of columns 
in the lirst court (comp. p. 126). At this point we first obtain a 
clear idea of the arrangement of this portion of the temple, and the 
same remark applies also to all the rooms between it and the sanc- 
tuary. It should also be remembered tliat tlie number of those 
privileged to follow and behoM the procession gradually decreased 
from room to room as the sanctuary was approached. Headed by 
the king or chief priest, the crowd of priests, bearing the standards, 
symbols, and images of the gods, passed through the doorway of the 
first pylon into the peristyle court. The double row of calyx- 
capitals served at once to indicate their passage and to mark the 
limits beyond which tho pious spectators must not press. The 
sacred procession rolled on slowly heneuth the sliade of the velarium 
and entered the hypostyle hall through the second pylon. Many of 
those who were permitted to enter tho flrst court had there to quit 
the procession and to take up their positions to the right and left 
of the calyx-columns, ethers again were not permitted to advance 
farther than the hypostyle, and so with each room until the sanc- 
tuary was reached. To this day^the clearly deflned passage thither 
may be traced, and it will be observed that at each successive stage 
the place appointed for those who had to quit tho procession is 
smaller than the preceding. 

Later AnniTioNs in the Peristyle Court. 

1. The Small Temple of Seti II. Merenptah (I'l. R), in the 
N.E. angle of the court, to our Icl't as we enter by tho lirst pylon. 
This building, which has only recently been made partly accessible. 
Is built of grey sandstone, except beside the three doors, where a 
reildish quartzose sandstone has been used. The figure of the god 
8eth has everywhere been erased from the name of the builder. Only 
a small portion of tho walls is entirely sculptured ; and the re- 
presentations that are still extant show that the temple was dedicated 
to tho Tlieban triad. Amnion, Muth, aiul Khuns\i. In the chamber 
entered by the W. (left) door appears tho sacred boat of the goddess 
Muth, to whom Seti Merenptah, accompanied by his son, offers a 
libation. The richly dressed boy is called 'royal prince' ami 'lieir 
to the crown'. Adjacent is the figure of tho helmeled I'liaraoh, 
presenting the imago of tho goddess of truth to Amnion and Khunsu. 

2. The Temple of Ramses III. (PI. C), dedicated to Amnion, 
interrupting the S. wall of the peristyle court. 

The llarrii Pupi/riis, wliicli i^ cliicfly cnnccrnccl with the crnction 
and ciiiii]iiiicnt of tomplci, details no fewer tlian six huildin^s and five 
estates in the vicinity of Thehcs, distinguished tiy the tcriiis Hat (temple), 
I'll (lioiiso), Mennicnu fjiasture), adding after eacli oik^ of tlic two names 
of tlio king and froqiiontly also an additional name, such as 'tliy victory 

at Thebes. KARNAK. IJ. Route. 121 

thou makest abiding fdr all eternity'. The personnel assigned to these 
foundations is reckoneil at 86,486 individuals, of which 62,626 belonged 
to the largest temple (at Medinet-Habul. The above-mentioned Temple C. 
bore the name Fa Ramses hak an (House of Ramses, prince of Heliopolis) 
and had 2623 priests and attendants. 

The biiilding is in form a complete temple, but in view of the 
enormous dimensions of its surroundings can claim only the cha- 
racter of a chapel. Its total length is 170 ft. The Pylon with the 
entrance door is much injured, especially at the top. l>eyotid it is a 
Peristyle Court (PI. a), with eight ()siris-pillars on each side, and 
at the end four caryatide pillars forming a Passage (PI. p), whence a 
door leads to a small Hypostyle (PI. •{), with eight papyrus-bud ca- 
pitals. Finally come tlie chambers of the Sanctuary (PI. o). Sculp- 
ture is not wanting in this temple, which owes its origin to the 
wealthy founder of the Memnonium at Medinet Ilabu (p. 174). 
This most lavish of Egyptian kings had already founded within the 
limits of the temple of Ammon the temple of Khunsu (p. 148) as a 
worthy symbol of his liberality to the gods; and that fact explains 
the comparative smallness of the temple before us. The exterior of 
the pylons was adorned with representations expressing the gratitude 
of the Pharaoh to the god for victory in battle. On the Left Wing 

(E.) Ramses III., wearing the crown of Upper Egypt /'), holds a 

band of prisoners by the hair and raises his sword for a blow which 1 
must strike off all their heads at once. Ammon, standing in front of I 
him, hands him the sword of victory, and delivers to him chained 
together the representatives of the vanquished peoples, who appear 
in three rows. In the first two rows are the conquered nations of the 
south, in the third row those of the north. On the Right Wing are 
similar representations, the king here wearing the crown of Lower 

Egypt sJ . In the doorway , Ramses III. receives from Ammon 

the symbol of life, etc. On the right side-wall of the pylons are 
representations of battles and captives, which were concealed by 
the colonnade, a conclusive proof that the circumference of the court 
cannot date from Ramses II. 

In the peristyle court (PI. a) the following inscription occurs on the 
architrave of the caryatid passage on the right. (We omit the lengthy 
introductory titles of the king.) 'Ramses, king of Upper aud Lower Egypt, 
prince of Heliopolis (i.e. Ramses III.), the living and beneficent god, vrho 
resembles Ka that lightens the world with his beams on the E. and W. 
horizon, the lord of beams, like the sun's disc in the heavens. Men extol 
him, when they behold Ramses III., the king of Upper and Lower Egyj)!, 
the son of the sun, the lord of the diadems, Ramses the prince of Helio- 
polis, who built this monument for his father Ammon-Ua, the king of 
the gods. He erected anew (m maui) the building known as Pa Ramses 
bak an (princes of Heliopolis), as a house for Ammon, of white and well- 
hewn stone, finishing it with everlasting work'. Tlie inscription (injured) 
goes on to describe the king as a darling of Ammon, a victory-bringing 
Horns, who is as rich in years as Turn, a king and protector of Egypt, 
who overthrows the alien peoples, etc. 

122 Rnutelh KARNAK. East Bank 

The lower parts, especially in the sanctuary-chambers, are covered 
with rubbish. A long List of Offerings on the left (E.) exterior 
wall is of some interest. It records that Ramses III., in the month 
Payni in the IGth year of his reign, decreed that gifts for his lather 
Aramon-Ra, the king of the gods, should be laid upon the silver 
altar, such as provisions, sacrificial cakes, etc. Then follow some 
details (injured) as to the amount of the offerings. 

3. The Portique des Bubastites ( Portico of the Buhastites ; PI. a), 
so called by t hampoilion, is the part of the court between the left 
(E. ) wall of the temple just described and the S. part [i.e. the far- 
thest to the right) of the second pylon. This space, only 43 ft. wide, 
had a door admitting to the temple from the 8. , and is to be regarded 
as the E. end of the colonnade which lined the S. wall of the court. 
Two unsculptured papyrus -bud columns divide it from the rest 
of the court. Numerous inscriptions dating from the '11r\(\ Dyn., 
which originated in Bubastis, cover the walls, and contain impor- 
tant material for the history of that period. This dynasty succeeded 
the inglorious line of priest-kings, who seized the throne of Thebes 
after the self-indulgent Dilers of the '20th dynasty. Their names 
are rather .Semitic than Egyptian , a circumstance that need cause 
no surprise when we remember that Bubastis is named as their 
home, a city in theE. part of the Delta which was settled by Semitic 
tribes. As their names appear to be of Aramaic origin it is not 
impossible that they were placed upon the throne of the Pharaohs 
by the Assyrian conquerors who are mentioned in the cuneiform 
inscriptions of Mesopotamia , though the Egyptian hieroglyphics 
ignore them. Like their predecessors of the ^Ist l^yn., they retained 
the chief priesthood in their own control, apparently by committing 
this office to their heirs. In the hall in which we now are the 
king appears several times with the crowii-prince, who is named 
'first prophet of Ammon-Ra'; and the crown -prince occurs also 
without his father. Sheshenk I. probably began the decoration of 
the building, for his name appears in the usual place for the de- 
dication-inscription, i.e. on the architrave above the columns. The 
names of Osorkon I. and Takelut I. also occur. The last-named 
king appears before Ammon-Ra accompanied by his sou Osorkon, 
dad in the priestly panther-skin; and Osorkon also occurs alone 
offering saiirillce to Ammon. On the E. wall is a double painting 
representing Ammon to the right and left, wearing the feather- 
crown and seated on a throne, while the deceased son of the same 
O.sorkon approaches in priestly garb to offer sacrifice. Heneath is a 
long but unfortunately damaged Inscription, dating from the l'2th 
year of Takelut II., which mentions a remarkable event said to 
have occurred in the ri-ign of the father of that prince (probably 
.Sheshenk II.). The passage in question is not absolutely clear, 
but this mucli may be gathered with certainty, viz. that on tho2;ith 
Mesori in the Ifuh year of the father of Takelut II., something iin- 

at Thebes. KARNAK. J 7. Route. 123 

usual happened to the moon, which phinge<l all Egypt in alarm. 
This was prohahly a lunar eclipse i. In the left wing, on the N. 
wall , Ammon appears presenting Osorkon I. with the notched 
staff of years and the sword of victory; heneath, the king drinks 
the milk of life from the breast of Hathor; and adjacent is Osor- 
kon as a youth with the crown, to whom Khnum hands the symbol 
of life. 

Before proceeding on our way towards the sanctuary, we must 
inspect a most important historical monument which owes its origin 
to Sheshenk I. (the Sliishik of the Bible), founder of the dynasty 
of the Bubastites. This is on the outside of the S. Wall of tlie temple 
of Ammon, and is easily found. Issuing from the doorway of the 
Portico of the Bubastites, we turn to the left, and Immediately tind 
ourselves in front of this important representation. The massive form 
of the king, wearing the double crown, appears brandishing his 
weapon over a band of foes with pointed beards, who raise their arms 
in siipplication. Farther to the left is the large figure of Ammon, with 
the double feather on his head, grasping in his right hand the sword 
of victory and in his left cords binding five rows of captives with name- 
labels. Foes with pointed beards kneel before him and beii' for mercy 
with iiplifte hands. The portrait of King Sheshenk was left unfinish- 
ed, the outline drawing of the crown being still visible on the stone. 
His cartouche and the inscriptions placed in his and Ammon's mouth 
are more distinct. Beneath Ammon appears the goddess of Thebes 

with the symbol of the nome of the city of Amnion 1 upon her 


head. In her left hand she holds a bow and arrow, in her right a 
battle-axe and six papyrus cords, which unite five rows of names of 
towns, snrmounted by busts. These are the names of places besieged 
and captured by Sheshenk in his campaign against liehoboam, and 
we have thus a collateral corroboration of the Biblical narrative, such 
as has not been found for any other portion of the Old Testament. 
The Biblical passages are as follows : 1 Kings XIV., 25-26 : 'And it came 
to pass in the tilth year of king Kehoboam, that Shishak king of Kgypt 
came up against .lemisalem: .And he took away the treasures of the house 
of the Lord, and ihe treasures of the king's house; he even took away 
all; and be took away all the shields of gold which Solomon had made'. 
2nd Chron. XII., 2-4 & 9: "And it came to pass, that, in the lifth year of 
Reholioam, Shishak king of Kgypt carae up against Jerusalem because 
they had transgressed against the Lord, With twelve hundred chariots, 
and threescore thousand horsemen; and the people were without number 

t It reads thus: 'In the year etc the heavens did not swallow 

the moon'. This may possibly refer to the appearance of a new moon 
on the night immediately succeeding the last appearance nf the old moon, 
without the usual intervention of a moonless ni;_'ht — a phenomenon 
which ia possible in certain exceptional circumstances. But if. as Good- 
win suggests, instead of ._n_ not, — h — s is to be taken, it would read 
"In th« year etc. . . . the heavens swallowed the moon", and we should 
have a direct mention of a lunar eclipse. 

124 Route 11. 


East Bank 



that came with him out of Egypt; the Luhira, the Sukkiim, ami the 
Ethiopians. And lie took the fenced cities which pertained to .ludah, and 

^ ^ came to Jerusalem'. Verse 9 is the same as the above passage 

f ^ from Kings. — The conquered people named in the represen- 

f\ IS tation. are the Amu, Kenus (Nubians), Menti, and Sakti (.\siatics). 

II I ChampoUion, the great decipherer of hiero^jlyphics, was tlio 

H M first to perceive that the names in the inscription belonjrcd to 

tlie above-mentioned 'fenced cities\ and that Sheshenk, called 

by the Greeks Sesonchis, was identical with the Shishak of the 

r.ible. The third name in the third row from the to]>, attracted 

his attention especially; it reads Mudah (Juda) Malck', and may 

be translated king of Judah. The heads of the busts above the 

name-labels, with their characteristic Semitic features, are suf- 

ticient by themselves to prove that only places could be here 

sitrnilied that were inhabited by peoples related to the Jews. Of 

the 120 name-labels only a few can be identified with certainty 

%vith otherwise known names of places in Palestine, such as 

Rabbath (last ring of the first row), Taanach, Shuneiu, Uehob, 

Hapharaim, Adullain, Mahanaim, Gibeon, Helh-IIoron, Kede- 

moth, AJalou (in the second row). Several symbols have re- 

1 cently been obliterated by the whitewash used to preserve the 

V^^y wall, and some of the name-labels have also been destroyed, 

as ejj. Megiddo at the bcginnin.i of the third row. The rest of 

the inscriptions, which are couched in the usual emphatic style, give no 

farther information as to the campaign. 

We return to tlie peristyle court and proceed to the Second Pylon 
(PL IIJ. The left or N. side has fallen and the right side is sadly 
damaged. The colossi of Ramses IT., which guarded the projecting 
entrance, have already been mentioned on p. 119. Hut neither 
Ramses II., as appearances might suggest, nor even his father Seti I. 
built this pylon, hut the predecessor and father of the latter, 
Ramses I., who also planned the hypostyle hall, afterwards adorned 
by Seti I. and Ramses the Great. Tiie cartouches of Ramses II. 
frequently occur sunk instead of being embossed, because they have 
been placed on spots previously occupied by the older cartouches 
of Ramfes I. or Seti I. The same is tlie case on the back of the 
N. pylon, whereas on the back of tlie S. pylon, which was erected 
by Ramses II., his name appears In genuine bas-relief. In the 
doorway (PI. c), wliere the cartouches of Ramses I., Seti I., and 
Ramses II. arefound, an intervening door was erected by Ptolemy VII. 

Philometor I ^ m) ^^^ Ptolemy IX. Euergetes II., during 

their joint-reigit (170-165 B.C.). The lintel and upper parts of 
tliis latter doorway are wanting, btit the jambs are in good pre- 
servation, with expressions of homage to Animon and his fellow- 
gods. On tlie inner side (to the left) of the earlier doorway appears 
Ramses II. kneel ins; before Amnion and receiving the symbol of 
kingship. Behind him stands the goddess Miith, and Khunsu, with 
the moon's disc on his heail, conducts Ptolemy VII. Philometor to 
behold the god Amnion. Probably the representation is a restoration 
by Pliiloiiietor of an older work on the same spot. 

at Thebes. 


11. Route. 125 

c. The Great Hypostyle Hall. 
Tho **Hypostyle Hall of Kariiak (PI. D) was commenced under 
the 18th Dyn. liy Ramses I., completed by Seti I. (19tli Dyn.), and 
enriched with new sculptures wherever there was room by Seti's 
son Ramses II. Its breadth (inside measurement) is 338 ft., its 
depth 170 ft., and its area 5450 square yards, an area spacious 
enough to accommodate the entire church of Notre Dame at Paris. 
Tho roof is supported by 134 columns, of which the central row is 
higher than the others. Each of the 12 columns in this row is 
113/5 ft. in diameter and upwards of 32 ft. in circumference, i.e. as 

Hypostyle Hall of Karnak. (From Maspero's Arche'ologie egyptienne.) 

large as Trajan's Column in Rome or the Vendome Column in Paris. 
It requires six men with outstretched arms to span one of tliese 
huge columns. Their height is 69 ft., that of the capitals 11 ft. 
The remaining 122 columns are each 421/2 ft. in height and 271/2 ft- 
in circumference, and have papyrus-bud capitals. 'It is impossible', 
says Lepsius, 'to describe the impression experienced by everyone 
who enters this forest of columns for the first time, and passes from 
TOW to row, amidst the lofty figures of gods and kings, projecting, 
some in full relief, some in half relief, from tlie columns on whiih 

i2Q Route II. KARNAK. East Bank 

tbey are represented'. Many of tLe columns are prostrate, others 
lean as thoufrli on the verge of falling, and architrave and roof- 
slabs have either fallen or seem on the point of doing so. Yet the 
whole is so well-preserved that we never forget that we are in a 
colonnaded hall, and the ruinous appearance so far from destroy- 
ing the general impression adds a picturesque charm to it. The 
enormous proportions of tliis structure are perhaps best appreciated, 
if vre place ourselves in the wide doorway of the second pylon and 
look through the double row of huge calyx-columns towards the 
sanctuary, i.e. towards the E. The magic influence of the place is 
fully felt in the morning or evening, or by moonlight, when the 
columns cast intense black shadows on each other. 

Roof. The processional route (p. 119) was distinguished hy 
placing on each side of it higher columns than in the rest of the 
temple. These higher columns have calyx-capitals, on which rest 
cubical abaci, supporting tlie massive architraves which run jiarallel 
with the main axis of the temple. Above the architrave another 
small erection is visible. The lower columns immediately adjacent 
on both sides were connected with this inner row, by erecting upon 
them square pillars, separated by windows, aiid united with ea(;h 
other by means of a long architrave, above which another smaller 
erection is observed. Only one of the windows is now extant, and 
that in imperfect preservation. The union of these four rows under 
a common roof thus provided a lighted passage, about 78 ft. high 
(about 32 ft. higher than the rest of the hall), through the centre 
of the colonnaded hall. The shape of the columns in the outer rows 
is showm in Vol. I., p. lG4b; the calyx-capitals of the two inner 
rows in Vol. I., \k 165a. — Tlie Columns are not monolithic, but 
are built, like luige watch-towers, of hewn stones. The central 
rows have smooth shafts and enormous calyx-capitals with curved 
edges. Five baiuls at the neck of the column fasten the striped 
petals and slender water-plants, which, mingled with royal 
cartouches and other decorations, cling to the calyx. Each capital 
resembles a gigantic goblet. Unfortunately the minuteness of the 
ornamentation, es])ecially on the upi)er parts, is not very suitable 
for the huge proportions of the columns. All the columns, both in 
the inner and in the outer row, are adorned with the name of 
Kanises II. aiul various embellishments. The sliafls in every case 
bore sunk reliefs ('en creux'), the former painting in which is still 
traceable at j)la'es. 'J'lie inscriptions and representations present, 
on the whole, but little variety; but in a few consideralde dif- 
ferences may be noted as regards the persons of tlio gods and the 
gifts which thoy received or bestowed. This is specially the I'ase 
with the columns. Those in the first six rows to the N. have, 
towards the top, the cartouche of Soti I., and farther down that 
of Ramses IV.; the remaining rows liavo Ramses II. at the top and 
Ramses IV. below. Ramses III., Ramses VI., and Ramses Xlll. 

at Thebes. KARNAK. '^ 11. Route. 127 

have also recorded their names, sometimes flUing in vacant spaces 
and sometimes scratching out older names. On the capitals tlie 
cartouches of Ramses II. or of his more immediate successors are 
found; on the border of the extreme top of the shaft, this same 
Pliaroah is usually named king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of 
both worlds, son of the sun, lord of the iliadems, etc. The broader 
Held beneath exhibits almost universally vertical cartouches, sur- 
mounted witli the feathers /Ju , and standing upon the symbol 

of gold P"!*^. On the largest field, still lower, the king appears 
twice; once sacrificing to the god, and once with the celestials 
offering him emblems, generally symbolizing in some familiar way 
one of the higher blessings of life. The simple inscriptions repeat 
each other over and over again. They begin: 'I give thee', or, 'I 
grant thee', or else mention a visit of the king to the temple. The 
carvings and hieroglyphics placed by Ramses II. are much inferior 
to those dating from the reign of his| father Seti I., a fact we have 
already noticed at Abydos. 

By far tlie most important place among the gods here is filled 
by Ammon, Mutli, and Khiinsu, the Theban triad (Vol. I., p. 138). 
At Karnak Ammon was conceived of in two capacities, which most 
be distinguished from each other; he was in the first place Ammon 
Generator, in the second place Ammon-Ra, the king of the goils. 
Ammon may be identified by his featlier-crown, Khunsu by the 
crescent on his head and the lock on his temples, and Mrith by the 
vulture-cap. The other gods that appear with them may be easily 
identified with the help of the introduction on the Religion of 
Ancient Egypt (Vol. I., p. 124). On the architrave are some clearly 
cut inscriptions, of which a few deviate from the usual formulae. 
One of these, dating from Seti I., on the architrave above the bud- 
columns in the first cross-row to the E. (right), is as follows: 'He 
is a king, mounting his horse like the son of Isis (Horus). Ho is 
an archer of a mighty arm and like the (god of war) Mentu a great 
wall of brass. He is the protector of his soldiers, wlieu they thirst 
in the hollow way, on the day of battle. No opposition is offered 
to him from the hundred thousand brave hearts that are united in 
one place'. In the Inscriptions the king usually boasts of having 
erected an eternal and magnificent building in the house of his 
father Ammon, of founding festivals, or of offering great treasures. 

d. The North Exterior Wall of the Hypostyle. \ 

We turn to the left (N.) from the entrance to the Hypostyle Hall, 
and in the N. wall, between the 4th and 5th rows of columns from 
the pylon, reach a door (PI. d), through which we pass. The out- 
side of the temple-wall is covered with inscriptions and martial 
representations. These begin on the N. part of the E. wall of the 

128 Route 11. KARNAK. Emt Bank 

temple, which we reach by proceeding at once to the right (K.), 
afterwards returning to the N. wall in following the description 
below. On the 7". Wall the reliefs are in two divisions, an upper 
and a lower. The series begins at the top, to the left of the beholder. 
Here we see King Seti alighting from his chariot, in a well-wooded 
country belonging to the tribes of the Uemenen (Armenians! and 
Keteniiu (Syrians). These are compelled to fell trees, which are 
leafy and seem to be tall and slender; and were probably to be used 
for ship-building (as Solomon used the trees felled by the people 
of Hiram) or for flag-staffs. The physiognomies of the Asiatics are 
distinctly characterized. The fortress appearing behind tlie horse 
is named 'Katbar to the N. of Henuma'. In the representation below 
the king is shown driving in his chariot above the slain. Beside 
the horses, which drew the king on state occasions, are their names ; 
the king's favourite horse is here called 'Victory in Thebes'. — The 
Tema en pa Kanana, the fortress Kanana, is overcome. This was 
Seti's first great exploit, which he performed, as the inscription 
informs us, in tlie first year of liis reign, when he overthrew the 
Shasu, the Semitic neighbours of Egypt from Zav (Peiusium) to 
tlie fortress of Kanana (Canaan). 'His majesty was towards them 
as a furious lion. They were transformed to corpses, hewn down 
in their blood within their valleys'. Confused heaps of slain appear 
below the fortress (to the left). An Asiatic, with a hat, prays with 
upraised hands for mercy; several fall pierced with arrows. Only 
one escapes from among ten thousand to proclaim in distant lands 
the bravery of the king. — We now reach the N. Wall^ where also 
there is an upper and a lower series of representations. In the first 
scene (to the extreme left), above, the army has penetrated far 
enough to storm the fortress of Ninua (Nineveh), in the land of the 
Chaldaeans. The stream which washes the stronghold is the Tigris. 
The inhabitants of the country, who are represented full face some- 
what awkwardly and contrary to the usual Egyptian method, 
conceal themsidves amonj; trees. 'I'heking, advancing to the attack 
in his chariot (his head and that of his galloping horse have been 
broken off) seizes two of them standing in their chariot, and 
shoots arrows against the mounted foes. In the adjoining scene 
(nearly obliterated) the king is binding captives with his own hand, 
and drags others behind his chariot; to the right he appears drag- 
ging four captives with him and drawing others in two rows behind 
him. A single line inscription between the rows names these 
prisoners tlie mighty princes of the Uetennu ( Syrians or Assyrians). 
In tJie representation liigher up, beyond a damaged portion of the 
wall, the king appears in his chariot, with his right hand raised 
and holding in his le't his bow and the cords to which other two 
rows of prisoners (described as Retennu hart, or Upper Syrians) 
are fastened. The scene takes place before Ihe Thebaii triad, Am- 
mon, Muth, and Khunsu, to whom the king ahso presents costly 

at Tliebes. KARNAK. II. Route. 129 

vessels of silver, gold, kliosbet (lapis-Iazuli), and mafok (iiia- 

In the corresponding scenes in the lower row the king appears in 
his chariot (at the left end of the N. wall), with his back turned to 
the great ones of the Khara (Syrians). He drives past several 
castles, built by himself, some of them described as water-stations; 
beside the lower ones is a small fresh-water lake. In the second 
scene the king is shown in his chariot, shooting arrows against hi,s 
foes, who are named 'Shasu' (Beduins). Fortified water-stations 
appear here also and a beacon or watch-tower of King Uamenma. 

The following representation is one of the most remarkable in 
Egypt, for it clearly proves that a kind of Suez Canal, i.e. a canal 
dividing Africa from Egypt, existed as early as the time of Seti I. 
The relief represents the king on his homeward journey. His 
spirited horses prance along before the light chariot, which carries 
only the Pharoah and the heads of his slain enemies. (The king's 
favourite horse is named 'Amnion gives the sword'.) In his left hand 
the king holds the reins and his bow, and in his right the sword of 
victory, the scourge , and a number of cords to which pinioned 
enemies are fastened. Three of the latter he drags after him, and 
three rows of Asiatics fastened together by the neck precede the 
horses. The bastions with reservoirs which the procession has to 
pass are represented at the foot of the relief, in accordance with the 
peculiar Egyptian system of perspective. The desert-station imme- 
diately beside the hind hoofs of the king's horses is called Migdol of 
King Ramenma. (Migdol is a Semitic word meaning a fortified tower 
generally.) Between the hind and forelegs of the horses appears 
another fortress, called the castle of the lions. The train of return- 
ing warriors is separated from their Egyptian fatherland by a canal 
full of crocodiles. That this is not merely an arm of the Nile is in- 
dicated by an inscription above the bridge, to the right, which 
names it Tatenat, i.e. literally 'the cutting'. The crocodiles, which 
do not live in salt water, show that this canal was supplied from 
the Nile ; and the two groups of figures on the farther bank show 
that it marked the boundary of Egypt. In the upper group are 
priests and grandees, with curious nosegays in their hands, who 
await the Pharaoh with low obeisances; in the lower group the 
women raise their hands in greeting to the returi\i!!g king, who 
brings with him their husbands and sons. The inscription runs : 
'The priests, the great ones, and the princes of Upper and Lower 
Egypt approach to welcome the good god (i.e. the king) on his re- 
turn from the Syrian land, with enormous booty. Never has tho 
like happened since the time of the god', i.e. probably since the 
time of Ra. — The 'cutting' which thus divided Asia and Africa 
can only be the canal by means of which the early Pharaohs eji- 
deavoured to unite the Nile with the Red Sea (comp. Vol. I., p. 427), 
the through communication from the Red Sea to tiie Mediterranean 

B.\EDEiiEus Upper Egypt. 9 

130 Route 11. KARNAK. East Bank 

being then completed 1>y the Pelusiac arm of the Nile. The canal, 
frequently suffered to fall into disuse, was restored by Nekho (7th 
cent. B.C.) and at a later period by Darius I. Communication 
between the Nile and the Red Sea was maintained even under the 
Arabs, but it was afterwards interrupted, and not restored until the 
construction of the present fresh-water canal by Lesseps. The 
bastions which defended it are those that compelled the Jews during 
the Exodus to change their N.K. route at Ethani or Etam, i.e. 
the fortified places (khetem), and to turn towards the Ked Sea on 
the S. The relief, which is gradually becoming more and more 
indistinct, deserves careful study. The conqueror of the Semites, 
who is here joyfully welcomed as he approaches in his chariot, is 
the ancestor of the Pharaoh of the Bible narrative who perished in 
the Red Sea. 

The victorious monarch next appears, after his arrival at Thebes. 
As in the upper representation, he conducts to Amnion two rows of 
rebellious Asiatic princes, captured in the land of the Hetennu, and 
presents to the god magnificent vessels. 

We have now returned to the door by which we left the hypo- 
style hall. It is adorned with the name of Ramses the Great. 
To the right and left are two colossal companion reliefs, in which 
Ammon is represented holding several rows of captives by cords, and 
presenting the weapons of victory toKiiigSeti, who raises his sword 
against a band of foes whom he holds by the hair. The name-rings 
on both sides refer to the conquered tribes. The legend on the relief 
to the left is noteworthy : 'He smites the great ones of the Annu 
Mentau (with the symbols of the shepherds), all the remote regions, 
all lands, the Fenekhu (Phcenicians) of the sea-region, the Sati, 
the great circle of the green ocean' (>.e. the Mediterranean Sea). 

We turn next to the representation on the Right ( W.) Side of the 
door. To the extreme right, at the corner of Pylon II., above, we 
see the storming of Katesh in the land of Amara (the Amorites). 
This is the fortress which offered such serious resistance to the army 
of Tutmes III., and it was the greatest obstacle to the victorious 
progress of the Egyptian army in the wars of Seti and his son 
Ramses, The scene is depicted with great vividness. The Aramaic 
foes of the king (the Kheta) appear both on foot and in chariots; 
and Seti overcomes his foes fighting also on foot and in his chariot. 
The foes, who wear curious peaked hoods, flee in wild confusion. 
The Egyptian artist here shows some appreciation of landscape 
effects. A forest region is represented, though somewhat crudely, 
with six different kinds of trees and shrubs. A herd of cattle be- 
longing to the Kheta, terrified by the approach of the king, fly from 
their pasture, accompanied by the herdsmen, who toss their arms 
in despair. Katesh is taken, and the defenders are thrown from 
the walls. This Is the only relief that has been preserved in the 
upper row. 

at Thebes. KARNAK. 11. Route. 131 

In the second row, to the right, the king in his chariot dashes 
against the discomfited foe, and aims a blow at a hostile leader, 
distinguished by a feather. Next the king on foot deals the finishing 
blow with his lance to an officer, who has been brought to his knees. 
To the left the victorious monarch fares homeward, 'preceded by 
two rows of prisoners, named 'hi anta en tahi'. The small figure 
behind the chariot is the crown-prince Ramses. Then follows the 
presentation of the prisoners, who are called Retennu and Tahennu 
(i.e. crystal-coloured, white), to Ammon, Muth, and Khunsu, who 
also receive the captured gold and vessels. — Similar representa- 
tions occupy the lowest row. To the right is the pursuit of the 
Kheta in their chariots. The inscription above compares the king 
to Sutekh and Baal, to a wolf and a lion, that roams through the 
by-paths, to a bull that destroys the enemy in their blood. To the 
left is the homeward journey. The king leads captives on foot, and 
behind him is a chariot containing fettered prisoners, and preceded 
by two rows of the same. He brings his captives to the Theban triad, 
who are here accompanied by the goddess Mat. There also are Re- 
tennu, brought by the king from the land of Kheta 'to fill the lordly 
palace of Ammon'. 

e. The older E. part of the Temple of Ammon. 

1. From the Hypostyle Hall to the Sanctuary. 
We now return to the central row of lofty columns with the 
calyx-capitals, and follow it eastwards to Pylon III., which we pass 
through on our way towards the sanctuary, like the more highly pri- 
vileged worshippers admitted to the temple in early times. This 
part of the temple has been terribly destroyed, but enough has been 
left standing to afford an idea of the general arrangement. The 
picturesque effect of the ruinous scene is enhanced by the variety 
of artistic forms employed, and by the tall and slender shape of the 
largest obelisk in Egypt, rising from the midst of the ruins, and 
testifying to the pastprond splendour of this truly royal edifice, which 
has been ruthlessly trodden under foot by the monotonous cycle of 
years and shattered by war and earthquakes. — The nearer we 
approach to the sanctuary the older are the parts of the temple we 
traverse. The inscriptions afford materials for ascertaining the date 
of each different portion ; while the practised eye will not find it 
difficult to support the conclusions thus arrived at by comparison 
of the successive styles of art. We here find the polygonal pillar- 1 
column and the finely carved bnd- columns, bearing clear and un- 
mistakeable evidence as to the idea, to which this order owed its I 
origin. The third pylon seems to have marked the limit of the 
temple under the early empire, before the gigantic buildings of 
the 19th Dyn. were added. The W. side of this pylon, within the 
great hypostyle-hall, still shows the incisions made in the wall 


132 Route 1 J. KARNAK. East Bank 

for the support of the tlag-staves. The pylons lying to the S. were 
built by the kings of the 18th Dyii., and were connected with the side 
of the great temple of Ammon, wlience they were reached l)y a door 
between Pylon III and Pylon IV (p. 145). 

On the rear of the left side of Pylon III is a long inscription 
(unfortnnatoly imperfect at the top), recording the gifts of Aiueu- 
hotep III. to the god Ammon ; and to the left is the representation 
of several ships, recording a festival voyage instituted by the king 
in honour of the god in his naos. The sanctuary exii^ted before the 
Hyksos period, certainly under the 12th Dyn., and the conquerors 
and expeUers of the Intruders erected in honour of .\mnion suc- 
cessive additions, increasing in size as they receded from the 

On passing through the third ruined pylon into the Central 
Court (PI. E), we come first upon two Obelisks, of which, however, 
one has been destroyed, though Pococke saw them both erect in 
1738. The standing obelisk (PI. g) is, like most others, made of 
granite from the quarries of Syene (Assuan). It is 76 ft. high and 
stands upon abase 6 ft. square. Only the lower portions of the 
inscriptions on its faces are seriously injured. The central rows are 
in larger and finer hieroglyphics than the side-rows. The former 
date from the time of Tutnies I., the latter contain the names of 
later appropriators of this monument. The usual formulae occur in 
these inscriptions; Tutraes I., among other titles, is named the 
victory-bringing Ilorus, who fulfils the years and enlivens the hearts. 
Ho, 'the lovely son of the sun, erected this monument in honour of 
his father Ammon, lord of the throne of the world, who is wor- 
shipped in E. Thebes ('Apet'j'. In front of this obelisk are the 
remains of a cubical basis , which probably served to support a 
colossus. The two obelisks and the colossus marked the entrance to 
the temple in the reign of Tutnies I. 

Next follows Pylon IV, in such a ruinous condition that its ori- 
ginal form cannot be ascertained. It dates from the time of Tut- 
mes I., who is represented by the Osiris-columns attached to its 
inner (E.) side. Only the N. door-pillar is now standing. It bears an 

expre-sssion of homage to Ammon from Tutmes IV. ( Q |'|' "" | i^ j, 

but beneath the arm of the king is a short inscription, in whicli llio 
Ethiopian Sabako records a restoration of the temjjle by himself. 
A similar reference to his campaigns appears in the inscription on 
the left side. Seti IT. has also placed his name upon this doorway. 
The doorway closing the fourth pylon on the E. fell during the 
inundation of ISfi:"). Beyond its site are a few Tuineil fragments of 
a structure, the original arrangement of which is only to be under- 
stood on the supposition that five couples of columns stood on the 
left and six couples on the right, and that two couples were removed 
from each side to make room for two imposing Obelisks. The 

at Thebes. KARNAK. 2 2. Route. 133 

Right Obelisk has been overthrown, and the fragments of its shattered 
shaft are seen lying scattered around. The top has fallen some 
distance to the N. The *Left Obelisk (PI. h), still standing, is the 
largest obelisk in Egypt. The total height was estimated by the 
engineers of Napoleon's expedition at 97^'2 ft., its diameter at the 
base 81/9 ft., its mass 4873 cubic ft., anlTits weight 3673 tons.i It 
is made of fine red granite, and the inscriptions upon it are among 
the finest specimens of the grand style, which flourished at the date 
of its erection. Queen Hatasu Khnumt-Amen, who was regent for 
her brother Tutmes III. during his minority, and who erected this 
momiment, was a true child of the Egyptian 'age of chivalry' which 
did not close until the reign of AmenhotepIV., the sun-worshipper. 
Her name will frequently be met with again, especially in her 
terrace-temple at Der el-bahri (p. '2'23). She was the half-sister 
of two kings (Tutmes II. and Tutmes III.), and was named 
queen by her father Tutmes I., probably because her mother was 
of purer royal blood than the mother of her half-brothers. After 
her father's death she reigned in her own name along with Tut- 
mes II., whom she married, and on her husband's decease she ruled 
on behalf of Tutmes III., who appears also to have been her son- 
in-law. Masculine in disposition, she carried on important wars 
and reared large buildings. The less energetic Tutmes II. yielded 
to the guardianship of his sister and wife, but Tutmes III. appears 
to have early compelled her to relinquish to him the crown of Lower 
Egypt. After her death he caused her name to be chiselled out in 
some places and to be replaced by his own in others — ■ an instance 
of the irreverent disfigurement of monuments only too common 
in ancient Egypt. Hatasu Khnumt-Amen , the royal Amazon, 
caused herself to be represented with the ornaments of the male 
Pharaohs, and even with a beard. The beautifully carved central 
inscription, formerly inlaid with electrum or silver-gilt, contains 
her name alone ; though she permitted her brother's name to appear 
at the sides. Later usurpers have not entirely spared even this noble 
monument. The side-inscriptions contain short sentences with the 
formulae usually employed for the presentation of gifts and the 
bestowing of the blessings of life, while the central-inscriptions 
refer to the dedication of the obelisks. One of the inscriptions is as 
follows : 'The mistress of the diadems, whose years do not wither 
(literally 'are green or'), the victory-bringing Horus, etc., Ha- 
tasu, erected this as a monument to her father Ammon, the lord of 
the thrones of both lands, while she reared two obelisks to him in 
front of the pylon of Ammon Arsaphes, adorned with statues, and 
inlaid it with a profusion of electrum (silver-gilt), in order that it 
miglit shine over both lands like the sun's disc. Never since the 

t The tallest known is that in the piazza in front of the La- 
teran at Rome, which is 105 ft. high. The other obelisks at Rome are 
sanaller than the one in the text. 

134 Route 11. KARNAK. East Bank 

creation of the world has anything been made like what has been 
erected by the child of the sun Khnunit-Amen Tlatasu, who bestows 
life, eternal like the sun'. The queen is uniformly referred to by the 
feminine pronoun, though she is represented as a man and named 'a 
son of the sun'. On the rectangular base of the obelisk it is recorded 
(N. side) that the queen erected it in seven months in the 16th and 
17th years of her reign, and (E. side) that it was overlaid with gold, 
that the queen herself weighed out the necessary gold in sacks and 
bars, so that (S. side) the people on both banks beheld it glittering 
at sunrise. — The obelisks are enclosed by a rectangular granite 
waU, 12-15 ft. in height. 

As we proceed towards the E., we pass another Pylon (PI. V), 
now completely ruined, and enter a Second Colonnade, with Osiris- 
figures representing Tutmes I. In each of tlie spaces to the right 
and left are five pairs of columns. Between them was a central 
space enclosed by Tutmes, with two of the Osiris-statues embedded 
in the wall. An inscription informs us that this surrounding wall 
was raised by Tutmes III. to cover the monuments of his father 
Tutmes I., 'so that the monuments of his father Usertesen ( 1 '2th 
Dyn.) and the monuments of his fathers, kings of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, should not be seen in presence of his own'. 

On the Avails of this narrow room, and on the right and left of 
the gateway with granite pillars which forms the opening of Pylon V, 
are the name-labels of the peoples conquered by Tutmes III. The 
S. peoples are named on the right: 'List of the S. lands, of the 
Anu Kenes from Khent-hun-nefer. defeated by His Majesty, he 
wroughthavoc amongthem, their multitude is not known, he brought 
all that belonged to them as living captives to Thebes, to fill the 
work-house of Ammon-Ra'. Beneath are 116 name-rings of con- 
quered tribes of the S. lands ; first those of Kush (Ethiopians : the 
Cush of Scripture), then those of Punt ( Arabians), and lastly the 
Libu (Libyans). On the left are the names of N. peoples, above 
which is an inscription: 'List of the tribes of the upper Retennu, 
captured by llis Majesty in Magda , the miserable place, their 
children brought by His Majesty as liAing captives to the fortified 
place in Apt-asu (Thebes) from his first campaign, as commanded 
him by Amnion, who has led hiur by good paths'. (^Two similar lists 
of N. and S. tribes, one of them being still more complete, are to 
be found on Pylon VIII, lying to the S. ; comp. p. 146.) 

We now traverse a kind of pronaos and enter the Sanctuary 
(PI. F), a chamber built of hard granite. The frequent repetition 
of the name of Philip Aridaeus on its walls might lead one at first to 
suppose that this apartment is a comparatively recent structure, 
dating from the reign of this royal puppet under whom the power 
was really wielded by Ptolemy I., son of Lagus ( Soter ). But Philip 
is here named only as restorer, not as founder, and certain frag- 
ments of statues found farther to the E., afford a proof, as we shall 

at Thehes. KARNAK. 11. Route. 135 

■ see, Ihat a temple must have stood upon this spot even before the 
epoch of the Hyksos. The building of every temple, without excep- 
tion, began -with the construction of the sanctuary; and beyond 
doubt, we are here standing in front of the most ancient part of the 
entire temple of Ammon. The granite pillars to the right and left, 
on which a large flower-caj yx appears between two smaller ones, 
also date from Tutmes III. Beyond these pillars and a small ante- 
chamber we reach the space iisually regarded as the Sanctuary. It is 
built entirely of pink granite, and is divided into two chambers, a 
very uncommon arrangement, although easily explained in the present 
case (see below). The front chamber, opening to the W., is 19 ft. 
long, the hinder one, opening to the E., over 25 ft. The roof has 
been completely destroyed; and a slab of granite, leaning obliquely 
downwards, seems as though on the point of falling. The latter 
was adorned wjthstarSj_and traces of colour are seen both upon it 
and upon the walls; but the sculptures were never fully completed, 
and the red outlines which served as a guide to the sculptor may 
still be made out here and there. The holes in which the door- , 
hinges were fixed, still show traces of verdigris, a proof that the I 
hinges were made of copper or bronze. 

The entire double-chamber and the pillars at its entrance date 
from the reign of Tutmes III. Mariette believed, probably with 
justice, that the actual sanctuary, or at least the original sanctuary 
of the l'2th Dyn., lay behind (i.e. to the E. of) the granite chamber, 
because that would alone explain the opening at the back of the 
chamber. A stele preserved in the museum at Gtzeh records that 
the temple of Karnak was in existence as early as the close of the 
11th Dyn., though then of little importance. Wilkinson found the 
name of Amenemha I. (12th Dyn.) on a shattered pedestal to the S. 
of the sanctuary; and an inscription of the 21st Dyn., discovered by 
E. de Rouge in the southmost court of the temple (in the S.E. angle, 
to the right of the entrance by the pillars ) contains an announcement 
by a certain Amenhotep, chief priest under Ramses IX., that the 
sanctuary of the temple of Ammon was built in the time of User- 
tesen I. and then restored by himself. Two steles in the quarries of 
Ma'sara near Cairo (Vol. I., p. 406) record that King Aahmes, the 
conqueror of the Hyksos , caused stones to be quarried for the 
temple of Ammon, in the 21st and 22nd year of his reign. At all 
events the ancient sanctuary stood near the site of the one now be- 
fore us, if not actually on the same spot. Tutmes entirely rebuilt 
it, providing it with two doors, a peculiarity commented upon 
above. The W. entrance must have existed before his time , for 
it was turned towards the portions of the temple built by his 
ancestors. When Tutmes, however, added the large new struc- 
ture farther to the E. (p. 138), he connected it with the more an- 
cient holy place, dividing the latter in two and adding a W. door- 
way, so that it became the goal for the processions from the E., as 

136 Route n. KARNAK. East Bank 

•well as from llio W. , and even for tliose advancing through the 
series of pylons on the S. — It is improbable that Cambyses caused 
the destruction of this 'heart' of the worship of Ammon, if we may 
nse tliat expression, and Nectanebus, who was a miglity Guilder 
would certainly have restored it, had it been injured. On the other 
liand, nothing is more likely than that one of the later I'ersian 
kings selected this temple for destruction after some abortive in- 
surrection on the part of the Egyptians, in order to punish the re- 
bellious province in its most sensitive part. Ptolemy Soter, who 
held the reins for Philip Arida;us, could have found no easier way 
to win the hearts of his new subjects than to restore the holy places 
destroyed by the l^ersians ; while to do so was to imitate Alex- 
ander the Great. In this particular case the work was not difficult, 
for though new sculptures had to be provided for the adytum, its 
walls were for the most part still standing. In the dedication- 
inscription in the interior of the sanctuary, Philip records merely 
that he had restored witii granite the sanctuary which was falling 
to ruin, 'which was built in the time of Tutmes III., king of 
Upper and l^ower Egypt' ; and a fragment of the older structure, 
bearing on its upper side a representation of Tutmes offering gifts 
to Ammon Generator, was used as a ceiling-slab in the restoration. 

The inscriptions and carvings on the Inner Walls of the lirst 
chamber are neither imposing nor specially interesting. They still 
exhibit traces of colour, especially of the blue pigment, which was 
lavishly used to make the figures stand out more distinctly from 
the reddish stone. Ammon in both his main characters (Amnion 
Generator and Ammon king of the godsl receives the homage of 
Philip, or rather of the representative of the royal house of .Macedon, 
for it is certain that Philip never entered the valley of the ISile. Muth 
of course also appears with Ammon, and once is depicted as 
embracing him, an absolutely unique representation. The traveller 
will see with surprise in this sacred spot a representation of tlie 
king, under the auspices of Khnum, catching birds with a net, and 
promising to bestow his booty ui>on Ammon. 

The JE.i'<er(or Walls of the holy of holies are covered with numer- 
ous low reliefs and inscriptions, not easily seen on account of the 
smoothness and jiolish of the granite. On tlie right side (S. ) the 
Pharaoh is in one place sprinkled with the Avater of life by Ilor Hut 
(Vol. I., p. 133) and Tlioth, and in another receives from them the 
royal crown. Elsewhere we see the boat of Ammon being brought 
in solemn procession to the sanctuary, and tluTklng offering four 
calves of different colours (perhaps symbolizing the nations of the 
four quarters of the globe, over which he watched ;is shepherd of 
the people). The inscription records that Amiiion-Ka, IIk; bull (hus- 
band) of his mother, is highly pleased willi the beautiful monument 
which Philip has erected to him. and that lie promises aU kinds of 
fii(t- III till- kiuL' in return. The founil;ilinii-i im i iinuiy is also men- 

al Theles. KARNAK. 11. Route. 137 

tioned on tins wall; and on the otlier (N.) we see Philip oflfering 
to the god of Thebes at a step-altar. Various nomes of Upper and 
Lower Egypt took place in this ceremojiy. Mention should be made 
of a large flabellum or feather-screen, which appears toconceal the 
figure of Amnion, i.e. the hidden, the veiled. This symbolically 
indicates that tlie deeper conception of the essence of the god must 
remain hidden from the uninitiated. 

Around the sanctuary lay a number of apartments (now all 
more or less destroyed) in which later kings, such as Seti II., 
Sheshenk, and the Ethiopians Sabako and Taharka, have inscribed 
their names. The last placed their inscriptions upon walls which 
had been built much earlier, at the latest under Tutmes III. The 
last-named great warrior and builder caused a list of his acquisi- 
tions through war to be carved near the holy of holies, and this has 
proved of the greatest value for the history of his times. Part of 
this inscription was taken to Paris ; what remains at Karnak is 
much injured, though still quite legibie. It is to be found in the 
passage to the N. of tlie sanctuary (PI. i), where it begins at the E. 
end, is continued beyohd the door, and then at the point where the 
wall recedes to the W. First copied by Lepsius, it has been trans- 
lated by S. Birch and H. Brugsch and several others, but it is too 
long to allow of more than an extract being here given. 

Statement of the Acquisitions of Tutmes III. The livst lines below, 
half destroyed, contain the royal commands to undertake the placing of 
the inscription. In the month Pharniuthi (the day is broken oS) of the 
22nd year of his reign the first campaign was undertaken, from Zar 
iTanis). (The victorious king on his return in the following year seems 
to have got rid of the guardianship of his sister Hatasu.) The march of 
the Egyptian army leads at first through well-known towns, as the fortress 
of the land of Sharohanu (Sharon), which begins at Jeraza (Jericho ?), etc. 
On the 4th day of the mouth Pakhon, in his"23rd year, the king encamped 
before the fortress of Gazatu (Gaza?), and entered it in triumph on the 
5th. He brought the accursed prince thereof to ruin, that he might 
extend the borders of Egypt according to the commands of his father 
Ammon. On the 16th Pakhon in the same year (23rd) he proceeded 
against the fortress Ihem, for the prince of Katesh had marched to Magda 
(Megiddo), for the defence of vrhich the princes from the river of Egypt 
(Wudi el-'Arish) to Mesopotamia had united themselves together, and 
among them the Khar (Syrians) and Katii (Galila'ans), on horseback and 
on foot .... There, was a choice of two ways, and the king chose that 
via Aaluna (Ajalon?). On the 19th Pakhon of the 2;5rd year, tlie king 
encamped before the fortress of Aaluna, near which there must have been 
a navigable river as Tutmes made use of one. The army proceeded 
through the valley of A.aluua and at the seventh (i.e. an auspicious) hour 
reached the bank'of the Iwook of Kina (Kanah) to the S. of Megiddo. 

Here the king pitched his lent and delivered an inspiriting speech to 
his troops. The festival of the new moon, which was also the anniver- 
sary of the coronation, was celebrated on the 21st Pakhon. The king 
nioiinfed his chariot, which was richly adorned wiih silver gilt, and in 
his war- harness [resembling Horus , Mcntu , the god of battles , and his 
father Ammon, drew up his troops in two wings and a centre, which he 
himself commanded. The battle began in the plain of Jlegiddo and the 
enemy was defeated. Their horses were taken, and their golden chariots 
with "silver-work, etc. The prince of Katesh and tlie prince of Megiddo 
were drawn up into the fortress by their garments and so escaped, while 

138 Bouiell. KARNAK. East Bank 

the Kgyptian soldiers fell upon Ihe goods that were left behind. Great 
booty was captured; and the slaughtered cneinies 'lay in heaps, like fish 
upon the shore'. The hostile camp was taken, and Tntmes built a fort 
to restrain the rebellious city. The record of these deeds was inscribed 
in a leather-roll and deposited in the temple of Ammon , in the midst of 
which we are now standing. The great ones of the land came to beseech 
mercy and to bring tribute of silver, gold, lapis-lazuli , and malachite. 
They brought also corn and wine, etc. The prisoners numbered 340; 
83 severed hands were reckoned up ; and 2041 horses, 191 colts, and 6 bulls 
were captured. The defeated also lost a chariot inlaid with gold, a golden 
chariot Ixi.v , a chariot beautifully inlaid with gold belonging to one of 
the allied princes, and 892 war- chariots of their worthless warriors, in 
all 924; a beautiful suit of iron mail belonging to one of the kings, and 
the armour of the King ofMegiddo: 200 other suits of armour, 502 bows, 
and 7 silver- mounted posts from the royal tent of the enemy. — The 
captured oxen numbered 1929, goats 2(00, and sheep 20,500. Other pri- 
soners, including king' sons, were captured in different strong places, and 
were led along behind the Pharaoh, to the number of 2503. Syrian metal 
vessels, and other metal -work including swords, were also among the 
booty, to a tolal weight of 1784 <c» {iO ket — iten—i^jioz). Of gold and 
silver ware there were 966 <c« and i. ket. There was also a statue, the 
head of which was of gold, ivory, ebony, and sesame-wood (probably cedar), 
inlaid with gold. The yield of corn was enormous, amounting to 
208,000 ie«a (1 tena = nearly 1/2 bushel) of grain, 'besides what was cut 
down and borne off by the soldiers of the king'. The other details of the 
tribute we omit. — Then follows , probably for the sake of comparison, 
a description of the tribute brought to the king in the 40th (24th?) year 
of his reign from Syria and Assyria (Assur). — The next portions of the 
inscription have been removed and are now in the Louvre, having been 
acquired partly by purchase (from the Salt Collection in 1826), and partly 
by gift to Prince Napoleon (the portions re-excavated by Mariette, and 
published by I.epsius in his Answahl and by Mariette in his Karncik). 
These refer to the capture of the towns of Tunep, in the 5th campaign 
and 29th year of the king's reign, and Aruthut, in the Gth campaign and 
30tli year, in the land of Euten, with the list of the booty and captives, 
including the king's sons and brothers. They also contain lists of booty, 
of the 3lst year, from the town of An-an-rut on the lake Nes-ro-an, and 
of the 33rd year, from the land of Euten and Kaharain (Jlesopotamia) 
with the town of Ni ; the tribute from inhabitants of Kamenen , Sangar 
(with real and artificial lapis-lazuli), of the Kheta, Punt, of the 34th year 
from the land of Zahi , captured towns, horses, chariots, golden uten- 
sils, etc., also from the king of Euten. Asebi (Cyprus) and Kush had also 
to pay a high tribute, the latter chiefly in gold. In the 3ith year, in his 
10th campaign, the king met and defeated the Assyrian army near Ariana. 
The records of the remaining campaigns and the lists of booty are still 
in their original position. The 13th expedition (3Sth year) was against 
the town of Anaugas, and was followed by tribute from Zahi, Asebi, 
Arirekh, Punt, and Wawat (to the S. of Egypt); the 14th campaign 
(39th year), against the Shasu and Euten, was marked by the destruction 
of the towns ofArantu and T.mcp. Finally appears the command to erect 
a memorial tablet of all these victories. 

In the same corridor as the above inscriptions , appear repre- 
sentations of the gifts presented to the temple by Tutmes III., 
including the two obili.sks mentioned at p. 133. 

2. Large Building of Tulmes III. 
Continuing onr progress still towards the K. beyond the sanc- 
tuary, we reach first a flat open .«paci' (PI. G), about HO paces 
wide, in which, immediately behind the sanctuary, are a few 

at Theles. KARNAK. 11. Route. 139 

scanty relics of the earliest recognizable buililings of the temple of 
the 12th Dynasty. Farther on, in the axis of the sanctuary, are two 
square granite bases, one behind the other, being the relics of 
sixteen-sided columns , with the name of Usertesen I. A little 
farther to the E. is the doorway of the — 

Great Colonnade of TutmesIII.fPl. H). The reports of the mili- 
tary success of this prince, which we have just perused, telling us of the 
enormous wealth at his disposal, and still more the reverence which 
we see him paying to Ammon at every turn , prepare us to And in 
this temple some important building reared by him to his divine 
patron. The space to the W. of the ancient sanctuary had already 
been occupied by the ediiices of his ancestors, so that, as his new 
building was also to maintain connection with the holy place, he 
was forced to build on the site to the E. We have already seen 
how, contrary to the usual custom, he provided the sacred granite- 
chamber with a second doorway (opening to the E.). The form and 
appearance of the courts and chambers that lay between the sanc- 
tuary and the colonnade cannot now be determined, for they have 
been utterly destroyed. The ancient holy place built by the kings 
of the 12th Dyn. was probably surrounded by two concentric walls, 
separated by an archway or passage. The colonnaded hall, which 
we enter by the central door, is 144 ft. wide and 52ft. deep. The 
roof was supported by 20 columns in two rows ; while 32 square pil- 
lars (14 at the sides, 4 at the ends) formed four galleries with the 
walls of the hall. The pillars, though not so tall as the columns, were 
of the same height as the walls, and with the latter supported the 
roofing slabs. As the middle of the hall was also roofed, a small 
wall, with sloping exterior and decorated with the astragal and con- 
cave cornice, rose from the roof above the pillars and walls to the 
height of the columns in the centre. There was thus formed a kind 
of clerestory, which was provided with rectangular windows, broader 
than they were high, in order to admit light to the hall. The central 
columns belong to a peculiar order , the various parts of which on 
the shaft and capital were indicated only by painting. They have 
received the name of 'inverted calyx-capitals' , because the bells or 
calyces were placed Triv'erted on the smooth shafts, which were 
painted a dark red and adorned with vertical inscriptions, recalling 
the similar decoration of the central panels of the Suted polygonal 
columns. As the edge of the flower-calyx rested upon the end of the 
shaft, the latter expanded at the top, with some abruptness; and 
the annuli had in consequence to be placed somewhat low down 
on the cylindrical shaft (below the beginning of the expansion), 
to save them from the appearance of slipping down. The capitals 
are adorned with calyx- or marsh-plants, the tips of which, of course, 
point downwards. In place of the fruit-germ, these inverted ca- 
lyces support somewhat lofty abaci, on which rests an architrave 
adorned with fine hieroglyphics. The fourth abacus on the E. side 

^40 Boute U. KARNAK. East Bank 

(now in the Louvre) bears on its N. side au inscription of the king 
Takelut. The method of uniting capital and shaft gives evidence 
of genuine artistic fueling; but the general eifect of this style of 
column was unattractive, and after its employment here it found no 
admirers and was given up. — This hall contains no inscriptions 
of general interest. The hieroglyphic characters on the architrave 
are carved in the large and handsome style of the 18tli l>yn., but 
they merely announce in the usual formal way that Tutmes 111. 
built the hall of line limestone and sandstone in honour of his 
father Ammon. 

The S. part of the rear -wall of this hall in adjoined by a 
chamber in which seven well-made polygonal columns are still 
standing. Two small doorways lead from tlie centre of the colon- 
naded hall into aSANcruAnv (PI. I), on the front of which the name 
Alexander may be read. This, however, does not refer to the great 
conqueror of Darius, but to his and Iloxana's son, Alexander 11., 
a royal puppet for whom Ptolemy I. Soter rtiled. Another inscrip- 
tion informs us that Tutmes built this sanctuary also. The latter 
was probably used for sp.^cial cults, while, as we have seen, the 
granite room of Philip Arida!\is (p. 134) must be regarded as the 
holy of liolies proper, even for this teuiple. The colours on the 
walls of this room are in good preservation. In spite of the ruius 
and rubbish lying about here the traveller should not omit to glance 
into the chambers of the rear colonnaded hall. One of them c,on- 
tains an interesting representation. The god Seth (Vol. 1., p. 132; 
here half defaced) of Nub (K6m Umbo) teaches Tutmes II. to 
shoot with the bow, while llorus instructs him in the use of the 
lance. The hostile twin-brothers bestow upon the Pharaoh strength 
to win victory, which is symbolized by the vulture of victory hovering 
above the group. 

The (Columns which are still standing in the hinder portions of 
the temple are of interest as specimens of the favourite orders under 
the 18th Dynasty. Near the centre four beautifully sculptured pa- 
pyrus-bud columns stand in a row from !•]. to \V., and a few paces 
to the N-W. are two polygonal columns united by an architrave. In 
Hoom Y, excavated by Mariette, are some interesting representations 
of animals and plants, which, as tlie accompanying inscriptions 
inform us, were transplanted from Retennu (Assyria) to Egypt by 
'J'utnios 111., in the 2oth year of his reign. 

We now turn to the S., to the Sidt-Iiuiidinxi of the temple of Ti- 
mes 111. (Pi. K), where there are 9 chambers adjoining each other, 
each opening to the N. The two at the E. end are halls, each with two 
columns to support tlie roof, while of the other seven cliambers three 
are completely ruined. ()])posite the westernmost of these lay the 
cliamber which contained the celebrated Karnalc Tablet of the 
Kings (Vol. ]., p. H5), transferred to I'aris by J^risse d'Avennes 
and now in the Bibliotheque Nationale. Only about 40 of the 

at Thebes. KARNAK. U. Route. 141 

60 cartouches which it iiicliiried, are now legible. Resides the cele^ 
brated kings of the eavliest dynasties, the series embraces especially 
the kings of the 11th Dyn. (the Antef) and of the 12th, 13th, and 
17th (conquerors of the Hyksos) Dyn., who all probably resided at 
Thebes. The names, however, are not U\ chronological order. 

Omitting for the present the lake (p. 144) to the S. of this row 
of chambers, we return to the middle of the building and quit it 
by the girdle-wall on theE. Immediately behind the wall Ramses II. 
built a Hnll (PI. L), adorned with caryatides, now completely ruined. 
About 45 paces farther E., and connected with this hall, is a small 
Temjile (PI. M), built by the same Pharaoh, but so ruined as to 
present little of interest. Caryatides were employed here alsoj'and 
two papyrus-bud columns may be mentioned, on which the place 
of the usual cubical abaci is occupied by tolerably high fragments 
of earlier polygonal shafts, utilized in the same manner as the Arabs 
used the fragments of Greek and Roman temples. Beyond these 
ruins, and still farther to the E., is the well-preserved Pylon VI. 
(62 ft. high), which must be regarded as the main entrance to the 
great temple of Amnion for those approaching from the E. Outside 
it traces of the girdle-wall of the temple, built of bricks of Nile 
clay, may still be found. This castmost pylon has few sculptures, 
but the inscriptions indicate that it was erected by Nekht-nebf, i.e. 
NectanebusIL, who had nottime to finish its decoration. Thisprince, 
who ascended the throne of the Pharaohs during the Persian era and 
waged successful wars, especially in Upper Egypt against the satraps 
of the Asiatic invaders, found both courage and means, hard pressed 
and threatened as he was, to erect important birildings not only 
here but also on the island of Philae and elsewhere. Thus the pylon 
which limited the temple of Ammon to the E. may be regarded as 
a tangible proof of the obstinate independence of the Egyptians. — 
This pylon is 510 yds. distant from the first (W.) pylon. 

If we turn to the right (S.) outside the E. pylon of Nectanehus II. we 
soon reach a small building bearing the cartouches of Ramses III. and 
Ramses IV. To the "i^. of the pylon lies a recently-excavated small Temple, 
in which occur the names of Ameniritis, sister of Sahako I. (25th Dyn.) 
and consort of King Piankhi, and' of their daughterjShep-en-apt, who 
married Psammetikh 1. of the 26th Dynasty. 

f. The S. Side of the Temple of Ammoji. 
We now return towards the W., re-enter the hypostyle court of 
the great temple by the door (PI. d) mentioned at p. 127, traverse 
the court from N. to S. between the 4th and 5th rows of columns 
(reckoned from the second pylon), and quit it by the door at PI. e. If 
we turn and face the outside of the S. wall of the temple , M-e find, 
to the left, representations of the towns of Palestine captured by 
Sheshenk (described on p. 123), and, to the right, various military 
representations, referring to the campaigns of Ramses II. against 
the Kheta (AramiBans). The Epic of Pentaur, referring to the same 

142 Route 11. KARNAK. East Bank 

campaigns, which we have already met with on the pylon at Luxor 
(p. 112) and which will be mentioned again when we visit the 
Ramesseum (p. 161), occurs also here in long but not easily acces- 
sible lines of hieroglyphics. About 40 ft. to the right (E.) of the 
door through which we quitted the hypostyle, a short wall projects 
at right angles from the wall of the great temple, bearing a most 
interesting and important inscription, containing the Treaty of Peace 
destined to put an end to the wars between the Egyptians and the 

This is the most ancient international treaty extant in the world, and it is 
as remarkahle for its contents as for its form, wliicb is so conceived in the 
essential points that modern documents of a similar aim differ from it 
only in the greater conciseness of their expressions. The bottom of the 
inscription is at present concealed by rubbish. The treaty is dated the 
21st Tybi in the 21st year of King l.'amses II. Miamun, in the town of 
Tanis, i.e. the Ramsestown. The Kheta prince caused the treaty to lie 
engraved on a silver table and sent an ambassador to seek peace. The 
document proper, divided into paragraphs and translated by the eminent 
French Kgyptologist F. Chaba.s, begins as follows : 'Formerly and for a 
long period the mighty king of Kgypt and the prince of the Kheta lived 
in good understanding (God grant that hostility never again exist between 
them). Nevertheless he declared war against the great king (.Seti I.) of 
Egypt, in the time of JIautnur, my brother, prince of the Kheta. But 
from, to-day and from this day Kbetasar, prince of the Kheta, makes a 
treaty in order to arrive at a lasting understanding. May Ea, may Seth 
l.end them endurance, as well for Kgypt as for the land of the Kheta 
(Arama'a), so that hostility may never again arise between them. — The 
following points were agreed upon: Kbetasar, prince of the Kheta, unites 
with Ramses Jliamun, the mighty king of Kgypt, to cause to exist between 
them good peace and good alliance from this day onwards forever. He 
shall be allied with me, he shall be at peace with me; and I, I shall be 
allied with him, and I, I shall be at peace with him forever\ After a 
brief historical retrospect, the treaty goes on: The prince of the Kheta 
will never again invade Kgypt to carry off anything whatever out of it, 
and Ramses Jliamun, the mighty king of Egypt, will never invade the 
land of the Kheta, to carry off anything whatever out of it'. Then, after 
another historical retrospect: 'When enemies turn ag.ainst the land of 
Eamses iMiamun, the mighty king of Egypt, he will send to the prince of 
the Kheta the message, 'Come and unite tliy.self with my might against 
them'. The prince of the Kheta will he at the disposal of the king of Kgypt 
and will smite his enemies. If the prince of the Kheta does not take the 
field in person, he will send his foot-soldiers and war chariots to smite 
the enemies of the king of Kgypt .... and vice versa (with repetition 
of the above paragraph). — Then follows a. remarkable convention by 
which the parties to the treaty bind themselves not to use force in preventing 
skilled workmen from passing from one country into the other. 'I'he gods 
and goddesses, the Baalim of the land of the Kheta (translated 'Selh'), 
Astarte, and a 'thousand' local deities, mountains, and rivers are invoked 
as witnesses by the Asiatics, while the Egyptians invoke Ammon Ea, Seth, 
the warlike gods and goddesses, the mountains and rivers of Egypt, the 
shore of the Mediterranean, the wind, and the clouds. These powers are 
to punish the breaker of the treaty; while to him who keeps it they shall 
grant life, to him and to his house, his e.state, and his servants. Next 
follow two remarkable articles in which the contracting parties bind 
themselves mutually to extradite criminals ; though, by a condition which 
speaks highly for the civilization reached by both nations, his crime 
'shall not be permitted to raise itself against the extradited criminal, i.e. 
the criminal process against him shall be suspended, and no harm shall 
be done to his house, or to his wife, or to his children; he shall 
also not^ be punished in the eye, mouth, or foot, and moreover no 

at Thebes. KAHNAK. 11. Route. 143 

accusation of crime shall be brought against him. The last legible lines 
of the inscription are as follows: 'On the front of the silver table is the 
figure of the statue of Seth, embracing the statue of the prince of the Kheta'. 
The encircling inscription runs: 'O ligure of Seth, king of heaven and 
earth, grant that the treaty which Khetasar, prince of the Kheta etc ' 

II. The Northern Buildings. 

A visit to the ruins to the N. of the [temple of Ammon need not 
detain the traveller for any long time, unless his object be to decipher the 
inscriptions and to gather from them philological or historical information. 
They are in bad preservation; and the N.E. group, the temple of the war- 
god Mentu, is in especial so completely ruined that it is dlflicult to recon- 
struct its ground-plan, although in size it was originally as large as the 
temple of Khunsu (p. 148). The traveller who has little time at his 
disposal, or who must proceed with the steamer, may content himself 
with a glance at the great N. girdle-wall of Nile-bricks, and at the gate 
of the Ptolemies. 

Beginning at the E. Pylon of Nectanebus (p. 141), we skirt the 
girdle-wall of the great temple of Ammon, first to the N. and then 
to the W. (^left), until we see upon the right or N. side of our path 
another girdle-wall of Nile-bricks. Within tins lies a ntined Temple 
(PI. N), the axis of which lies S. W. and N.E. Like the IN. pylon (see 
below) it was dedicated to Mentu, the god of war, and is frequently 
mentioned on demotic tiles (ostraca). Stretching N.E. from this 
building is an avenue of sphinxes, which we reach on passing 
through the door of a well-preserveil pylon. Little now remains of 
the temple, which dates from the time of Amenhotep III. of the 
18th Dyn. (who also erected two obelisks, as appears from a frag- 
mentary inscription found here), though it was subsequently several 
times enlarged between the reign of Ramses IV. and the epoch of 
the Ptolemies, especially by Ptolemy IV. Philopator. Ptolemy II. 
Philadelphus and Ptolemy III. Euergetes have recorded their names 
here, and there is also a stone bearing the name of 'Ramses'. The 
earlier sculptures and architectural fragments are of great beauty; 
and columns with Hathor capitals were also employed. The above- 
mentioned Pylon (PL VII), the most N. part of the edifice now 
remaining, was founded by Ptolemy II. At its foot is a list of 
nomes, and higher up are numerous other iftscriptions. The fellahin 
boys are shy of accompanying travellers to this spot towards evening, 
as it is said to be haunted by an 'Afrit or devil. It is called by the 
natives Bab el-'Abtd, or gate of the negro-slaves, probably on account 
of some of the representations on its walls. 

From the pylon we proceed to the S.W., passing the remains of 
a Ptolemaic temple (PI. 0), of which the staircase is still to be 
seen, to another Temple., consisting of six .small chambers (PI. k 
to p). The second from the W. (PL 1) contains the name of Ame- 
niritis, with that of her brother Sabako. The fine alabaster statue 
of the queen, now in the museum at Gizeh, was found here. The 
temple n shows the rare name of Nepherites (29th Dyn.); o dates 
from the 22ud Dynasty. The names of Taharka, Osorkon II., and 

144 Enute n. KARNAK. EriH Bank 

queen Karoiiiat, and on tlic wall of the second chamber, of Take- 
lut II. and his consort Koromania, may be read here. The last 
chamber (Fl. \>) dates from Nectanebup I. 

- • On the other side of tlie girdle-wall, i.e. over the hill, is another 
Building (PI. P), erected by Tiitmes ill., but where also are found 
the names of King Horus, Sabako, Taharka, and several of the Pto- 
lemies, including Philometor and Neos Dionysus. This temple was 
dedicated to Plah and Hatltor, whose priests are represented. In a 
chamber, which may bu described as the Pronaos, are traces of the 
staircase leading to the roof, now fallen in. Here also are two poly- 
gonal columns, which, taken in connection with dedicatory inscrip- 
tion, indicate that the erection of the temple was begun under the 
18th Dynasty. As we again approach the N. wall of the hypustylo 
of the great temple and the door by which we issued to view the 
battle-reliefs of Seti I. (p. 127), wo pass, a little to the N. of the 
latter, two small ruined temples (PI. Q) of the 'iGth Dynasty. The 
princes of this illustiious line were less able to rear elaborate build- 
ings at Thebes in proportion as they devoted the means at their 
disposal to building magnificent temples in honour of the gods of 
Memphis and still more of Sais, their residences in Lower Egypt. 
These little temples, now surrounded by the ruined huts of a de- 
serted Arab village, were, according to the inscriptions, built by 
Queen Ankhnes, who hero appears with Psammetikh III. (perhaps 
her son?) and with her husband Aahmes. Ankhnes was the daughter 
of Psammetikh II. To the right of the entrance and in the doorway 
to the left of the smaller temple is the queen accompanied by her 
young chamberlain Sheshonk, ascion of the Bubastites of the 22nd 
Dyn., In whose veins flowed royal blood. Nitocris, wife of Psamme- 
tikh II., also appears in the second doorway of the interior. Uer 
magnificent sarcophagus is now in the muse\im atOizeh, while that 
of Queen Ankhnes is in the British Museum. 

III. The Southern Buildings. 
The >]iort projecting wall, on whicli is llie treaty mentioned at 
p. 142, is part of the series of courts and pylons which connected 
the temple of Amraon with that of Muth, lying to the S. Before 
inspecting this remarkable part of the great temple, we find onr way 
through the ruins to the somewhat more distant Lake. The Arabs 
name this Birket el-Mall'iheh or LnkeriftUe Salt-pit, as the water has 
become saline and undrinkable through inllltration. It is known 
that each temple formerly possessed a Sacred Lake, and there is no 
doubt that in antiquity the golden boat of the god used to float upon 
the water of this pond, kept pure and fresh. The banks w^ero an- 
ciently faced with hewn stones, and traces of these arc still to bo 
seen on the W., S., and especially on the N. or neaiest side, though 
at most points they were covered by rubbish in the course of ages. 
Between thi< I :ik<' :iiiil ihc ikui i.r ihc ukiIh diriiili- that enclosed the 

at Thebes. KARNAK. 11. Route. 145 

granite sanctuary (p. 134) are a few half-ruined chambers forming 
a kind of annexe to the S. wall of the temple, and partly constructed 
of alabaster, a substance rarely used for building. The ruins 
nearest the lake date from the reign of Tutmes III., those imme- 
diately adjoining the temple-wall from the reign of the Ethiopian 
Taharka. A square apartment, decorated with paintings of which 
the colours are still vivid, displays some curious deities, probably 
Ethiopian, but only the upper parts of the paintings are now visible. 
We now return to the doorway opening to the S., between the 
third and fourth pylons (p. 132), upon which is the cartouche of 

Ramses IX. I [_] i?« nefer ka. To the S.W. of this point, in an 

irregular line and at varying distances from each other, are Pylons 
VJJI, IX, A', and XI. From the last of these an avenue of sphinxes 
(now concealed by a small wood) stretches to the temple of Muth. 
Pylon XI is turned towards this avenue, but the pylons X, IX, and 
VIII, succeeding each other towards the N. , gradually effect the 
transition to the great temple of Ammon by their position and the 
angle they stand at with reference to the S. wall of the great temple ; 
for, as will he seen from the Plan, none-of them is exactly parallel 
with that wall. The four pylons are connected with each other by 
side-walls running at irregular angles, and thus enclosing four 
courts, which, however, are no longer clearly defined owing to gaps 
in the walls. Through these four gateways passed the ancient pro- 
cessional route, which began at the temple of Muth, in which were 
the statues of Sekhet (p. 148), and ended at the temple of Ammon 
in the space with the two obelisks (p. 132), which may be regarded 
as the vestibule of the sanctuary. 

The series of four Courts between the pylons, which we now 
visit, had an aggregate length of 310 yds. (not reckoning the sphinx- 
avenue). It was begun in the early times of the 18th Dyn. (Tut- 
mes I.), and was afterwards several times enlarged and adorned. 
Beginning at the gateway of Ramses IX. (see above), we have on 
our right the fragment of wall (probably dating from Seti I.) on 
tlie W. side of which is the famous treaty (p. 142), and on the 
left the wall running to meet Pylon VIII, and probably dating like 
that pylon from Tutmes III. On the front of this latter wall king 
Merenptah, son of Ramses II., caused an inscription of great inter- 
est to be carved. 

From this we learn that the king: victoriously opposed the Libyans 
and their allies, the islanders of the Mediterranean, whose later expeditions 
against Eevpt are recorded in the inscriptions at Medinet Habu (p. 1(7). 
Under his 'father the Egyptians had advanced into Asia; now, the peoples 
to the W. and K. of the Nile valley, the Libyans and Maxyans, and with 
them Lvcians, Sardinians. Sicilians", Acha-ans, and a tribe named Pulesta 
(more prohablv Philistines than Pelasgians), dare to invade (he Delta and 
to dwell there 'like previous kings' tie. probably the Ilyksos). Merenptah 
assembles an armv, and encouraged by a dream, defeats the allies. The 
number of the slain and the most valuable portions of the booty are de- 

Bakuekek's ITpper Egypt. 10 

146 Route 11. KAUNAK. East Bank 

tailed. The triumphant king does not forget his father Auimon, in whose 
temple he causes the record of his victory to be inscribed. 

Though Tutmes III. erected Pylon VlII^ Merenptah after- 
wards ai>piopriated it to Limi^elf. On the side to the left of the be- 
holder the S. tribes, and on the right side, the N, tribes are de- 
picted as captives, with their name-rings. 

The lists seem to have been edited three times. At first there were on the 
left only 47 names, written from left to right, and in the right .')2 names, 
written from right to left, ."^ubseiiuently three rows, written in the oppo- 
site direction, were added to the three lowest rows — on the left the 
name-rings 48-70, 71-94, 9o-^17, and on the right the name-rings 5 i-74, 
75-97, 98-119 — sn that ill S. tribes and 119 X. tribes were recorded, 
corresponding with the two other f ng lists of tribes by 'I utmes 111. on 
Pylon VI, in the great toraple of Animon, and on the S. side of I'ylon VII. 
At a still later date (])iissibly not till Blerenptah's reign) 12 name-rings 
were added at the enils on the left (.S. tribes) and 240 name-rings on the 
ends on the right (N. tribes). 

On the riglit (N.) end of the N. wing of Pylon VIII is a short 
inscription of the ^IstDyn., relating to the restoration of the rights 
of a Princess Kainaka. The other (S.) side of the pylon consists of 
two portions, some distance apart, representing Tutmes III. seiz- 
ing prisoners in presence of Ammon. On the left (AV. side) are the 
N. tribes, describt'd as the great ones of the Het-nnu, of all the 
remote (seta) lands, of the Fenekhu (Phoenicians). On the right 
(E.) side are the pc oples of the S. Before the centre of the pylon 
are remains of statues of Tutmes 111. 

The next court is much smaller than the courts b'twecn the 
pylons farther to the S. The well-preserveii Sccnd I'yl'n (V\. IX) 
is interesting as the most ancient part of the entire building. It 
was founded by Tutmes 1., and its gateway was provided with 
inscriptions by his sons, Tutmes 11. and Tutmes III. Tut- 
mes I. is seen on the N. side (left) wor.'^hipping the triad of 
Thebes; and beside this representation is an interesting poetic in- 
scription (damaged) extolling the might and 'he victories of this 
prince. Above is the boat of Ammon Ra borne by priests, in front 
of which is Tutmes II. receiving the symbol of life from the lion- 
headed IJarthekati (the great sorceress), behind whom is the goddess 
Hathor of Dendcrah, pouring water irom a vessel. To the left of tliis 
King Seti I. apjjcars twice before Ammon Ra, who is followed by 
fifteen deities in three rows of fise. On the right side of the pylon, 
towards the top, is a similar boat, b' neath which are representations 
of Ramses HI. Mali an. On the S. side of the pylon, to the right, 
is Amcnhotep II., smiting a band of eii'mies. As this king was 
unable to complete the inscriptions on the left side, Seti I. took 
advantage of the vacant space to commemorate his name. Four 
Colossi originally stood before this pylon. Those to the right have 
disappeared, but those still extant to the left are highly interesting. 
The huge yellowish torso immediately to the left of the door has 
the name of Tutmes 11 on the girdle; and in an inscription on 
its back Tutmes III. anfiounces that be erected the statue in the 

at Thehes. KARNAK. 1 1. Route. 147 

42nd year of his reign in honour of his father Tutmes I. The 
skill shown in the vorking of the sandstone conglomerate used for 
the statue is noteworthy. Pebbles as large as bullets occur in the 
stone, yet the surface has a wonderfully smooth polish. The other 
colossus, which belongs t o Ameiihotep II., is made of white lime- 
stone of a fine grain. The head is still in situ but the face is dis- 
flgnred. An adjoining Stele^ with a much defaced inscription, re- 
cords that Amenhotep II. led the Egyptian army as far as Niniveh. 
On the E. side of Pylon IX is an invocation of some lengtli to Ammou 
from the high-priests Koma and Eoi, in the reign of Seti II. On 
the outside of the E. wall between Pylons VIII and IX and on Py- 
lon IX next to the small doorway, are inscriptions by Amenhotep, 
high priest of Thebes in the time of Ramses IX. (Neferkara), in 
which he speaks of the restoration of a then ruined building that 
had been erected by Usertesen I. (12th Dyn.). Close to Pylon VIII 
is a small Chnpcl (PI. q). 

The next Fylon (PI. X) has collapsed, leaving fragments of walls 
standing to the extreme right and left, separated by a saddle-shaped 
depression. Erom the shattered inscriptions we learn that King 
llorus founded this pylon, though Ramses II. afterwards unjustly 
placed his own name upon it and upon two granite statues no longer 
extant. The names of Ramses IV. ( Uak ma ) and above it Itamses VI. 
(Nefer hak an) are also found, on the horizontal band on the N. side 
of the pylon. King Horus and Ramses VI. are represented on the 
W. side of the connecting wall. The ruins are most easily skirted 
on the W. side, and beyond them is a spacious Courts bounded on 
the S. by the Last Pylon (PI. XTJ. The wings of this huge edifice, 
constructed of hewn sandstone, have collapsed, but the central door- 
way of granite is still standing. Four blocks of granite, on the right 
of the doorway and facing the court, are decorated with a Relief, 
representing with remarkable vivacity King Horus approaching the 
god with two libation-vessels. An inscription Avithin the granite 
portal informs xis that this king, who ruled at the close of the 18th 
Dyn., built the pylon, using for that purpose some hewn stones 
bearing the name of Amenhotep IV. (Khu-en-aten), the strange 
sun-worshipper whom we met at Tell el-Amarnah (p. 23). From this 
it has been concluded that a building erected at Karnak by the 
schismatic was destroyed soon after his death. In front of tlie N. 
side of the pylon are two headless limestone colossi. Ramses II. 
placed his name upon these as well as upon the pylon ; and some 
priests of Ammon of the 21st Dyn. have also commemorated them- 
selves upon the latter. — On the W. Wall, uniting Pylons XI and 
-X is a representation, restored by llorus, of the Sacred Boat 
of Ammon, which must have been carried in solemn procession 
through the series of pylons now engaging our attention. The E. 
Wall, which bears an inscription to the efl'ect that King Horus con- 
quered Punt (Arabia), is interrupted by a building (PI. S) ia which 


HSEuuteU. KAUNAK. East Bank 

square pillars are used iii place of tlie more usual columns. These 
simple artistic forms themselves suggest an early origin for the 
edifice, and the inscriptions record that it was built by Amenhotep II. 
and III. A gallery is adjoined by a hall with 20 pillars, and that 
again by several apartments arranged in a manner not elsewhere 
found. On several of the pillars, whose unadorned capitals are 
striking, the king appears before Amnion. It is not easy to deter- 
mine the purpose of this building. It cannot liave been a palace. 
Perhaps it contained stables for the sacred animals of the different 
deities, or was the depository for the sacrificial gifts presented within 
the first pylon. Perhaps Amnion's guard of honour, which is fre- 
quently mentioned and which had to watch over the temple, was 
quartered here ; or it may have been used by the priests on duty for 
the day as a temporary resort. Various reasons prevent us from 
regarding it as the actual abode either of the kings or of the atten- 
dants on the gods. — To the S. of Pylon XI is the base of a Stalue 
of King Horus, the lower part of which dates from Amenhotep 111. 

15eyond the pylon, which we skirt rather than pass through, is 
the Avenue of Sphinxes, bounding the processional route that led to 
the S. buildings. To the E. of the avenue two Vliamlem, painted 
in bright colours, were excavated by Mariette. They belong to a 
temple of Osiris-Ptah, who is here represented as worshipped by 
Taharka and by Amontanut, apparently a contemporary king (the 
Urdamani of Assyrian inscriptions). 

The avenue leads to the temple of Muth (see below), while it is 
connected by a branch with the sphinx-avenue leading from the 
temple of Khunsu to Luxor (comp. p. 110). In a straight direction 
the first-mentioned avenue is terminated by a Gdle (PI. r), built by 
the Ptolemies, in the N. side of a girdle-wall enclosing a liorse-shoe 
shaped lake. In front of this lake stood the Temple of Muth (PI. T), 
built by Amenhotep III., and now so completely ruined that it is 
difficult to determine its original arrangement. To the right and 
left of the gate of Ptolemy J'hihidelphus (which bears a beautiful 
hymn to the goddess Muth). and both without and within the girdle- 
wall, were numerous lion-headed Figures of Sekliet, many of which 
have already found their way to European museums (e.y. at Turin). 
A second gate bears the cartouches of Seti II. and Set-ntikht. In a 
small Apartment on the E. side of the temple is a record of a resto- 
ration of the t(mip]e liy .Mentm-nihat, priest of Ammon, in i\ih time 
of Taharka. To the W. of the liorse-shoe lake are the remains of a 
small Temple (PI. U), built by Kamses III., who liere recorded his 
victory over the land of Talii and the animals and other rich booty 
which he thereby obtained. 

IV. The Temple of Khunsu. 

About 150 paces to the W. of the last i)yl(>n (j). 117) passed in 
our way towards the S., lies the beautiful and interesting 'Temple 

at Thebes. KARNAK. 11. Route. 149 

of Khunsu (Fl. V), the portal of which we have already seen on our 
way from Luxor to the river-front of the great temple of Amnion. 
An avenue of sphinxes, approximately parallel with the above-men- 
tioned avenue between Pylon XI and the temple of Muth, leads to 
the slender Ptolemaic Pylon XII and beyond it to the temple of 
Khunsu proper, which lies a little farther N. The temple is beauti- 
fully proportioned, in many places adorned with remarkable care, 
and in various respects of great interest. It was erected by llam- 
ses III. in honour of Khunsu, i.e. the god who represents, so to 
speak, the youthful Amnion in the triad of Thebes. Elsewhere, it 
may here be noted, Khunsu is conceived of almost as the moon-god 
(with the child's lock of hair on his temple and the crescent-moon 
on his head), and thus identified with Thoth- Hermes. Just as 
Ammon is called the soul of Ra, so Kluinsu is to be regarded as the 
spiritual quintessence of the earlier moon-god, and may be named, 
like Thoth, 'the representative of the spirit, the ratio interna of all 
things". As Pa ar sekher or 'plan-maker' he guides the deliberations 
of mortals, and he becomes also the divine physician (^Kltun.^u nefer 
hotep, 'the good helper'), who considerately restores the sick to 
health. Cynocephali, sacred to Khunsu as well as to Thoth, were 
kept here. — In the great Harris Papyrus Ramses III. says of this 
temple : 'I built a house in Thebes for thy son Khunsu, of good hewn 
stone, of sandstone, black stone, its doors covered with gold, adorned 
with electrum like the celestial horizon'. In the same document it is 
named Pa (house) Ramses hak an in Pa Khunsu with 2U4 persons; 
aTul afterwards: 'Persons whom he (RamsesIII.)gave to Pa Khunsu 
in Uas Neferhotep, Hor lord of the wide lieart, '249'. There thus 
appear to have been two different temples erected to Khunsu. The 
inscriptions inform us that he had not time to iiuish the 'House 
of Khunsu', but was obliged to leave later rulers to complete the 
Peristyle Court and the Pyhn. The last was erected by the priest- 
king Pinozem, son of Piankhi, of the 2istDyn.; but Alexander II. 
is also commemorated in the doorway to the peristyle court. This 
court itself has on three sides a double row of papyrus-bud columns, 
six iu each row. From the inscriptions wo gather that after por- 
tions of this building were built by various Ramses of the 20th Dyn., 
the priest-king Herhor, predecessor and perhaps grandfather of Pino- 
zem, contributed to its decoration. Most of what we know of the 
kings of the 21st Dyn. is derived from the inscriptions here. 

The clii-e connection which must at (hat time have existed between 
Asia anil the Nile valley is proved by a Stele, found in the temple of 
Khunsu and now preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationals at Paris. L'pon 
this one of the last kings of the 20th Dyn. records that he married the 
daughter of a tributary prince, made her his queen, and in order to cure 
her younger sister who was possessed by devils {i.e. insane) sent first a 
phvsician and then a statue of Khunsu to Bekhten. After the healing god had 
done what was expected of him, the father-in-law of the I'haroah detained 
the statue until he was warned in a dream to send it back to Egypt in 
its sacred boat. 

Tlie peristyle court is succeeded by a narrow Hall, extending 

150 Roule II. 


East Bank 

across the entire breadth of the temple and havingits roof supported 
by eiglit oolumns in two rows with calyx-capitals. This was at least 
adorned, if not built, by Kanises Xlll. ; while the door bears the 
cartouche of Nekluiebf 1. The calyx-capitals are comparatively low, 
and their edges are bont out to a remarkable extent. lieyond this 
hall are the rooms of the Sanctuary. Here, especially in the rooms 
to the E., are a series of deeply carved inscriptions, some of which 
are of great scientific importance though of little general interest. 
Ramses IV. (Hak ma) and llamses XIII. occur here, and several 
Ptolemaic princes have carved their names. Various Greeks, of 
late date, have also left their names in longer or short inscriptions, 
placed beside representations^ of_, foot-prints (indicating that they 
had visited the spot as pilgrims), a habit illustrated also at Philac 
and elsewhere {e.g. Lesbos). Isis ' and Khunsu (besides Tiioth) 

were the gods to whose shrines pilgrimages were most frequently 
made in sear(-h of health. It is worth noting that the temple of 
Khunsu contains the only representation of circumcision yet dis- 
covered in Egypt. Not only Khunsu, but also the other gods of the 
triad to which he belonged were worshipped in this temple ; both 
Muth, called 'tlie great' and the 'mistress of Ashrn', and Ammon- 
Ra, 'lord of the throne of both worlds in E. Thebes, ruler of 
heaven, and king of all gods'. Of the dedication -iTiscriptions, 
which abounil in wearisome profusion on the architraves and else- 
where, one, of the time of Uamses XIII., will serve as an example : 
'The living good god {i.e. the Pharaoh) raised this building in the 
house of liis father Khunsu, the lord of Thebes, and built this temple 
of good limestone and sandstone in workmanship for long duration'. 

V. The Small Temple of Apet. 
The Temple of Apet (PI. AV^), once occupied by Champollion as 
a dwelling, lies close to the W. wall of the temple of Khunsu. It 
is now used as a depository for the smaller monuments found at 
Karnak, the best of which are periodically transferred to the Egyp- 
tian museum at Oizeh. Dhib Timsah, who lives opposite (a boy 
will summon him), opens the temple on request. Among loss in- 
teresting objects a beautifully executed torso of Tutmes III. is 

at Thebes. KARNAK. 11. Route. 151 

preserved here. The roof of the First Room is supported by two 
Ptolemaic columns, with Hathor-masks on the abacus. To the right 
and left of this wide hall are two rooms, and behind are three 
others, the middle one of which gives access to the Sanctuary. The 
inscriptions on the walls owe their origin to the Ptolemies; the 
earliest, as the dedication-inscription also informs us, to Ptolemy IX. 
Euergetes II., and to Cleopatra, his sister and wife. The pregnant 
hippopotamus-goddess Apet was the goddess of births. Her finely 
executed statue of serpentine, found in the ruins of the ancient 
city, is now in the museum at Gizeh. It dates from the 26th Dy- 
nasty. The inscriptions and representations refer largely to Osiris, 
whose birth was commemorated here, and to the gods associated 
with him. On the outside of the temple-wall and on the walls ad- 
joining it are found the names of Ptolemy Auletes and the emperor 
Augustus. A list of nomes, also found here, is unfortunately much 

Excursion to MedamCt, only to be undertaken when there is abun- 
dance of time; 4-5 brs. are necess;iry. The site is reached afler I'/z hr.'s 
rapid riding We proceed first to the E. sphinx-avenue of Karnak, where 
the road diverges to the right, along a large embankment. It then turns 
to the left and runs mostly along the edge of ditches, frequented, especially 
in ]>ecember, by wild fowl. 

'Ihe Temple of Medamut, at one time a large and beautiful edifice, is 
now so completely ruined that even its ground-plan cannot be traced. The 
village, a kind of suburb of Thebes, was called Teman and lay to the N. 
of the temple. Month of Thebes was the god chieily worshipped here, but 
Euto (uazi) and Apet were also revered. Ihe erection of this temple dates 
from the lime of Amenhotep II., of the 18th Dynasty. His n«me occurs 
on the large granite pillars which are still standing and which probably 
formed part of the Sanctuary. Numerous blocks of granite lie scattered 
around. The sanctuary w^^s adjoined by a large edifice, lying approxi- 
mately from E. to W. Much farther to the W. was a Pylon, facing the 
river, but now destroyed, leaving nothing but a heap of blocks of sand- 
stone. V;iri()us fragmentary inscriptions in a good style inform us that 
it was built by i?eti I. and Ramses II. Under the Ptolemies an addition 
was made to the earlier temple, including the Colonnade, which is now 
the most conspicuous and most interesting feature of the ruins. Five 
columns are still standing. Four of these, on which still rests the stone 
architrave, appear to have bounded a now destroyed peristyle court and 
to have formed the first row of columns in a hypostyle hall, which cannot 
have existed before the time of the Ptolemies The other column i.s the 
only relic of the second row. Both this and the two bud-columns (to the 
left) in the first row appear to belong to the 18th Dyn. ^, the two latter 
certainly did, for their sculptured shafts and capitals clearly indicate that 
the artistic idea which dictated their form still retined a vigorous 
freshness at the time of their erection. On the other hand the late ela- 
borate plastic decoration of the caly.x-capitals of the other two columns 
more to the right, the curious closing of the intercolumniations by means 
of barrier-lilce walls, half as high as the shafts, and crowned with a concave 
cornice, and the treatment of the doors, whose absent covering was merely 
indicated on both sides by erections with concave cornices, would in them- 
selves be proofs that the building was not erected before the ejioch of the 
Ptolemies, even if the inscriptions did not contain the same information. 
Bees have built their nests in many of the deep hieroglyphics which com- 
pose the inscriptions, but we can still distinguish the names of Ptolemy IX. 
Euergetes II.. the captor and destroyer of Thebes, and those of Lathyrus 

152 Route 12. THEBES. West Bank: 

and Auletes. Antoninus Pius bestowed some attention on the decoration 
of this edifice, the picturesque remains of which show that even in the age 
of the Ptolemies the practice of using ancient columns for new buildings 
was well understood, a practice which became very commnn under the 
Arabs. The use of other ancient fragments of buildings (especially hewn 
blocks of stone) was frequent even in very early times. 

As we return, we may once more walk through the temple ofKarnak, 
a digression which will not add more than 1/2 ^^- to the day's expedition. 
If the traveller have made an early start, he may lunch in the bypostyle 
hall of Karnak, under the shadow of the largest columns in the world, 
where the destroyers of the temple and previous travellers have provided 
seats in the shape of blocks of stone. 


Passengers by the three-weeks' tourist-steamers devote the 1st and 3rd 
(CookJ or 2nd and 3rd (Gaze) day of their stay at Thebes to the West 
Bank; those by the four-week's steamers the 2nd and 4th (Cook) or 3rd 
and 4th (Gaze) day; arranging in each case to spend the (irst day in a 
visit to the sepulchral temple of Seti I. and the Tombs of the Kings (IIR. 19, 
20), and the second in visiting the Kamesseum, Shckh 'Abd el-Kurnah, 
UGr el-Medineh, and Medinet Ilabu (HIl. 13-18). A different arrangement 
is recommended on p. 102, for a three day's slay at Thebes, according to 
which the (irst day's visit to the W. bank is devoted to the Colossi of 
Memnon, Medinet Habxi, DOr el-3Iedineh, 8hekh 'Abd el-Kurnah (RR. 12- 
18), and the next day to the sepulchral temple of Seti I.' and the Tombs 
of the Kings (RR. 19, 20). If five days are spent at Thebes, three should 
be devoted to the W. bank, the first being occupied by the Colossi of 
Memnon, the temple of Medinet Habu, and Der el-Medineh (RR. 12, 15, 
17), the second by the Ramesseum, the tombs of ShOkh 'Abdel-Kurnah, 
the temple of Der el-bahri, etc. (RR. 13, 18,21), and the third 'by the 
Temple of ."^eti I. and the Tombs of the Kings (RR. l9, 20), with which 
Cook's and (Maze's tourists begin. 

The ensuing description follows the distribution of time suggested on 
p. 102 for a three day's visit to Thebes. 

The following points may be visited in a single day (the 2nd of our 
stay in Thebes), though not withoiit considerable fatigue: 1. "Colossi of 
Meninon ; 2. "Ramesseum; 3. Tombs of Murrai; 4. '•'Medinet Habu ; 
o. Tombs of the tjueens and l)cr el-Medineh; 6. Tombs of .Shckh 'Abd 
el-Kurnah. A little time may be saved by beginning at the Ramesseum, 
and thence proceeding to the Colossi (jf Memnon, Medinet Ilabu, etc.; but 
it is better to visit the Colossi first, for they are at no time so impressive 
as when seen in the early morning. 

An earli/ start should be made. Guides, donkeys, etc., see p. 103. If 
the dhahabiyeh has been anchored at Luxor and not beside the W. bank 
(p. 101), it will be necessary to cross in a boat to the island opposite 
Luxor. Oonkcys are usually found here, but a large party is recommended 
to order them the night before. The island, which is dotted with bushes 
and at places well-cultivated, is crossed in about 10 min., and the don- 
keys tlien ford a shallow arm of the river. If the river is high, however, 
travellers must row round the island. We pass the village, pleasantly 
sliaded by trees, and cross a very frail bridge over a water-course descend- 
ing to the Nile. On the bank is a handsome farm. — A Firry ('/z piastre) 
also crosses from Luxor and lands its passengers a little higher up, a con- 
venience if they are bound for the temple of Kurnah and the Tombs of 
the Kings. 

We have already seen that the streets of Thebes with the palaces 
and the dwellings of the citizens lay near the sr<i«t temple of Am- 
mon, on the E. bank, between the river and tlie Arabian moun- 


/4^,'!7','S^„..-?V ~ 

XulX.A^'.- n 

^i. f-i^ JljlUl^w 




Tonitis/f^r Ap 





^V Wl 

••• _ /■■■ '• 

ColoKsi of Menmon. THEBES. 1'2. Jtonte. 153 

tains. On the We^l Hank lay tlie Necropolis or City of the. Bead, 
(•onne(;ted with which were a large number of temples. These latter 
are called Memnonia, because they were dedicated to the memory 
of the lives and deeds of the great Pharaohs, and because they were 
regarded as the abodes of the dead nionarchs, and sacritices were 
offered within them to the royal manes and to the gods, to whom 
the kings owed their might. Bnilt on the verge of the necropolis, 
they stood in close relation to the worship of the dead. Just as 
scientiflc institutioTis etc. were maintained in connection with the 
Serapea adjoining the cemeteries of Memphis and Alexandria, so 
the temples here were adjoined by various other establishments. 
These included libraries, schools, dwellings for the priests, medical 
colleges, embalming-houses, stables and pastures for the sacred 
animals, and lodgings for pilgrims, while near the sacred ponds and 
groves were entire streets, containing not only barracks for the 
temple-guards and dwellings for the ecclesiastical and lay officials, 
but also shops ami liouses of private citizens who carried on trade 
in the various articles used at burials or brought as offerings to the 
deceased. The guild of Kolchytes or embalmers is frequently men- 
tioned (^especially at a late date) as a numerous and by no means 
harmonious society. Public works of various kinds are mentioned 
in the demotic and Greek commercial contracts which have been 
found here and are dated from tills place. Among these a canal, a 
sacred lake, a large street, etc. are named. There were many other 
temples besides those whose ruins are now traceable, and round 
each were grouped houses of various kinds, so that Strabo and other 
Greek writers were justified In describing Thebes as sporadically 
inhabited. The last-named reliable geographer writes: 'Thebes is 
now sporadically Inhabited. Part of it lies in Arabia (E. bank of 
the Nile), including the city proper, and part on the opposite bank, 
where the Memnonlum is situated'. Strabo , like all his country- 
men, was especially attracted by the so-called Colonsi of Mcmnon, 
which he considered as repaying in themselves the trouble of the 
journey to Thebes. 

12. The Colossi of Memnon. 

The "'Colossi of Memnon. which are visible from a great di- 
stance, are reached on donkey-back in 20-25 min. after crossing 
the W. arm of the Nile. The route, which leads through well- 
cultivated lands, cannot be mistaken, for the goal is in view all the 
way. These two colossal statues have suffered severely from the 
hand of time and have lost their artistic value , but they still 
exert all their old attraction In vlrtne of the innumerable associa- 
tions that cling to them. They are surpassed in size and in beauty 
of material only by the shattered colossus in the Kamesseura. The 
two immense figures and the cubical thrones on which they are 

154 Route 12. THEBES. We^t Bank: 

seated are carved out of a pebbly and quartzose sandstone-con- 
glomerate, of a yellowish-brown colour and very difficult to work. 
The S. Colossus is in better preservation than the N. one, but 
there is little difference between them in point of size. The dimen- 
sions of the former, in which the ori.srinal form is more easily seen, 
are as follows: height of the figure, 52 ft., height of the pedestal on 
which the feet rest, 13 ft., height of the entire monument, 64 ft. 
Tiut when the figure was adorned with the long-since vanished 
crown, the original height may have reached 69 ft. The legs from 
the sole to the knee measure 19 ',9 f'-i ^"'l each foot is lO'/o ft. 
long. The breadth of the shoulders is 19^ 4 ft; the middle finger 
on one hand is 4'/2 ft. long; and the arm from the tip of the 
finger to the elbow measures 15' 2 ft. The entire colossus, includ- 
ing the throne and pedestal, weighs 1175 tons. 

JSoth statues face E.S.E. and stand parallel to the course of the Nile, 
though they are no longer perpendicular, as one inclines a little towards 
the other and both are canted slightly backwards. The S. colossus is a 
little in front of the N. one, from which it is 22 paces distant. Both are 
seamed with cracks, and such large fragments have fallen from them, that 
one could imagine that an attempt has been made to destroy them by tire. 
The Arabs call the N. colossus Tama, the S. one Shama, and both to- 
gether Salamdt, or 'the greetings'. + 

When the Nile is at its highest, its waters reach the soles of the feet 
of the colossi and sometimes the upper surface of the pedestal on which 
they rest. As this pedestal is 13 ft. high and as the statues must have 
been beyond the reach of inundations in the time of the Pharaohs, Lepsius 
is correct in assuming from his observations of the nilometer at Semneh 
(p. 3i2l that the bed of the Nile at thiit point must have been considerably 
raised within historical times. He estimates the total rise at 25 ft. In 
winter, however, the traveller reaches the statues dry-,«hod. These colossi 
were not always solitary monuments, remote from all other buildings. On 
the contrary they originally stood on either side of a gigantic /'i/lon, which 
rose behind them and formed the entrance to a, Memnonium, of which e.\- 
tensive relics still remain, though for the most part covered with earth. 
This temple, now completely annihilated, was founded by Amenhotep lU., 
who is represented by the colossi. Neither this monarch nor his statues 
have any connection whatever with the Greek Jlemnnn, who was the son 
of Eos (the dawn) and Tithonus, became one of the allies of Priam, and 
slew Antilochus, the brave son of Nestor, for wliich he was himself slain 
by Achilles. Homer mentions this Memnon twice in the Odyssey: 

'For he thought in his mind of the likeness of the noble Anlilochus' 

'Whom the lordly son of the hrighlenitig datcn slew'. 
And of Xeoptokmus, the son of Achilles, it is said: 

'No one hand.somer than he have I seen, next to the godlike Afemnon\ 
This Memn' n was an Asiatic hero, who is said also to have buill the 
fortresses of Susa and Ecbatana. When the Greeks became acquainted with 
the Nile valley and its monuments, they imagined that they had found 
sumi)tnous building.s of the Homeric hero in the commemorative monu- 
ments named 'mennu' by the Egyptians (p. bb). The colossi before us 
were also called 'mennu" by the inhabitants of Thebes, and soon came to 
be described by the Hellenes as statues of Memnon, tho\igh the Egyjitians 
even to a late period knew that they represented Amenhotep HI., a king 
of the 18th Dynasty. Pausanias was informed of this fact, and tireek in- 
scriptions on the legs of the statues also mention it. When it afterwards 

t That at least is the present name. Lepsius states that tliey were 
named in his time i^anamdl, or the 'idols', which seems more in keeping 
with Arab conceptions. 

Colossi nf Memnon. THEBES. 12. Route. 155 

became known that the X. colossus emitted a mvisical note at sunrise, a 
new and heaiitiful mytli arose among tlie Greeks who were always ready 
to invent a legend in oi-der to explain a fact. The hero of this myth was 
a Memnon, hailing from Ethiopia, who fell at Troy. Appearing as a stone 
image at Thebes, he greeted his mother Eos witli a sweet and plaintive 
note when she appeared at dawn. The goddess heard the sound, and the 
morning dews are the tears which she shed upon her beloved child. 

The enormous size of the colossi and the legends that clustered round 
them, rendered them so attractive to the Greeks and Romans, that Tacitus 
mentions them among the chief marvels (praecipua miraculn) of Egypt; 
and under the Roman empire travellers to the Nile considered that the 
olijcct of their journey was attained when they had seen the pyramids 
and heard the musical note of Memnon. 

The Northern Colossus is the famous Vocal Statue of Memnon. 
This is distinctly indicated by the effusions of early touri.sts, 
varying hoth in length and excellence, which are inscribed on the 
legs. The statue is composed of two parts. The lower and older 
part consists of a .single block of sandstone-conglomerate, and 
reaches to the middle of the arm resting on the knee and, behind, 
to above the girdle. The upper part was broken off by an earth- 
quake in tlie year 27 B.C., and was not restored until the reign of 
Septiniius Severus, many years later. The restoration was not very 
happily managed, for instead of being made out of a single block, 
the body and head were built up of thirteen blocks of common 
sandstone in five courses. The care with which the lower part (now 
much injured) was executed offers a great contrast to the crudeness 
of this newer part. To the right and left and between the legs stand 
female statues leaning against the throne, representing the mother 
and wife of Amenhotep 111., Mut em ua and Tn. On each side of 
the seat two Nile -gods were represented in sunk relief, holding 
papyrus plants wound round the symbol of the union of Upper and 

Lower Egypt V . The inscriptions on the S. colossus enable us to 

supply what is here broken off; but these, and the hieroglyphics on 
the back of the statue, contain nothing beyond the high-sounding 
titles of Amenhotep III. and the information that he erected these 
palatial buildings and colossal statues of sandstone in honour of 
his father Amnion. The king, whom we have elsewhere found men- 
tioned as a great warrior-prince, is also named a destroyer of for- 
eign peoples, a Horus (who conquered tlie enemies of his father), 
ami the beloved of Amnion. 

After the breaking of the colossus by the earthquake of 27 B.C. , 
attention began to bo directed to ihe musical phenomenon connected 
with it. Strabosays: 'Of two gigantic monolithic statues situated 
close to each other, one is entire, while the upper portions of the 
other, from the waist upwards, are said to have been thrown down 
by an earthquake. It is popularly believed that a south!, as though 
caused by a gentle blow, is heard once a day proceeding from the 
remaining portion on the throne and pedestal. I myself, when I 
was on the spot along with Aeli us Gallus and numerous other friends 

156 Boute 72. THEBES. West Bank: 

and soldiers, heard tlie sound about the first hour ; but I was unable 
to decide whether it proceeded from the base or from the statue, or 
indeed whether it was deliberately produced by one of those stand- 
ing round the pedestal. For as I do not know the rause, anything 
appears to me much more credible than tliat the sound issued from 
the stone tlms placed'. Doubts as to the genuineness of tlie plie- 
nomenon ceased soon after Strabo's time, and while that famous 
geographer mentions only an inarticulate sound ('l>o'^o;), Pausanias 
speaks of a musical note and Juvenal refers to the 'resonance from 
the magic strings of the shattered Memnon'. By later observers the 
sound is compared to that of a stroke upon metal, or even of a trum- 
pet-blast and of human voices singing. The sound was heard only at 
or soon after sunrise, though by no means invariably then; and some 
of tlie most distinguished visitors were disappointed of hearing it. 
Among these was Septimius Severus, who caused the restoration of 
the upper portions, perhaps with a view to propitiate the angry god. 
Thereafter the phenomenon ceased, and the colossus, abhorred by 
the Cliristians as a pagan idol, fell rapidly into oblivion as the new 
religion spread. 

Letronne has proved tliat the resonance of the stone is on no account 
to be explained as a mere priestly trick, and in the opinion of eminent 
physicists, it is perfectly possible that a hard resonant stone, heated by 
the warm sunlight suddenly following upon the cold nights in Egypt, 
might emit a sound in the early morning. A similar phenomenon lias 
been observed elsewhere, as by Professor Ebcrs under the porphyry 
cliffs of the Sinai mountains, and by the savants of the i'rench Expe- 
dition near the granite-sanctuary at Karnak and in the granite quarries 
of Assuan (Syene). An English traveller near the Maladctta in the Pyre- 
nees heard a sound issuing from the rocks, not unlike the note of an 
Aeolian harp, and the name given to it by the natives, 'the matins of the 
damned', seems to prove that it was of frequent if not regular occur- 
rence. The 'music-stones' of the Orinoco are well-known. In the Gova 
valley, to the S. of Lake Nyassa, Livingstone observed the thunderous 
sound of splitting stones, ascribed by tlie natives to the agency of Mohesi 
or evil spirits. And the German consul, Dr. Wetzstein, reports similar 
phenomena in the volcanic region discovered by him to the E. of Ua- 
mascus. Possibly the extensive broken and sloping surface of the colos- 
sus, wet with the dews of early morning, was exposed unusually directly 
to the rays of the rising sun, and the lamous sound may have been pro- 
duced by a current of air, generated by Ibis sudden change of temperature, 
passing over the rough and pebbly surface. In that case the phenomenon 
would naturally cease when the upper part of the ligure was replaced. 

The numerous Greek and Latin inscriptions, in prose and verse, in- 
scribed upon the leg.s of the ligure by travellers under the Roman empire, 
are peculiarly interesting. These are more numerous on the left tliaii on 
the right leg, and none are beyond the reach of a man standing at the 
foot of the statue. The earliest were carved in the reign of Xero, the 
latest in those of .Septimius Severus and Caracalla, and the most numer- 
ous (,4.1) in that of lladriaii. Only one Egyptian (who is respon.sible for 
a short demotic inscription) is found among tbese scribblers, who show 
both more reverence for antiquity and more wit than their modern represen- 
tatives. At the same time it must he acknowledged that the writings on the 
colossus of Memnon arc n<jt without scientilic value. They were for the 
most part the work of men of some eminence, including 8 governors of Egypt, 
iJ epistralegcs of the TliebaVd, 2 procurators, etc. Many, though not all, are 
dated. Nearly all of them afford proof that only the N. colossus emitted the 

Colossi of Memnon. THEBES. 12. Route. 157 

famous sound. The oldest inscription dates from the 11th year of Nero's 
reign. — Many of the great officials who visited the marvels of Thebes were 
accompanied by their wives. Thus Lucius Junius Calvinus and his wife 
Minicia Rustica, in the 4th year of Vespasian, heard the phenomenon at the 
second hour, though most other visitors heard it at the morning-hour, 
i.e. at or soon after sunrise. The colossus was frequently dumb, in wliich 
case the visitor usually waited until a more favourable occasion. Many 
were so struck with the phenomenon that they were not content till they 
had heard it three or four times. Hadrian, who journeyed through Egypt 
in 130 A. P., spent several days here along with his wife Sabina and a 
large retinue. In his reign a perfect flood of verses spread over the legs 
of the colossus, most of them by the vain court-poetess BalbiUa, the de- 
scendant of a noble house, as she is careful to mention. One of her 
effusions (on the left leg] relates in 16 hexameters, that Memnon greeted 
Hadrian, as well as he could (u5? Sovaro'vl when he perceived the emperor 
before sunrise, but that a clearer note, like that caused by a blow on an 
instrument of copper, was emitted at the second hour, and that even a 
third sound was heard. Hadrian greeted Memnon as often, and all the 
world could see how dear the emperor was to the god. 
'Halhilla, by an inward impulse stirred' 
'Has written all she saw and all she heard'. 
By far the best verses are those on the front of the pedestal by As- 
kli'piodotws, who calls himself imperial procurator and poet. They may 
be translated as follows: — 
'Sea-born Thetis, learn that Memnon suffered never pangs of dying'. 
'Still, where Libyan mountains rise, sounds the voice of his lovid crying' — 
'(Mountains which the Nile-stream, laving, parts from Thebes, the hun- 
dred-gated)' — 
'When he glows, through rays maternal with warm light illuminated'. 
'But thy son who, never-sated, dreadful battle still was seeking', 
'Dumb in Troy and Thessaly, rests now, never speaking'. 
On the right leg of the colossus is a curious 'Homeric' poem, inscribed 
by a certain Areie.':, and made up of four lines from the Iliad and Odys- 
sey, pieced together by the poet so as to express his meaning: 
'Alas, a mightv wonder I there behold with mine eves' 

(II. xiii, 99") 
'Trulv a god is here, a noble inhabitant of heaven'.' 

(Od. xix, 40) 
'Loud he raises his voice, and stavs the assembled multitude'. 

(Od. xxiv, 530) 
'Never could a mortal man accomplish such a thing as this'. 

(Od. xvi, 196). 

The ruins in the neighbourhood of the colossi are unimportant. 
About 3 min. beyond them is another Statue of great size, now, 
however, almost completely covered by arable land. Farther to the 
N.W. are very numerous smaller statues. The ruined Amenophium, 
at the gates of which the above-mentioaed statues stood, has left an 
important memorial in the shape of a conspicuous colossal Sand- 
■■<tone Stele, erected by Amenhotep III. It now has its broadest 
surface uppermost, and is covered with hieroglyphics in the grand 
style, which, with the representations, refer to the dedication of the 
temple. In the rounded pediment the Pharaoh appears receiving 
the symbol of life from Ammon on the right, and from Sokar-Osiris 
on the left ; above are the winged sun-disc and the name of Amen- 
hotep III. Behind the Pharaoh in each case is his consort Tii, 
adorned with the feather-crown. The first line of the inscription 
contains the pompous titles of the king; the second begins as follows: 

16S Route 13. THEBES. West Bank: 

'He speaks : come to me Ainmon Ka, lord of tlio throne of the world 
of E. Thebes. Look upon tliy dwelling, which has been prepared 
for thee in the excellent site of Thebes, whose beauty is united with 
the region of the dead'. The inscription is <'ontinued in the style 
of a hymn, extolling what had been done for this temple, and ex- 
pressing the god's ai)proval of the work that was here dedicated to 
him. — In the neighbourhood of this stele are numerous blocks 
of stone and archite(;tural fragments, which belonged to the rich 
temple of Ameuhotep mentioned in the inscription. There is no 
possibility of reconstructing tiie ground-plan of this building, and 
the half-buried sphinx-columns and broken statues present little 
interest. — Still farther to the N.W., at the foot of the Libyan 
mountains, two fragments of an ancient brick-building, known as 
Kom el-nct'm, project like huge]horns from the ground, and at a 
distance may easily be taken for the colossi of Memnon. 

13. The Ramesseum. 

The '"Ramesseum, better known as the Memnonium of Ramses II., 
lies about V4 lir. to the N.N.E. of Kom el-lletan. The route skirts 
the fertile land, and the ruin soon appears conspicuously on our 
right, as we look towards the Libyan mountains. We pass a small 
canal with a water-wheel worked by a buflalo, whicli waters the 
well-cultivated fields near the Uaniesse\im, as well as a small grove 
of sunt and tamari.'^k-trees to the E. of it. AVhether it is approached 
from the N. or from the S., the Ramesseum presents a most picturesque 
appearance. As almost all the side-walls have fallen, it is possible 
to obtain a comprehensive view of the well-proj'ortioned arrange- 
ment of this beautiful temple and to grasp its general architectural 
idea. Though time has destroyed mu<h, it is still possible to realize 
the form of its main portions. — So far as the Purpdnc of the Hanies- 
seum is concerned, it may be asserted with absolute certainty that 
it was dedicated to the worship of th6 manes of Hamscs II., and 
stood in the same relation to the tomb of that prince, as the diapels 
at the entram-e of the rock-tombs of wealthy private citizens to the 
adjoining mummy-shafts( VolL, p. 170). This is clearly indicated by 
the position of the monument, by the procession with images of an- 
cestors at the festival of tbe staircase, on the N. part of the \V. side 
of the second pylon, by the list of the sons of the Pharaoh, ami by 
the ceiling-carvings in the last rooms of this Mommmium. Finally 
several inscrij>tions inform us that the Uamessoum resemblctl the 
temj)lc \^hi^h Hamscs the (heat vowed in gratitude for his rescue 
out of the hands of the Kheta who had surrounded him (p. 101 ). 

The question has been much discussed whether the liaino.ssoum is to he 
identilied witli the Tvtnh of O^mmindyas^ minutely described by Diodorus. 
The afiinnative view h:.s boon sioully advoeatcd by .lollois and Devillicrs in 
the report of the French Kxjieilition, Jind is now ^'enerally adopted in spite 
of I-elronne's protest. It is true that wliile niauy poiii(.s in llioibirus''s 
description tally with the Kaiuesseuui i>.g. the colossal sitting statues, the 


Vaguer «t Belies, Ldpiig. 

Ramesseum. THEBES. 13. Route. 159 

astronomical representations etc.), others seem to apply much more closely 
to the temple at Medinet Habu, built by Eamses II. who bore the name 
Usermara meramon (Osymandyas) as well as Eamses III. Among these 
latter points are the lion-hunt on the N. side of the temple, the treasury, 
the severed limbs, and perhaps also the temple-library (p. 167). Possibly 
the explanation is that I)iodorus wrote his description from memory after 
leaving Thebes and mingled features of both temples in his account. 

The traveller will be assisted to form a judgment on the question 
for himself by the following main pidnts from the description by Diodo- 
rus. 'At the entrance is a pylon of coloured stone (probably granite is 
intended, though erroneously), 2 plethra long (202 ft.) and 45 ells high. 
Then follows a square peristyle, with sides measuring 4 plethra (404 ft.). 
The roof is supported, not by columns, but by 16 figures of living beings, 
each carved in an antique style out of a single stone. The entire roof 
is 2 orgyia (11'/'.! ft.) broad, and is formed of solid stone, decorated with 
stars on a blue ground. Beyond the peristyle are another entrance and 
a pylon, differing from the iirst only in having various figures carved 
upon it. Beside the entrance are 3 monolithic ligurcs of the Memnon of 
Syene (or, according to a better reading 'of stone from Syene'). One of 
these, a sitting figure, exceeds in size all other statues in Egypt; at its 
foot (footstool) it measures more than 7 ells. The others, to the right 
and left respectively of the knees of this statue, represent the sister and 
mother, and are smaller than the first. This work is not only noteworthy 
for its size, hut deserves admiration also for its artistic beauty. It is 
also remarkable for the character of the stone, in which neither a crack 
nor a flaw is to be seen in spite of its unusual size. — This pylon is 
succe'^ded by a peristyle court which seems even more worthy of remark 
than the preceding. It contains various sculptures carved in the stone, 
representing the wars carried on by him (>.e. the king) against the Bae- 
trians, who had revolted against him'. Diodorus farther informs us that 
the army consisted of 400,000 foot soldiers and 20,000 cavalry, in four 
divisions commanded by the king's sons. On the first wall the king was 
represented storming a fortress surrounded by a river, and hurling himself 
against the enemy, along with a fierce liou which accompanied him in 
battle . . . "In front of the last wall were two monolithic sitting statues, 
27 ells in height, and beside these were three exits from the peristyle, admitt- 
ing to a hypostyle, which had the form of an odeum (music-room), and was 
2 plethra (2(J2 ft.) long on each side". According to Diodorus this building 
also possessed a library. The last part of the temple and its upper story 
are too completely ruined to be satisfactorily compared with the report 
of the Sicilian geographer. 

We are able to recognize the first pylon, the caryatides in the second 
peristyle court, the largest colossus in Egypt, the battle-sculptures with 
the lion and the fortress surrounded by water, the hypostyle odeum, and 
traces of the library. Diodorus describes them in tolerably correct order, 
but as vaguely as hasty travellers usually do who are unable to take 
notes on the spot. 

We enter the temple by the most easterly of the three extant 
Pylons. This was originally 220 ft. broad, but its rulnsd exterior 
is now more like a qnarry than a building. Many representations 
are still recognizable, though much defaced, on the broad surface 
of its W. Side, next the first court. Beginning our inspection with 
the N. Wing (Pi. a~), to the extreme left (N.E.) of the beholder, we 
flrstnotice the slender representations of pinnacled Asiatic fortresses, 
in six rows, the two highest of which have been destroyed. Fourteen 
of the original eighteen are still recognizable, each with an in- 
scription containing its name, and in some cases also tlie year in 
which it was taken by Ramses II. The isolated inscription at the 
top, to the left, is translated by Burton, Champollion, and Brugsch 

IQO Route 13. TUEBES. WeHBank: 

as follows: 'The fortress, ciiptured by His Majesty in the 8th year; 
Shalma (its naniey. Lcpsius suggests a diflferent translation. Shalma 
is perhaps Salem (or possibly 1''j}.'j\).rx = llierosolymaV). The iu- 
st'ri])tion referring to the sei;oii(l fortress from tlie top in the third 
row to the right, roads: 'Fortress captured by His Majesty in the 
land of the Amaur; Tapur its name'. The mention of Amaur and 
the names of the other fortresses seem to refer Tapur to Palestine 
(a fortress on Mount Tabor), in spite of the natural temptation to 
connect Tapur with the ancient name of the Tapurs, a people 
dwelling in the Margiana between Bactria and Hyrcania, and to 
recall Diodorus's statement that the warlike representations 0)i the 
tomb of Osymandyas referred to the campaigns of the builder against 
the Bactrians. Between the fortresses Egyptian youths appear 
leading the captured Asiatic princes, most of whom are chained by 
the neck, though some of them have their hands tied together 
above tlieir heads. The conquerors accelerate the steps of tlieir 
unhappy victims with staves, and in the second row from tlie foot, 
a young officer is shown plucking the beard of an aged Asiatic. 
Farther to the right, and reaching to the fallen and more or less 
severely injured summit of the pylon, are some very varied military 
representations, some of which are unfortunately much defaced. 
To the right is a realistic battle-scene. The Egyptian chariots have 
overwhelmed those of the Asiatics ; and below appear fresh regiments 
of Egyptian infantry, marching in step. Each soldier is armed 
with a lance, a short or curved sword, and a large sliield. Before 
every four soldiers is a non-commissioned officer with a staff. The 
command to pitch the camp has already been given, and below and 
to the left of the combatants are men and animalsenjoying their well- 
earned rest. \Vea])ons and booty lie in heaps; soldiers are drinking 
from leather-bottles ; and cdhers arc foddering the horses and asses. 
The war-chariots are drawn up in two long lines, and the veterinary 
surgeon is operating with a pointed instrument on the hoof of an 
ass. The camp-police are using their staves, not in jest merely, 
for beside a man drinking from a are some drunkcTi and 
roystering soldiers. Immediately above the horizontal surface, 
whence the broken part of the pylon rises in stops, we see the war- 
liorses beside the chariots, and the recumbent flgliting-lion of the 
Pharaoh guarding the royal tent. The chariots approadi in good 
order like the infantry ; in the lowest row the wheels pass over 
slaughtered enemies. The live extant rows of chariots excellently 
illustrate the passage in Exodus xiv, 7: 'And he took six hundred 
chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one 
of them'. 

The representations on the S. Half of the W. side (PI. b) of tlio 
first pylon, also representing scenes from the war witli the Khela, 
are even more realistic. (Other similar scenes from the Kheta 
campaign are to bo seen on the pylon at Luxor, p. 112, and in the 

Ramcsmim. THRBES. 13. Route. 161 

temple of Abu-Sirabel, p. 335.) To tlie left is the storming of Katesli, 
a fortress on the Urontes, probably situated on an island near Hums 
(Eraesa). Nearer the centre, the king hurries to the fight, with 
bended bow. Above the rearing and spirited horses in his chariot 
are the words: 'The most excellent horse of his majesty Miamun 
from the stable of Ramses II., the beloved of Ammon'. In the in- 
scription within the bent bow the Pharaoh is named the beloved of 
Mentu, god of war. The royal leader overwhelms his foes with his 
impetuous attack and hurls them ■with their horses and chariots 
into the stream. Some of the Egyptians are put to flight, and a 
legion of archers hasten in chariots to the aid of the Pharaoh. Among 
the slain are various noble Aramaic warriors considered worthy ot 
being specially mentioned, for their names are inscribed above 
them. One of these was Khirapasor, historiographer of the Kheta 
prince, whose dead body is represented beside the hind legs of the 
king's horses, between two lines of hieroglyphics. A short r2-line 
inscription in front of the elaborately decorated heads of the king's 
horses (the bridle is surmounted with lion's heads and feathers) 
explains the exact episode here depicted. It is the famous scone 
that forms the culminating point of the Epic of Pentiiur, that Egyp- 
tian Iliad, which we have already met with on the pylon at Luxor 
(p.ll2)and on the S. wall of the temple of Karnak(p. 141). 'He (i.e. 
Ramses) halted and encamped to the N.W. of Katesh. Then he pressed 
against the worthless foe, the Kheta. He was alone and no other 
was with him. He found himself surrounded by 2600 war-chariots, 
etc." The escape of the king from his imminent danger by the help 
of the gods and his own right arm forms the subject of the epic, 
which has been preserved not only upon the walls of temples but 
also in a papyrus-roll. Its chief contents have been given elsewhere 
(p. 112). The relief before us represents this eventful moment in 
the warlike career of Ramses, while a repetition of the same subject 
on the W. side of the second pylon and the inscription on the 
architrave in the second court of the temple, inform us that the 
Ramesseuni was erected by Ramses II. as a Votive Building in 
gratitude for his deliverance out of the hands of 2600 enemies. 

To the extreme right, in front of the horses of the king, appears 
first the confused mass of men and horses overthrown by the royal 
hero. Beside three Egyptians who hold an Asiatic head downward, 
is the inscription: 'The miserable lord of Khileb (Khalybon-Aleppo). 
His soldiers pull him out of the water into which His Majesty had 
cast him'. At the end of the relief the prince of the Kheta is shown 
in his chariot, surrounded by unarmed followers, with the accoin- 
panying words : 'He stands still beside his foot-soldiers and cavalry. 
His face turned backwards. He advanced no more into the battle 
from fear of His Majesty, when he had seen His Majesty'. — Here as 
elsewhere the king and his chariot are on a larger scale than the 
other figures; the Kheta prince is smaller than the Pharaoh but 

Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 11 

162 Route 13. THEBES. West Bank: 

larger than the other soUliers. — The limestone blocks forming the 
Doorway of this sandstone pylon display various sculptures and in- 
scriptions, the latter containing the usual dedicatory formulae. 
The Theban triad (Amnion, Muth, and Khuiisu) and another triad 
consisting of Ptali, Sekhct, ami Hathor are among the divinities 
which here received sacrifices and bestowed gifts. 

On entering the First Court (1*1. A) we observe that it had on 
its right and left sides a double row of columns, of which, however, 
only a few scanty remains are to be found on the S. To the W. 
this space is boundiMl by the Second PyLcn, now in ruins. On the 
\/ left (S.) stood the Colossus of Ramses II. (PI. d), the material of 
~^ which was justly admired by Diodonis (p. lo'J), and which really 
may be termed the hugest statue in Egypt. The remarkable granite 
statue (not sandstone like the colossi of Memnon) was probably 
floated down the river on rafts from Assuan to Thebes. It has been 
deliberately destroyed (apparently, from the marks at the fractures, 
by means of damp wedges), though to do so must have cost its 
enormous pains. In the time of Diodorus, who visited I'lgypt about 
60 A.I)., it appears to have been still uninjured; and we may con- 
clude, therefore, that it was destroyed in consequence of the edict 
of Theodosius, as one of the principal pagan idols. The name of 
Kamses II. appears in well-preserved hieroglyphics on the upper 
arm and on the scat of the statue, which lies close by in shattered 
fragments. It cannot now be put together, as the inhabitants of 'Abd 
el-Kurnah have broken off slabs of granite and smoothed them for 
the purpose of husking their corn. The face is unfortunately com- 
pletely destroyed. The remains (breast, upper arm, one foot, etc.) 
still testify to the care with which this gigantic monument was 
chiselled and polished. The savants of the French Expedition care- 
fully measured the various parts, as follows : length of ear 3'/2 ft-, 
surface of face from ear to ear C3 4 ft., surface of breast from 
shoulder to shonlder "JJi'/y ft., from one shoulder to the other in a 
straight lino Sl'/^ *t., circumference of tlie arm at the elbow 
17'/2 ft., diameter of the arm between the (dbow and shoulder 
43/4 ft., length of the index linger 3'/r, ft., length of the nail on the 
middle finger 7'/2 inches, breadth of ditto 6 inches, breadth of the 
foot across the toes, 41/2 ft. The total height seems to have been 
57V2 ft., and its total weight over two inillion pounds. 

Tlie colossal hrad of anotlu'r Slulue of liainses II. was found on (lie 
S. side of the temiile farther hack, and was convoyed to the NiJi- by 
JJelzoni in 1S16, and tlicncc to Ali-xandria. It is now one of (lit; chief 
treasures in the Ivu'yjilian Calli'ry of llie Hritish Museum. 

The Second Peristyle Court (PI. B) is in much belter pre- 
servation than the first court, and is mentioned with its caryatides 
In Diodorus's desiription of the tomb of Osymandyas (p. l;')!)). Its 
general arrangement is easily understood. < In all four sides were 
colonnades, those to the right and left (N. and 8.) having two rows 
of papyrus-bud columns and that on the JO. (front) side pillars with 

Ramesseum. THEBES. 13. Route. 163 

statues of Osiris , while on the W. (rear) side, tlie roof of the 
colonnaded passage was supported by Osiris-caryatides (facing the 
court) and papyrus-bud columns. The N. and S. colonnades have 
almost completely disappeared, but four caryatide-pillars still stand 
on the E. and as many on the W. Towards the W. end, in the 
direction of the entrance to the hypostyle hall, afterwards to be 
described, a number of steps ascend from the pavement of the court 
to the doorway. Standing in the doorway of the second pylon and 
looking westward through the central door of the hypostyle hall 
and through the smaller doorway in its farther (W.) side, we com- 
mand an architectural perspective of great charm. The builder has 
succeeded in producing the effect of distance and size by raising 
the floor-level of the temple towards the W. and by gradually 
diminishing the size of the doorways that succeed each other in the 
same axis. 

In the second court the representations on the W. Wall of the 
Second Pylon (PI. e), iii front of whicli rose the E. row of carya- 
tides, are of special interest. The S, side of the wall has completely 
collapsed. In the midst of the ruins project two blocks of stone, 
which bear a representation of the fortress of Katesh, surrounded 
by a blue stream (to the right of the beholder in the second court). 
To the extreme left, the Pliaraoh, much larger than the other 
warriors, dashes along in his chariot with his bow bent. This is 
one of the most vigorous of the numerous battle-scenes that have 
been preserved on Egyptian pylons. The leaping lion beside the 
king's chariot is part of its adornment merely, though at the first 
glance it is apt to be taken for the king's battle-companion prepar- 
ing for a mighty leap. Diodorus perhaps had this in liis mind when 
he described the relief of a fortress surrounded by water, and tlio 
Pharaoh dashing against the foe along with a fierce lion that used 
to accompany him in battle. The Asiatics fall before the onset of 
the king like ears of corn before a hail-storm. Huddled pell-mell 
in confused heaps, pierced by arrows or trodden down by the horses, 
the Kheta fall a prey to death. The Orontes flows by the side of 
the combatants and crowds of Kheta are hurled into it; warriors, 
horses, and chariots sink beneath the waves. We are irresistibly 
reminded of the crossing of the Red Sea by the Israelites, that took 
place only half a century later. 'Pharaoh's chariots and his host 
hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in 
the Pted sea. The depths have coveretl them: they sank into the 
bottom as a stone' (Exod. xv, 4, 5). Farther to the right, beneath 
the fortress, some soldiers hold out a rescuing hand to the drown- 
ing. Everything indicates that we have here a free repetition of 
the battle-scene on the first pylon. The battle rages near Katesh, 
among the slain here also are Khirapasor, the historiographer of 
the Kheta prince, Kerebatusa his charioteer, Titure, chief of his 
attendants, Pisa his master of the horse (Kazen), Tarkanunasa, etc. 


164 Route !3. THEBES. Wexl Bank: 

Here also appear long rows of chariots, hastening to the light. Most 
decisive of all, however, is the inscription beside the heads of the 
king's hoises, which contains oni'C luoro the passage from the epic 
of Pentaur, telling us what event in the life of Ramses was com- 
memorated by the erection of the Ramesseum. Once more occur the 
words : ^He was (done and no other xcas %cith him. lie found him- 
self surrounded hy '2600 chariots\ etc. 

It may be mentioned here that a series of monuments of the Hitliles 
(Klieta) Willi picture-writing (differing from hiernglypliics) has recently 
been discovered, includint; several blocks in a hridg;e at IIomAh (now in 
Constantinople) and a silver i>late (also found at Ilamah) with the name 
of Tarriktimma (Tarkondcmos) in cuneiform and Kheta characters. In 1888 
Dr. lluniann excavated one of the cliief cities of the Kheta, near Sinjerli, 
to the N.E. of Aniioch. The hii;hly important inscribed stones found 
there are now in the New Museum at Herlin. 

On the Upper Part of this pylon wo observe the procession of 
the Festiral of the Staircase, in honour of the god Khem (represented 
in detail at Medinet Habu and described on p. ITS). The figures 
which bear the statues of the king's aticestors, should be noticed. 
Tlio names besides the ancestral images are those of Mena, lirst king 
of Egypt, and of the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty. From this 
representation we perceive that the monument is sepulchral. Ad- 
jacent are priests letting fly the birds into which the four children 
^if Horus (Amset, Hapi, etc.) have changed tliemsclves, for the pur- 
pose of carrying tidings to the four quarters of the globe that the 
Pharaoh has attained tlie crown of both worlds. Each bird is told 
whither it must fly. 'Haste, Amset, to the S. and bring tidings to 
the gods of the S. that Horus, the son of Osiris, has obtaincil pos- 
session of the crowns of Lower and Upper Egypt'. In the next line 
this is repeated with the substitution of Raiuses for Iforus. The 
other birds are despatched in similar terms to tlie N., E., and W. 
Farther to the right the king appears cutting a sheaf with a sickle, 
tlius discharging the second coronation-ceremony usual at the festi- 
val of the staircase. 

Proceeding now to examine the rest of the court, we observe 
that on the Architrave of the W. Colonnade the space usually devoted 
to the dedicatory inscription is occupied by lino hieroglyphi<:s. 
After wliat has already been said, it is scarcely surprising to meet 
once more the famous passage from the epic of Pentaur: — 'Tlie 
king, who abounds in strength, who chastises the barbarians and 
the world of alien lands, striking them to the earth. lie mas alone 
and no other was with hiin. Ramses II., the life-giver, king of 
Upper and Lower Egypt'. Statues of the king adorned this peristyle 
court, as is indicated by tlie extant pedestals. Fragments of one 
of these, in beautiful grey granite, lie upon the ground. The *//ea</, 
with down-cast eyes, is a master-piece. 

Wo ascend to flie \V. colonnade by means of the shallow steps 

mentioned at p. Id.'l. Ileliiiid the Osiris-columns stood tlncdy de- 
signed pa])yriis-biid columns, in which, however, the artistic ground 


liamesseuni. THEBES. i:i. Route. 165 

idea was iiidirated merely by lightly carved root-leaves on tlie lower 
part of the shafts. Beyond this colonnade Is a *Hypostyle Hall 
(PI. C), which can hardly, however, he identified with the odeum- 
shaped hall mentioned by Diodorus in his description of the tomb 
of dsymandyas (p. 159). The inscriptions call it the 'Hall of the 
Appearance' (comp. p. 85). Diodorus describes his hall as s(iuare, 
whereas the one before us is 98 ft. deep aiul 196 ft. broad. The 
three Entrances meTitioned by Diodorus still exist, and are framed 
with sculptured blocks of granite. The artistic forms displayed in 
this hall are so extraordinarily congruous with each other, the di- 
mensions so skilfully calculated, and the proportions so harmonious, 
that we do not hesitate to describe It as the most beautiful hall ex- 
tant in any Egyptian temple. In its arrangement it resembled the 
great colonnaded hall at Karnak. In the centre a passage was 
marked out by six couples of higher columns with calyx-capitals, 
on each side of which were three rows of lower papyrus-bud co- 
lumns. Upon the latter a wall rose as high as the calyx-columns, 
with which it shared the weight of the roof, while a subdued but 
sufficient light was admitted to the beautiful hall through openings 
in tliis wall. On the outside of the still standing S.E. wall of this 
hypostylo hall appears the kneeling king doing Homage to Amnion, 
Muth, and Khunsu, farther to the left Thoth writing the car- 
touche oi the king, and to the extreme left the king between Mentu 
and Tum. Beneath is a procession of the sons of Ramses II., only 
some of whom, with their names, have been preserved. They are 
found in better preservation to the right and left of the door in the 
W. wall of the hall. Diodorus mentions that the odeum contained 
numerous wooden statues, representing persons before a tribunal 
and gazing upon the judges. Keliefs of judges, 30 in number, are 
said to have been seen on one of the walls (but this has possibly 
arisen from a confusion with the sons of Ramses). In the midst 
of the judges appeared a presiding judge, from whose neck hung 
the image of truth with closed eyes, and by whose side lay numerous 
books. These statues w^ere said to intimate by their attitudes (otd 
ToiJ ay-fjfjLaTo?) that the judges might accept no gifts and that the 
president could look only to the truth. — That statues actually 
did stand in this hall is indicated by pedestals found between the 
first and second columns in the central row. It is also by no means 
impossible that a trial-scene (like the Judgment of the Dead at Der 
el-Medineh, p. 189) may have occupied the wall of one of the adjoin- 
ing chambers; audit is easily conceivable that the hypostyle of the 
liamesseum, with which a library and a famous school of scribes 
were connected, may have been used as a court by the supreme 
college of justice. 

The representations which have remained are concerned with 
other subjects, while the fine inscription on the S.E. Wall returns 
to the war with the Kheta. The relief accompanying the latter is 

166 Route 13. THEBES. West Bank: 

distiiiguisbed for the beautil'ul modelling of the kings horses dash- 
ing into the fight, and for the lepiesontation of the Asiatic fortress 
of Tapxira, which is stormed by the Kjryptians on scaling-ladders, 
while the defenders are hurled headlong from the battlements. Se- 
veral sons of the Pharaoh, the names of whom are given, distinguish 
themselves in the battle. Two of these (towards the left) aie de- 
picted on a larger scale than the others, viz. Kha-em-us, the favou- 
rite son of Ramses, and Menth, prince of the blood, each of whom 
is in the act of slaying an enemy. The younger princes, Meri-Amen, 
Amen-em-ua, Seti, and Setep-cn-Ka, covered with their shields, 
take pan in the attack (below the fortress). Diodorus apparently 
had this scene in his mind when he described the Egyptian army as 
commanded by the sons of the king. 

The reliefs at the side of and above the portal (adorned with 
the concave cornice) in the Rear Wall are in good preservation. 
Each pillar is divided into four fields. In the first (top) fields the 
king is shown offering to Sokar-Osiris (on the left) and to Ptah (on 
the right); in both the second fields he offers sacrifice to Amnion 
Generator ; and in the third to Ammon-Ra as king of the gods (left) 
and to the same god as lord of heaven (right). From the fourth 
fields we learn the use to which the following rooms were put; on 
the loft is enthroned the ibis-headed Thoth-llormes, god of wisdom 
and of writings; on the right (opposite) is Safekh, goddess of history 

(recognizable by the j j above her head), named hero 'the king's 

mother Safekh, the groat mistress of book-writing'. At the foot is 
the dedicatory inscription, informing ns that the king erected this 
palatial building to his father Amnion, king of the gods anil lord 
of heaven, prince of Thebes. — On each side of the door is a pro- 
cession of youthful forms, with the lock of hair hanging to the side, 
peculiar to the royal children. Their left liaiids are raised, and their 

right hands hold the herdsman's crook [, the symbol of princely 

dignity, and the fan £, the symbol of court-rank. The list to the 

ri};ht is the more complete; but at tlie end of the jirocession on the 
left two priii<;csses appear, who are wanting in the other. Over the 
lirst figures but apjdying equally to the others appear the full titles 
of I'^gyptian royal princes. The first is as follows: 'The fan-bearer 
at the right hand of the king, the prince and royal scribe, the leader 
of the army, the great (Ur) .son of the king, the first-born of his 
body, his beloved Amen-hi-khopeshf. While this son is named the 
(great) son of the Icing, the next one, Ramessu, is called the (groat) 
son of the lord of both worlds. The third prince, Ra-hi-uanemif 
(lia at his right hand) is named master of the horse and charioteer. 
Fourth comes the king's favourite son, Klia-em-us(scc abovcj, whose 

Ramesifeum. THEBES. 13. Route. 167 

mummy was found in the region of tlie Apis-graves of Sakkarah. 
There are in all 23 princes, of whom only the thirteenth need still be 
mentioned. After the death of 12 brothers he ascended the throne 
at a ripe age. As we may gather from the list to the left, this is 
Merenptah, frequently though inaccurately named tlie Pharaoh of the 
Exodus, whose name as king was afterwards added in the cartouche 
above him. A similar honour naturally could not fall to any of the 
other princes. On the columns appears Ramses II. offering sacrifices 
to and receiving gifts from the 'gods worshipped in the Ramesseum', 
conspicuous among whom are Ammon in his various forms, Seth, 
Thoth, Isis, Ma, Nut, Sekhet, etc. 

Tlie Second Smaller Colonnaded Hall (PI. D), with four couple 
of papyrus-bud columns, is remarkable for two features. The lirst 
is the roof richly decorated with astronomical representations, prov- 
ing that the Ramesseum was a monument dedicated to the worship 
of the dead. The second is a representation on the N. part of the 
rear-wall (the S. part is ruined), which seems to support the state- 
ment of Diodorus that a sacred library was deposited in the tomb 
of Osymandyas , with the legend 'Hospital for the soul' ('];uy?j; 
[axpsiov). The Pharaoh, with all the royal attributes, sits upon his 
throne. At his side rises the leafy persea-tree, with heart-shaped 
fruit, upon which the king's naine^s~being \vlitten by three deities, 
viz. to the left Tum on a lofty throne, to the right the goddess of 
history, and behind her Thoth-Hermes. Behind Tum are the words: 
'Address of Ammon-Tum, lord of the great hall (of Heliopolis), in 
the Ramesseum to his son Ramses, the beloved of Ammon. Up, for 
the distinguishing of thy name to all eternity, that it may be pre- 
served on the sacred persea-tree'. In this hall also, on either side 
of the door, is a procession with the sacred boats of Muth, Khunsu, 
the deified king, and his consort. 

The following Room (PI. E) is much injured, though four co- 
lumns are still standing. It contains lists of offerings, and a few not 
uninteresting sculptures (chiefly on the door-pillars), which seem 
still farther to support the belief that we are now in the rooms of a 
Library. The figures of the Theban triad are notunusual ; butthe forms 
of Safekh, mistress of libraries, and Thoth-Hermes, the celestial 
scribe (both facing the room we have now entered) are noticeable. 
The god is accompanied by a form representing the personified sense 
of sight, with an eye as his symbol; the goddess by the personified 
sense of hearing, with an ear above his head. Thoth writes down 
the resolutions and thoughts of the god, while Safekh, the goddess 
of history, causes the fame of the great deeds of the past to ring in 
the ears of posterity. The dedicatory inscription states that this 
door was overlaid with silver-gilt (electrum), and Champollion 
found that the very low relief was formerly covered with a cloth 
coated with stucco, and was then probably gilded. No traces of the 
gilding is now to be found. — The side -rooms adjoining this W, 

168 Route 14. THEBES. Wat Bonk: 

portion of the Raniesseuin are in a very ruinous condition, buttlieir 
arranxeiuent may be partly made out. 

Hehinil the Kaiiicsseuiii, esperially towards the N.W., are the remains 
of a uuiul)cT of cxti'iisive liiick JJnildiiigs, some of which were erected in 
the time of Hamses II., as we leani from tlie stamps on tlie bricks. Among 
the rest are some wcll-construcled vaults. .\s tlie tomb of Ramses II. 
has been discovered at Bibiin el-SIiiluk (]i. 207), tliere can be no question 
of his grave being here. On the other liand we learn from the papyrus- 
rolls tliat a celebrated university and a seminary for scholars, comparable 
to the Museum at Alexandria, were connected with the Ilamesseum, and 
stood at the '/.enith of their prosperity under Ramses and his son Meren- 
ptah. Tlie light-coloured soil, strewn with fragments of bricks and tiles, 
between the Ramesseum and Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah, covers a multitude of 
graves, whose existence is undreamed of hy those who walk over them. 
One of these, belonging to a certain Mesra, contains some interesting re- 
presentations, the style of which indicates (for no king is named) that it 
dates probably from the early enqiire, and is certainly not later than the 
beginning of the tSth Dynasty. We may therefore conclude that Kanises II. 
built his votive Memnonium on'.an ancient portion of the Theban necropolis. 

About 500 paces to the N. of tlie Memnonium we observe the 
remains of an extensive wall bnilt^ of Nile bricks. The name of 
2'ubnes llf. found licro on many tiles remlers it probable that a 
teniplo buUt by this king or dedicated to him stood on this site. 

14. The Tombs of Kurnet-Murrai. 

Travellers who are not pressed for time should visit one of the 
tombs of Kurnet-Murra'i (viz. that of Hui), on the way to Medinet- 
Ilabii. On reaching the fields of W. Thebes, if we look towards the 
Libyan mountains, our eye falls upon numerous tomb-entrancos. 
The vaults of the Diospolites of the zcnitli of the ancient empire 
arc. hewn in the limestone hills that bound tlie plain of Thebes to the 
W. They have recently been classified in groups, bearing tiie names 
of the fell;ih-villni;es in whose domain they lie. Tlie tombs on the 
slopes behind the Itamessenm are called those of Slickh 'Abd el- 
Kurnali. l''ollowii'g thence the undulatinji ilesert region at the foot of 
the Libyan hills in a S.W. direction towards Medinet llabu, we 
soon pass, on the right, the gorge of Dcr el-Mcdineh, and then 
direct our way towards the mountain-slope, projecting between the 
Hamesseum and Medinet Habu. This slope, on which stand some 
fellah huts is known to the guides as Kurnet MurraL Several of 
the tombs hero date from the 18th l>yn., but tlie majority are of no 
interest to the ordinary traveller. Only one, to which the guides 
con<luct travellers at once, is of exceptional interest (though recently 
mu(h injured), on account partly of the subject and partly of the 
vivid colours of the representations it contains. Near the village 
(the dogs of whi< h are cross-grained though cowardly) is a tomb 
partly converted into a stable by the fellahiii. In the adjoining 
tomb of Hora-Khemli are some hiiMOtrlyphics, of interest only to 
the scientific traveller. — Then follows the finest tomb in the necro- 
polis, belonging to a certain Hui, who held the high rank of a prince 

K'urnet Murral. 


14. Route. 169 

of Kusli (Ethiopia! and was governor of tho Sudan. One of the sons 
of the Pharaoh used to bo called prince of Kiish, just as the heir- 
apparent to the British throne bears the title 'prince of Wales'. 
Anienhotep, a brother of Hui, who appears to have shared the same 
grave, is frequently named along with him. The accessible part of 
the grave is shaped as in the accompanying cut. 

We enter by the door at T. The inscriptions are in good pre- 
servation only in the transverse chamber, i.e. the sepulchral chapel, 
and there especially on the 

rear-wall to the right (c) and f T a 

left (h). On wall b appears a 
much defaced figure of a kinj;, a 
belonging to the later ISfli 
Dyn., viz. the uot altogether 
legitimate Ra-kheperu-neb, 
whose throiie-uame was Tut- 
ank-amen-i_iak-an-nes , i.e. 
'Living representative of Am- 
mou, prince of the S. An'.' 
Hui, who was not only prince 

of P^thiopia but also chief of the S. house at tlie king's right 
hand, stands before him and addresses him. In his right hand 
is the fan, the symbol of his rank, in his left the crooked staff. 
Behind him, on a table covered with costly stuffs and panther skins, 
are golden vases and table-services, and imitations of the most 
striking phenomena of the Sudan. Among the latter are the conical 
hut of the characteristically represented negroes, and inhabitants 
of the interior of Africa represented gathering their harvest from 
the diim-palms that grow in thick woods, and 
driving girafl'es among them. Higher up are 
various precious articles; red and blue gems in 
cups, rings of gohl, sacks of gold-dust, shields 
covered with golden plates and gay skins, foot- 
stools, chairs, benches, and head-rests 

of ebony, a costly chariot, red jasper (Khenemt), 
lapis-lazuli, green stone, etc. Five divisions of 
men bearing tribute are received by Hui and 
Amenhotep in the king's name. Brown and coal- 
black people from the Sudan are represented in 
the top row. Their princess, shaded by an um- 
brella, approaches in a chariot drawn by oxen, and is followed by 
chiefs wearing ostrich-feathers in their hair which is plaited into 
a kind of hood (as is the custom to this day among these tribes). 
The procession is closed by a brown and a black Ethiopian woman, 
with pendant breasts. The former carries a child in a basket on 
her back, and each woman leads a nude boy behind her. The 

170 Route li. THEBES. West Bank: 

second row begins witli kneeling {liipfs litpni tlic Sudan, wlio arc 
followed l)y wliiti'-clad Istliiopians witli rings ot'golJ, pantlier-skins, 
a giraftV, and oxen. The last have unusually variegated hides, and 
each has a brown and a black liunian hand nidst singularly fixed on 
the points ol' its horns. The inscription above this procession runs: 
'the great ones ot Kush (Ethiopia) speak, Hail to thee, king of 
Egypt, sun of the foreign peoples. We shall breathe as thou por- 
mittest and shall live according to thy pleasure'. In the third row 
brown and black chiefs from Kush bring gold and precious stones, 
and semicircular fans of ostrich-feathers, of exactly the same shape 
as the flabellum which now shades the pope on certain solemn 
occasions and which was formerly used by the Pliaraohs. An ox 
with artificially bent horns, between which is a pond with tish 
and bushes, should be noticed. The fourth and fifth divisions are 
much injured. They show bright red persons (Erythr;eans who 
dwelt between the Nile and the l!ed Sea), Egyptians, and very light 
coloured lOgyptian women with nosegays, earthen vessels, gazelles, 
etc. Uui appears again on the same wall. Above and beneath may 
be seen the ships which brought to J''gypt the choice tribute of the 
south. The two richly adorned and brightly painted dhahabiyehs 
(above) resemble the craft (the ornamentation of course excepted) 
in which the products of the Sudan are to this day transported to 
the north. Five Ethiopian princes kneel upon the deck of the second 
boat. Cattle and other goods are being brought to Egypt in the 
smaller vessels below. 

On wall c appears the deceased, M'ith the jackal-headed Annbis 
on his right and Osiris on his left, while^betwt^en him and the gods 
are offerings to the dead. On wall a, near the door, stands tin; 
deceased, with his domestics, singers, etc., and two richly adorned 
Nile boats behind him ; still farther back is the prince of Kush again, 
surrounded by his treasures — earthen vessels, skijis of wild animals, 
bright coloured boxes, etc. Rings of gold are biung received ami 
are weighed by a treasurer named llornefer. 

On the rear wall to the right (e) appears the king (near the 
corner pillar), with Uui before him. — Amenhotep, another prince; 
of Kush, is bringing pieces of lapis-la/.uli on a dish. l'>y his right 
hand hangs a breast-plate, set witli precious stones, like that worn 
by the high pri(!st of the Jews. Behind llui are several of those 
gold ami silver viissels, whii-h at that time were manufactured by 
the Phu.Miicians and Syrians with extraordinary arti^ti(• skill. Here; 
also are lapis-lazuli, rod cornelians, and priestly breast-plates. An 
inscription extols tin; I'haraoh in emphatic terms and informs us that 
Syria pays this tribute. Their appearance alone is quite sufficient to 
enable us to decide with certainty as to the origin of the men here re- 
presented, casting themselves in the dust before the king, orstanding 
and offering him homage and tribute. Some of them are light- 
coloured, others of a red<lish hue; their profile is unmistakably 


Medtnet Habu. THEBES. 15. Route. 171 

Semitic. All of them have pointed beards, and several have long 
ringleted h air in fillets ; while those of higher rank wear long robes and 
short cloaks of a fine-woven, richly patterned cloth, dyed a bright 
bine and red. Their feet are naked but their legs are covered to the 
ankle. Nude slaves, wearing only aprons, appear among them carry- 
ing the tribute. Besides costly vessels, lapis-lazuli, and cornelians, 
they also bring a lion and two splendid light-coloured horses. 

On wall f, to the right of the entrance, is a representation of 
an offering of flowers. 

15. Medinet Habu. 

To the S.W. of KnrnetMurrai, and at no great distance, appears 
an extensive temple-group. This bears the name of Medinet Habu, a 
Christian village which arose around and even within the ancient 
sanctuary as early as the 5th cent., and of which considerable traces 
still remain. On the N. side ofthe temple-ruins rise heaps of rubbish, 
which we follow in the direction ofthe river, until we reach the 
main facade, which fronts the S.E. and is as imposing as it is 
curious. The traveller of experience will at once perceive that 
here we have not to do with a monument erected, like the Rames- 
seum, under the influence of a single continuous impulse, but with 
a building begun in early times and not completed until the epoch 
of the Ptolemies. The entire edifice may be divided into three 
easily distinguished portions. The earliest of these is the small 
oblong temple (PI. N), lying parallel with the N. girdje-wall, and 
founded under the iSth Dynasty. The most recent is the pylon 
(PI. K) adjoining this, with a beautiful and richly adorned portal, 
seen to especial advantage by those who approach the temple from 
the plain. A glance at the capitals of the two large columns rising 
ill front of the gateway and at the style of the inscriptions informs 
the expert that this edifice dates from the epoch of the Ptolemies. 
Reserving these for later inspection, we proceed first to the third 
portion, the main temple. 

The Main Temple of Medinet Uauu was erected as a Memno- 
niiim by Ramses III. of the 20th Dyn., without any reference to 
the previously existing temple of the 18th Dynasty. Thougli this 
temple is beautiful and finely proportioned in many of its parts, its 
architect has displayed no skill in incorporating what already existed 
with the new edifice. The erroneous opinion that the temple of 
Medinet Habu was a royal palace must be most emphatically contra- 
dicted. It was no more a palace than was the Ramesseum or any of 
the other buildings in W. Thebes. It was a Memnonium devoted to 
ancestor-worship, and its principal part was intended forthe worship 
of the manes of Ramses III., and to remind posterity of his fame 
and his exploits. The temple served also for the celebration of 
festivals, including a specially important one for whose adequate 

172 Route 15. TIIEHES. Wed Bank: 

observance thePliaroah made enormous giants and gifts, ingratitude 
to the gods who had favoured him. 

For Ramses III. and his tiiiie, sec Vol. I., p. 90. Here it may he 
briefly noted that after (lie reiijns of l!ainses II. and his weaker son 
Merenptah (under or more probably after whom the Exodus of the Is- 
raelites took place), rebels and (revolutionists reduced the house of the 
Pharaolis (o the verge of destruction and inflicted great in.iury on the 
valley of the Nile, until Setnekht, a ruler allied to the le;:i(imate line, 
restored order with a firm hand. After a reij^n of seven years he died, 
leaving the once more prosperous kingdom to his son Ramses HI. The 
temple which we are on the point of inspecting is a biographical authority 
of the greatest value, for its inscriptions and representations not only 
inform us of the warlike achievements of Bamses III., but enable also 
the attentive beholder to form a distinct picture of the peculiarities of 
the public and private life of this prince. liamses III. is the wealthy 
Rharapsinitus of Herodotus, the most splendour-loving of all the Pharaohs, 
a timid favourite of the gods, wliom he endeavoured to propitiate by 
overwhelming the temples and priestly colleges with gifts, whilt; in the 
building of Medinet Habu he shows himself to have been a ruler given 
over to self-indulgence. The victories won under him were important, 
and it almost seems a.s though this luxurious ancestor of a degenerate 
race recovered the manhood of his forefatliers amid tli(! tumult of battle. 

a. Pavilion of Bamses III. 

We first enter a kind of Fork-Court (PI. A), with two small 
buildings, which were probably the Porters' Lodges. Botli tliese 
and the girdle-wall stretching towards the S. are surmounted by 
round pinnacles, resembling those already noted in tlie pi(-tures of 
Asiatic strongholds stormed by the Egyptian armies {e.g. on the 1st 
pylon of the Kamesseum^. These small buildings bear (behind, 
above the lilitel) the cartouches of Kanises II., Kamses III., and 
Ilamses IV. Passing between the porters' lodges, we are confronted 
with another building almost in the 'shape of a horse-shoe, which 
differs considerably from the pylons of other temples. It consists of 
truncated pyramids, with almost imperceptibly sloping walls, and 
a slightly receding central edifice. An excellent survey of this pe- 
culiar structure, wliich contains numerous apartments, may be ob- 
tained from without, as there is an open space of"about 35 ft. between 
it and the entrance between the porters' houses. The French ex- 
plorers have given this edifice the name of Pavilion, aiid it is now 
generally regarded as tlio dwelling of Ilamses 111., <liielly on ac- 
count of the reliefs in the interior representing scenes from the 
private life of the Pharaoh (comp. p. 174). The apartments were 
probably designed for the reception of the king when engaged 
in festal celebrations and in ancestor-worship. As has been said 
before, there were no regular royal palaces on this bank of tlio Nile. 
The royal dwellings looked very different from the temple of Medinet 
Habu, and were never built of hewn stone. — To the W. opens the 
Oate a, of lesser heiglit. This led from the pavilion to the temple 
proper, and affords a view of the first court. 

The Ckntral Ejhiice has windows atnl doors in every direction. 
On the exterior walls of the pavilion-wings, whicli stand to 


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:ui(l iipposKc, OMcIi otluM', (ini sonic cinidtis jirojcM'tiiip- heads. Tlioso 
arc, as is still cloaily visibh^, voprcsciilatioiis of fnvoi;;ii poiiplos coii- 
(liKM'oil by tlxi i'haraoli, and probably soivcd to support a balcony, 
or to fasten tlio volaria which shaded the oiitraiico to the teniplo. 
The reliefs on the exterior walls of the pavilion are much niutilatod. 
On the walls facing lis as wo approach, of tlio wings h and c, wo 
may rocogiii/e (towards the top) the I'haraoh, holding a niunbor of 
(Mieniics by the hair and raising his battle-axe to strike, while Am- 
moii l!a, on the lelt, and llarinachis, on the right, otTer him tho 

sword of victory )]. Lowdown, immediately above tho sloping sub- 
structure, are the captive princes of the conquered peoples. In 
these, as in all representations of foreign tribes at Modinet llabu, 
careful attention is paid to tho race-type and the costumes and 
weapons of the various conijucred p(>()ples. I'lven those who are not 
lOffyptologists will at once perceive that here we have to do for tho 
most. part, with tribes entirely dillerent from those against whom tho 
kings of tlu^ ISth and I'.lth Dyn. warr(Ml. The present pictures re- 
present especially tho western neighbours of the Nile valley, tho 
liibyans and tho allied (and apparently related) islandeis of tho 
Mediterranean, who even in the time of Merenptah made an ex- 
pedition against Egypt, and who after their repulse returned with 
new and stronger forces in tho reign of Ramses 111. All are depicted 
with light complexions, a circumstanco as natural in the case of tho 
islanders as it seems strange in the case of the Libyjiiis. The latter, 
however, must be regarded as immigrants from the nortli, among 
whom the Mashuasha played an imjiortant part. Along with the 
I'elasgians, Mtruscans, Danai, Sicilians, Sardinians, Oscaiis, etc., 
they were llrst conijuered by Kaniseslli., and then permitted to 
t:ike service umler the Pharaohs, at whose court, es])ecially under 
the '22nd Dyn., they were destined to play an important part. On 
llu\ lower part of tho K. Wall of Wing c we perceive their captive 
r(\presentalives beside those of the Libyans and of two other western 
peoples, whoso banner tho Kthiopians also followed. On tho K. Wall 
of Winn '' '"''^ captive princes of tho islanders, among whom spe- 
cially to be noted are tho leader of the /ekkari, with a curious 
hood, the prince of tho 'SardiniaTis from tho sea', and of the 
'Tnrsha (Kirusoans) from tho soa', whoso head is adorned with a 
lisluir's cap. 

Other representations occur to the right and left in the Nttrrow 
Courts over which the above-mentioned velaria probnlily extended. 
As in all other ])arts of this temple, the deeds of Rmuisi^s III. an; horo 
c(d(!ltrati"d. To the left as wo enter, tin! king, bow in hand, presents 
to Amnion the cominored trib(^s, arrangiMl in two columns and bound 
with lotus-bands. On the right (N.) wall Ramses 111. receives tho 
w(vii)ons of victory from Animoii. In the narrow (lidewny to tho 
llrst court (IM. a) is the portrait of the IMiaraoh as the overcomor of 

174 Route 15. THEBES. We^t Bank: 

his enemies. To the left, he again reci'ives the sceptre and loads 
behind liiin captive island-princes. 

The Intkrior of the pavilion can only be gaineil from one of 
the walls of the court to our left as we enter. The attempt is not 
without difficulty; and some of the rooms are not accessible at all. 
In several of the apartments are well-preserved wall-sculptures of no 
little interest; e.g. in the apartment above the passage and in the 
right wing. Ivamseslll. is here represented in his harem. Thcniide 
maidens with whom he is playing chess (the scene in the ruined N. 
(intrance-room to the right is well seen from before the fa^'ade of the 
building^, or who ham! to him one a flg, another a pomegranate, 
another a melon, another a flower which he smells, appear from the 
shape of their faces and from tlie arrangement of their hair to bo 
captive princesses rather than his own children. This supposition 
is farther strengthened by the occurrence here of several represen- 
tations of a distinctly immodest character. 

The vicious propensities of tliis king are f;ibbeted with biting scorn 
on other monuments. He liimself appears to have looked willi peculiar 
pride upon liis harem, which was rich in beauty of all kinds, and to have 
immortalized its memory in his Memnonium. At all events his reign 
marks the beginning of an epoch of luxury and immorality, upon which 
decay followed close. 

After passing througli the gateway a, we traverse an open Space 
between the pavilion and the first pylon. Before we reai'h the pylon, 
210 ft. wide, which conceals the first peristyle court, we pass a num- 
ber of ruined walls of baked and unbaked bricks, which belonged 
to the Coptic, village built within the temple. In front, to the left, 
is a small 'J'eniple o/' Amcnirilis ('2(illi l)yn.), to tliu right a block 
with the cartouche of Nectanebus 11. Behind is the temple founded 
Tinder the ISth J)yn., which we visit later (p. 184). Standing on 
the rubbir^h heap in front of the first pylon and looking through the 
gateway into the temple, our view penetrates to the last court. There 
Is no more remarkable perspective in I'^gypt. 

b. Large Temple of Bamses III. 

The large First Pylon (PI. C) is covered with representations 
and inscriptions. I'irst to the right we see the Pharaoh as the coti- 
queror of liis (Miemies, and opposite is Ammon-lla, tlio king of the 
gods, holding in liis right hand the curved sword, in his left the 
sceptre, and several wall-rings surmounted by busts of their princes. 
In the first we read the name of Punt or Arabia, whi'h, how- 
ever, must bo here interpreted in a narrow sense, as ci|uivalcnt to 
the coastlands of the Hod Sea. I'.etweeu the king and the group of 
his enemies is the inscription: 'lie strikes to the earth the princes 
of all lands', beneath whi(di is a horizontal row of figures (tf some 
tribes ( partly ]'>encath that again is the chief Inscription, 
from the 11th year of the king, relating his great deeds. 

All the, inscriptions in Jlcdinct llabii dillVr from the reports of vic- 
tories under the IStli .•mil I'Jlh Dyn., by their extravagant titles of honour, 

Medlnel Habu. THEBES. Ifi. Route. 175 

immoderate flattei-yi and the absence of fact. The names of the conquered 
nations are here recorded, but we learn few particulars of the course of 
the wars. The value of the booty is here and there indicated, but it by 
no means corresponds to the gigantic achievements performed by Ramses 111. 
according to the exaggerated representations of his priestly flatterers. 
There can be little doubt that he successfully opposed a league of several 
peoples, who attacked his kingdom by land and sea; but he did not pene- 
trate into the heart of Asia as his great ancestors did, and the critic 
cannot avoid regarding tlie paeans of Medinet Habu as exaggerated and 
unreliable. The report on the first pylon, referring to the victory of the 
7th day of the month Mekhir in the year 11, contains some passages of 
considerable poetic force. After relating that the enemy had intended to 
settle in Egypt and to till the land as his own, the account goes on: 
'Death lurked in Tamer (Egypt) for those, who had come on their own 
feet to the furnace, in which fire consumed impurity under the glow of 
the heroism of his majesty, who inspired terror like Baal on high. All 
his limbs are tilled with the power of victory . . . His right hand grasps 
multitudes, and over those who place themselves against him his left 
hand is stretched out like missiles directed against them to slay them. 
His battle-scythe (mows) mightily, like his father Month. — Kapur (prince 
of the Libyans), who came as one smitten with blindness to receive hom- 
age, laid down his weapons on the ground with his warriors, and cried 
aloud to heaven to beseech grace (r tebh). His son held his foot and his 
hand and remained standing in his place. But the God, who knew what 
was passing in bis inmost mind (what was in his intestines), fell upon 
their heads like a mountain of granite . . . Their blood mingled with the 
eartli like the overflowing river', etc. 

On the S. or Left Pylon are similar representations. Between the 
two flag-stafifs the king appears with his fettered enemies before 
tlie goil Ptah, who aims a blow at two enemies. Beneatli is another 
horizontal row often conquered peoples, and a stele of the I'Jth year 
of the king (imitated from a stele of the 35th year of Ramses II. at 
Abu-Sirabel), containing a dialogue between Ptah and the king. 
To the left (S.) is a colossal figure of Ammon-Ra, handing the sword 
of victory to the king, beside six rows of fettered enemies. 

Within the gateway (PI. d) leading to the next court is the 
name of Ramses III., engraved unusually deeply in the stone. The 
Fore-court (PL D), forming an approximate square of 115 ft., is 
enclosed oil all sides, and is not destitute of shade even at midday. 
On the left fS.] are calyx-columns and on the right (N.) are (Jsiris- 
statues placed against pillars, which form galleries with the outer 
walls. If we can imagine this space cleared of rubbish and ruined 
walls, we can form some idea of its pristine effect. Even as it is 
it impresses the beholder, with its pylons to the E. and W. to shut 
out the uninitiated, its colonnades to the N. and S., and its magni- 
ficent decoration in carvings and inscriptions. Here and elsewhere 
at Medinet Habu we notice that want of symmetry, whidi is 
frequently made a reproach to the Egyptian artists ; but there is no 
doubt that the priestly architects deliberately here placed columns 
of different forms opposite each other, with the intention of dis- 
guising or relieving the uniformity dictated by the hieratic canon. 

We now turn to the Inner Side of the first pylon. To the right 
we see a long hieroglyphic inscription; below, to the left, the Pha- 
raoh with his bow bent dashing against the foe, in a chariot drawn by 

176 Route 15. THEP.ER. We^iBank: 

beautiful horses. The slaughter wliich lie causes is immense, and, 
so far as the vividness of the representation goes, may well be com- 
pared with tlic similar subjects at Karnak and the llamesseum, 
though it is inferior in point of style. 

Hifilicr up is an inscription from the lltli year of the king; and here 
also the long rows of hieroglyphics are more concerned with extolling 
the king than with relating events. The war is once more against the 
western peoples, the Libyans, Maxyans (Mashauasha), etc. The leaders of 
the foe are the Libyan prince Kapur and his son Mashashar. The op- 
ponents of Pharaoh were (according to the inscription on the N. I'yion) 
utterly routed, and lost miserably both property and life, 'while the 
whole earth rejoiced as it beheld the heroism of King Itamses III.' The 
world bowed before the king, who is compared to Uaal, who punislies 
the impious. The conquered are compared to a Hock of goats attacked 
by a lion. The endless pictorial laudations of the victor are positively 
wearisome, while the representations of the defeat, impotence, and over- 
throw of the conquered are almost eijually abundant. Finally the king 
liarangues the leaders of his foot-soldiers and charioteers, not forgetting 
to celeljrate in swelling words the deeds tliat he himself has done. The 
number of prisoners and slain (the latter with their hands, etc., cut off) 
is recorded. One of the lists accompanying the inscription includes one 
prince of the Mashauasha, 5 superior otiicers, 1'205 common soldiers, 152 
inferior officers, 131 young men, 1494 in all. Also 342 women, 65 young 
women, 151 girls, 558 in all. These figures give a total of 203'2 persons. 
Besides these 2175 Mashauasha were slain by the king in their ranks. 
The total loss of the enemy was thus not more than 4227 persons. The 
number of captured swords, bows, chariots, etc., corresponds : 115 large 
swords, 124 smaller, 603 bows, etc. 

Another series occupies the back-wall of the colonnade on the right 
(N.) side of the court, supported by seven pillars with the Osiris-ligures 
of the king. The uppermost row contains sacrificial scenes. The first of 
these dejiicts the king, who has alighted from his chariot, shooting his arrows 
against a hostile fortress occupied by warriors (the town Amaro^ recalling 
the Amorites). In the next scene the king drags three rows of prisoners 
behind his chariot. He is congratulated by the grandees. Finally he 
presents the captives to Amnion, Mulh, and Khunsu. 

The inscriptions and sculptures on the Second Pylon (PI. E), 
enclosing the rear of the court, are still more, interesting. To the 
left are Amnion Ra and iNIutli, the great queen of heaven, to whom 
Pharaoh, wearing a richly decorated crown, leads three rows of 
captives chained together. The two upper rows have distinctly 
European features, and wear embroidered aprons and low helmets. 
Over the first row no name appears, but according to the inscription 
before Pharaoh, they are Sliakalsha, i.e. probably Sicilians. Tlic 
captives in the second row are called Tanauna or Danauna, a name 
in wlii<'li we are probably correct in recogni/.ing the 'Danai", or 
Jlelleiies of the Trojan era. The third row, in which the individual 
figures resemble those of the other two, is accoiiipaiiied by the 
following inscription : 'Provide breatli for our nostrils, O king, son 
of Amnion, say the foes from Pulasata'. In tlicsc Pnlasata we must 
recognize the Piiili.stiiies, now and no contemptible foes of lOgypt. 

On the lliyhi Winy of the second pylon is another long in- 
scription devoted to tin; deeds of the king in the 8th year of his reign. 

Here also facts arc obscured by enii>ty lith'S and r.Iaboralc trifles, 
recited in jiraise of (he kiu','. 'His form, lii.s limbs', runs the fifth line, 
'have been weiu'lied in thf bal.-no'i's of H;ial ; he commands the miilLilude ^ 

Medina Hahu. THEBES. 15. Route. 177 

and there is nune like to him'. Of the enemy, Ihroufrh whose discomlilure 
he won so much praise, it is said that they worshipped him as soon as 
they heard of his bravery, that they threw themselves on the ground at 
his feet, etc. He is compared with Ptah, Osiris, Shu, and Ra. In line 13 
the king addresses his faithful followers, telling them that Amnion has 
lent him his throne, power, strength, and victory. In line IG the nations 
that were unable to resist the attack of the islanders are named. Of the 
latter it is said: 'No people made head against their arms, from the land 
of Kheta to Kati, Kirkamasha (Karkhemish), Aratu (Arados), and Arasa 
(Assyria). They assembled in the land of Amara (AmoritesV), they over- 
came the people and the land as though they did not exist. They came, 
and a fire was prepared beforehand for those who had turned their faces 
towards Egypt'. Among these foes, as line 13 recounts, were the Pulasata 
(Philistines), Zekkari (Teucrians?), Shakalsha (Sicilians). Danauna(Danai), 
and Uashasha {? Oscans according to Chabas). Their hearts were high, and 
they were tilled with their plans'. But the king of Egypt laid a snare 
for them. God stood by him. He firmly maintained Zaha (Northern 
Syria) as his frontier. The battle must have taken place in Egypt itself. 
The king barred the mouth of the Nile as with a wall with well-manned 
ships, and attacked the enemy with land-forces and chariots, treading 
them to the ground. The king boasts that he had fought like Month at 
the head of his troops, acting like a champion (ustennu), that knows his 
strength, like a brave warrior, that saves his people in the day of battle. 
'Those who reached my borders reaped no more harvests on earth'. He 
strewed their corpses along the bank? their ships and goods sank in the 
waters. 'I made the lands go back, to remember the land of Egypt, chant- 
ing my name in their lands'. In line 25 he extols himself and claims to 
have taken their lands from the barbarians, to have made their borders 
his own, and to have received the homage of their princes. He orders 
general rejoicing, calms the hearts of his followers, and extols his own 
strength. At this i)oint the inscription is interrupted by a gap in the 
fourth, lifth, sixth, and seventh courses of masonry from the top. The 
remainder contains nothing of interest. 

Thegraiiite gateway of the second pylon admits to the Colonnaded 
Hall (PI. F), which presents a furious appearance owing to tlie 
j)rostrate columns of a Christian church, erected here at an early 
period and destroyed after the spread of Islam in Upper Egypt. 
This second court is a specially retired enclosure, in which the 
slightly projecti ng concaYe_ iMim-ice. running round the entire open 
space of the square hall, produces the finest effect. It is 126 ft. 
long and 138 ft. broad. On all four sides is a colontiade. 

The roof is supported on the N. and S. by columns, on the E. 
by a row of caryatides , while on the W. the rear is closed by a 
passage, with eight caryatide-pillars in front and eight columns be- 
hind. An inscription at the top of the inner side of the left (S.) 
pylon informs us that this was the Festal Hall proper; while the 
same fact is to be gathered from the sculptures on the back-walls 
of the colonnades. Turning first to the right we see in the upper 
row a series of * Representations , beginning at the N.W. an;;le of 
the hall and running all allong the N. side and on the E. side as far 
as the entrance. This illustrates the beautiful Festiv.m. of the 
St.\.ie,cask, which was celebrated in honour of the god Kheui. It 
took place in the month Pakhon, i.e. the first harvest-month, and at 
the new moon. The course of the moon was represented as a stair- 
case with fourteen steps (days), hence the name of the festival. It 

Baedekek's Upper Egypt. 12 

178 Route 15. THEBES. West Bank: 

was sacred to Khem, i.e. Amiuoii during the process of his self-pro- 
creation, and may be regarded as one of the greatest of the Egyptian 
festivals, as even among the representations in the IJamesseum and 
elsewhere a cojispicuoiis place is given to it. It might well bo solemn- 
ized iT\ a Momnonium, for Khcm caused the new birth of the dead 
god, and the soul separated from the body arose to new life, as the 
vanished orb of night returns at the new moon. As the inscription 
of Ammon-en-heb says, the heir to the throne succeeded the dead 
Piiaraoh on the following day, just as one moon succeeds another 
after a moonless night. The inscription above the reliefs would still 
preserve for us their subject even if the latter had disappeared. It 
runs as follows: 'In the month Pakhon, at the festival of the god 
Khem, at the appearance of the light of the Moon-god. The king, 
crowned with his helmet, comes in his littiT. Tlie body-guard goes 
before him. Each bears at his side shielil, spear, and sword. The 
lords of his retinue, the higher and lower officers, come behind him, 
and after them the princes aiid warriors. The cliief orator of festi- 
vals (kheiheb) conducts the festival of his fatlier Khem, while the 
king presents to his father Khem great offerings of bread, beer, 
cattle, geese, and all good things. Khem, the lord of Sen, is brought 
forward, and his son Ramses III. advances before him. The god 
wears the double feather on his head, and about his neck a linely- 
worked chain from which at his left arm hangs the portrait of the 
goddess Ma. The kherheb strikes up a dance, the choir-master 
(^idiief singer) does his duty, and the Arabian negro praise the 
god. Then also appear before the god his vowed servants, with por- 
traits of the kings of L'p])er and Lower ICgypt, as the divine an- 
cestors. No more follows, for the god i)laces himself down upon his 
staircase, and His Majesty olVcrs a great sacrifice to his lather Khem, 
the consort (bull) of his motlier. Ikdiold, there also is the white 
bull before His Majesty, etc' ... In pres(!nce of the living king and 
of tjie royal ancestral images an attendant brings the black blade of 
a sickle inlaid with gold, and a sheaf of corn, and presents them to 
the king. Then the reaper (maniit), walking round the king seven 
times, says 'The king has reaped with the sickle that is in his 
hand, he raises it to his nose, ho lays it down before Khem, who 
gives the king the harvest'. The king quits the staircase, turns to 
the N., and walks round the staircase, etc. — We shall now see liow 
this di'scriptioM is illiistrat('(| ])y (he reliefs. 

**Procession at the beautiful Festival of the Staircase. 'J'his 
very interesting series begins to the lelt (M.), on the rear-wall of 
the N. colonnade. First appears the Phavoah, on a throne-shaped 
litter adorned with figures of lions, borne by 12 grandees, of whom 
four are princes of the blood. Attendants wave fans; and three 
^^ul;iller figures with feather-fans are supposed to be marching by 
tiM! side of the litter, llehind the Pharoah are the two goddesses of 
rewarding and punishing justice, with out-spread wings, and with 

Medinet Habu. THEBES. /5. Roult. 179 

the feather of truth on their head. Iii two rows before and behind 
the king appears the rest of the procession. In the upper row (be- 
fore the liing), a drummer and a trumpeter turn towards the gran- 
dees of the kingdom, who wear the double feather on their heads 
and carry In their hands the symbols of their power. The last of 
these, a bald priest, with a censer turns towards the king. A 
short inscription explains that he is offering incense to thePharaoli, 
and names him the fan-bearer at the right hand of the prince, the 
royal scribe, general, and crown-prince, whom he (IJamses) loves. 
In the lower row are various dignitaries, preceded by two young 
princes. These, according to the inscription above, are 'the royal 
relatives of the king, young and old, great and worthy, all (who 
have appeared) to march before his majesty as he proceeds in his 
litter, in order to cause his father Khem to be carried in procession, 
at his beautiful festival of the staircase'. Immediately before the 
king is a priest, turning towards him and offering incense, and then 
the orator of festivals (kherhebl, 'who performs all his customary 
ceremonies before the king at his solemn procession'. Behind the 
king, the procession is also arranged in two rows. In the upper 
row are dignitaries, with the symbols of their rank, and armed 
warriors ; in the lower, royal princes, fan-bearers, and pastophori 
with portions of the sacred staircase and cases containing sacred 
vessels. At the end of the relief is a kind of grated door, with 
a vertical inscription in front of it, to the effect that 'His Majesty 
arises solemnly, like the sun's disc, from his dwelling of life, con- 
stancy, and power (in other words, his palace). The king betakes 
himself in his litter to the abode of his father Khem, to gaze upon 
his beauties'. Then follows the main object of the procession, i.e. 
the image of the ithyphallic Khem, who here stands beneath a 
canopy crowned with Ur;eus-snakes. Farther on towards the E. 
wall, the image appears borne by priests on a stand covered with 
a gaily -coloured carpet and adorned with enormous wreaths of 
llowers. The priests, who wave aloft fans of different shapes, are 
completely covered by the carpet, with the exception of their heads 
and feet. Behind and a little above, two priests spread out a sail, 
the emblem of breath, freshness, and joy, and beneath them four 
others bear a chest with live ornamental trees. Before the former 
tigure of the god the king, offering incense and drink-offering, 
wears the helmet of the ruler of Upper Egypt; while before the 
image on the covered stand the Pharaoh, bearing a staff" and sceptre 
and following a white bull, wears the crown of Lower Egypt. Above 
liim hovers tlia j>'ulture o f victory (as in nearly every place where 
the king appears in the present series), bearing in its talons the 
symbol of the innumerable periods, which (according to the in- 
scription beneath) Ammon-Khem has bestowed upon the Pharaoh 
for his appearance at the festival. An inscription in front of the 
sacred bull names it 'the white bull'. Its horns are shaped like 


ISO lioule 15. THEBES. Wed BaJik: 

the crescent moon and enclose the disc adorned witb the double 
feather of the goddess of (ruth. Above the bull and the following 
procession are two hieroglyphic inscriptions, between wliich are the 
portraits of tlie first favourite and (jueeu (whose name, however, is 
not given in the cartouche in front of her), and of the Ixherheb, 
with an open volume, who is called the president of the singers 
and the chief of the festival orators, etc. 'I'iie hieroglyphics above 
the bull contain a hymn, in which the klicrheb extols the god 
Khem. And in the inscription turned towards the singer, the 
praise of the god and of the bull symbolizing him is also sung in 
words placed in the mouth of the god Thoth. — A long train of 
standard-bearers precedes the bull. Ik'tween these and the bull a 
priest facing the latter, with the censer (the Ilorus-hand), and the 
festival-orator in the act of reciting. The series on the N. wall ends 
at the tenth standard-bearer, but it is continueil without interrup- 
tion on the E. WnU. Uesides the usual emblems, sacrificial vessels, 
and ancestral statues, images of sacred animals on standards are 
borne along. The bearers of the hawk, vulture, dog-headed ape, 
and bull are clad in curious sleeveless garments, covering them from 
neck to foot. The procession advances towards the Pharaoh, who 
awaits it, wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
and holding in his haiids a staff, arrow, and sceptre. On a table in 
front of him stands a staff with tiie double feather, and the sacred 
wreaths; an<l before his eyes takes place the ceremony of letting 
four geese fly, usual at the coronation of the kings of Kgypt. The 
geese, whicii here, as in the Ramesscum, have the names of Ams(!t, 
llapi, etc., the children of llorus, attaclied to them, are to announce 
in all quarters of the slobe the acci^ssion of the new I'liaraoh. The 
kherliob hero appears, declaring that the geese must hasten to the 
N., S., E., and W., and announce to the gods of those regions that 
Jlorus, the son oflsis and Osiris, that the king etc. Ramses 111., 
has assumed the great crowns of l'i)per and Lower Egypt. IJehind 
the orator four, and below him three priests carry th(! images of 
the predecessors of Ramses 111., each with its name. Above the first 
of the men bearing staTidards with the jackal stands a figure clap- 
ping its hands, which is named the Nehes en Punt, i.e. the Negro of 
Arabia, and which is regarded as the personification of the moon- 
less night preceding tlie new moon. This curious figure fireets the 
god Kh(m), lord of 8enu, etc., at whose approach every lieart ex- 
pands with joy. l'"arther to the right we se<! the Pliaraoli, wlio (as 
in the Ramesseum, p. 104) cuts with a siikle the sheaf held out to 
him by a priest. Beliind stands the klierheb and his hymn, relating 
to Khem. Almost above the sheaf is the queen, then before the 
Pharaoh the white bull again, and beneath it a row of images of 
ancestors. Finally the king offers incense to the pod Khem, wlio 
stands beneath a canoi>y, and presents to the ithyphallic Khem the 
imago of justice, the goddess Ma. 

Medlnet Habii. THEBES. U. Route. 181 

The lower series of representations on tlio N. and E. walls are 
less interesting. Several boats appear in them, and beneath them 
(to the extreme left) the festal-barge of Ammon. A dialogue be- 
tween the king and the god Ammon, in which the building of the 
temple is extolled, also occurs here. 

Corresponding to the festival of Khem on the N. and E. walls, 
a Festival of Ptdh-Sokar-Osiris is displayed in the upper row of the 
S. and S.E. side of the colonnade. It begins to the left of the door 
witli a train of priests of various forms, bearing standards and 
arranged in two rows. Next appears the king, to whom incense is 
offered, and above whom hovers a vulture. Then follow dignitaries, 
succeeded by a colossal symbol of the god Nefer Tum, borne by 
18 priests. The kherheb reads 16 formulae of invocation. After 
him come 16 exalted personages, including the king's sons holding 
a cord which reaches to the hands of the king. Then follow 16 
priests bearing the barge of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris; and finally the king 
before Khiinra and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. 

More interesting than these festal representations are the Wdrlllce 
Reliefs, in the lower division on the S. and K. walls. The inscrip- 
tions relate the conquest of the Libyans and the annihilation of 
the N. tribes of the Philistines and Zekkari, who had penetrated 
into the Nile delta and were there captured by the king. One of 
the reliefs on the exterior pf the N. wall represents this occurrence. 
The inscription contains 75 lines and (;ovcrs a considerable part of 
the S. wall. The 1st Scene to the left of it depicts in four rows 
the captured Libu, conducted by the king's sons and other nota- 
bilities. One counts and another notes upon a leaf the nuniber of hands 
and phalli cutoff, which in both cases is given as 3000. The king seatetT 
in his chariot and turning his body, addresses his sons and officials. — 
'2nd Scene (to the left of the first). The king standing in his chariot 
shoots an arrow against the falling foe : 'He sees defeat like a flame 
beneath them; he holds the bow in his right hand and looses the 
arrow with his left; he goes against them, knowing his own strength. 
Face to face, he smites a hundred thousand. The hearts of the 
Temhu, their life, their soul have ceased'. — 3rd Scene. The king 
drives, with his enemies in fetters. Beneath marches a row of his 
soldiers, armed with spear, shield, and knife. — 4th Scene (next the 
door in the E. wall). The king, standing, brings three rows of 
captives into the presence of Amnion and Mnth. In the four lines 
between him and the gods the captives are described as Temhu and 
Mashauasha (Maxyans); and in the small inscription above the top 
row as Rabu or Libu (Libyans). — On the W. or Rear- Wall of Hall 
E, to the right and left of the door to the next hall, are portraits of 
the king's sons, with their names; on each side the same number 
(10). Those who afterwards came to the throne have the royal 

We now enter the Second Hypostyle Hall (PI. G). The roof was 

i S2 Tlnute ir>. TITERES. West Bank: 

formerly supported Ity 24 columns in 4 rows of six, of which the cen- 
tral row was considerably thicker th;in the otliers. The roof, however, 
has long fallen in, and nothing remains of the columns save the plinths 
and the lower part of the shafts. Two smaller chambers follow, 
with four con pics of columns, and then a Centnil Apnrtment with four 
pillars. On both sides these are adjoined by a series of rooms (comp. 
PI.), of which those to the N. are accessible, to the S. covered 
with rubbish except the two front apartments (PI. g). A special 
door leads from the colonnaded hall to the latter, which are arranged 
differently from those on the N. Tliese rooms have been carefully 
examined by Prof. l)iimi(;hen ; and from the inscriptions in and near 
them they are now known as the Treasury of this Memnonium of 
Itamses 111. Even on the external walls of these a])artments are 
artistic representations of vases, jars, and other vessels in the precious 

The, Interiok of the treasury consists <if a liall turned towards theK., 
adjoined on eacli side l)y two cli.anil) The inscriptions without exception 
relate to tlie gifts of gold, silver, electruni, lapis-lazuli, malachite and 
other stones wliich Itanises III. extravagantly lieaped upon Amnion, so 
that 'the offering of his gifts found no end'. Even those visitors wlio do 
not understand the inscriptions will at once recognize tliat they are in a 
treasure-house, from the representati(ms whichadorn all the walls, especially 
those of the chambers on the right. The hieroglyjdiie j^mw] nuh means 


gold and fw?^ nub hez white gold or silver. Whole heaps of these metals 

are seen lying in grains or nuggets. Sacks of gold from different lands and 
all kinds of jirecious vessels meet the eye. Pieces of lapis-lazuli and 
malachite shajied like bricks are built up in stepped masses, eacli in three 
rows. Arabian indiarubber (KamiJ and the tree whence it is obtained are 
also depicted. In the chambers on the right api)ear also sheets of silver, 
and plate's of brass and lead. The I'liaroab boasted ceaselessly that he 
had lill(!d the treasure-house of his father Amnion; and the god Thoth 
(in the second chamber to the right) writing reckons it by (he countless 
hundreds of thousands and tens of thousands (a million altogetlier) in 
silver, gold, brass, lapis-lazuli, malachite from Reshata (Sinai Peninsula), 
etc., which he has offered to his venerable father Ammon-Ra, king of the 
gods, who on his side has accorded to the king the periods of Ha and the 
years of Tum. — It is impossible not to recall the passage in Diodorus's 
description of the tomb of Osymandyas (p. IW), in which the king is 
represented as offering to the divinity gold and silver to the value of 32 
million minae. 

Ramses III. was no other than the rich Rhampsinitus of Herodotus 
fll, 121); and it is n(»t impossible that we here stand before the- vi'iy 
'/'reaaiire-lwuse of liliampsinitus which (igures in the pleasant talc narrated 
by the Father of History. 

IMiampsinitus tlu^ Phara(di was possessed of such vast treasures that 
he commanded a builder tri I'rect for Ihi'ir safe custody a stone building 
beside the palace. The architect coveted the treasures, and being a cunning 
man so arranged a stone; in the wall that two men, or indeed (me, could 
easily withdraw it. liefore bis death he imparted the secret to his sons. 
These immediately on the death of their father betook themselves to the 
treasure-house, removeil the stone, and favoured ])y the darkness of night, 
fiucceedcd in carrying oil' .i large amount of treasure. They repealed their 
visits, until the king remarked that his treasure was decreasing, witlunit, 
liowever, being able to accuse anyone of (he Ibeft, as he invariably found 
the seals unbroken and tlic> doors (:nti locked, lie accordingly had a trap 

MedUel Hahu. THEBES. If). Route. 183 

constructed and placed It beside the cliests containing tlie gold. Tlie 
thieves once more came, and the one who entered lirst was caught in the 
trap. Perceiving what had happened to him, he conjured his brother to 
cut off his head lest he should be recognized, and so bring his accomplice 
into trouble. The advice was followed, and the brother departed with 
the head, closing the opening behind him. The next morning the amazed 
king discovered the headless corpse in the securely fastened room. He 
resolved to expose the body in public, under the care of a guard who 
had orders to observe the passers-by very closely and to arrest immediately 
anyone who shewed signs of grief at the mournful spectacle. The archi- 
tect's widow, who had learned the occurrence, was, as a true Egyptian, 
beside herself at the dishonourable treatment of her son's body, and 
tlireatened to reveal all to the king unless the surviving brother contrived 
to bring the corpse to her. The crafty youth soon hit upon a plan. He 
loaded an ass with wine-skins, three of which he opened just as he was 
about to pass the soldiers guarding the headless trunk. When the wine 
began to escape, he broke into loud lamentation which soon attracted 
the soldiers. They hastened to catch the wine in cups, and drank it up 
in spite of his pretended opposition. Finally the hypocrite appeared to 
reconcile himself to his fate, and pressed the soldiers to drink until they 
fell helpless in a drunken sleep. He then shaved off the right side of 
each man's beard, and taking possession of his brotlier's body, brought 
it to his mother. — The king though enraged, was now devoured with 
curiosity to discover tlie autlior of this trick. He accordingly commanded 
his daughter to sutler the love of anyone who consented to relate to her 
his craftiest and wickedest deed. If any of her wooers should relate the 
abdve incident, she was to seize him and cause his arrest. The adroit 
thief, no whit alarmed, procured the arm of a corpse, placed it under his 
cliiak, and going to the princess, related his adventures with the treasure 
and the soldiers. When the princess sought to seize him, he thrust the 
dead arm into her hands, and escaped. The king, astonished by such 
cunning and boldness, catised a proclamation to be made that he would 
not only pardon the thief but reward him if he revealed himself. Upon 
this the architect's son presented himself. 'Ilhampsinitus expressed his 
admiration and gave the princess as wife to him as the craftiest among 
men; for, said the king, 'the Egyptians excel all other men in craft, and 
he all the Egyptians'. 

The immense wealth of Ramses HI. is a historical fact. We have 
seen representations of it in the rooms which we have just quitted ; and 
this Pharoah records in the great Harris Papyrus his donations to the 
temples of Egypt, donations so enormous that we are justified in describ- 
ing the giver as the wealthiest prince that ever sat on the throne of the 

At the N. side of the hypostyle we emerge into the open air and 
examine the interesting representations on the outside of the iV. 
Wall (PI. e). Between the N.W. angle and the second pylon, there 
are Ten Reliefs, whicli are described and illustrated in the works 
of ChampoUion and ]?osellini. At present the three first (to the W.) 
are covered witli rubbisli. 

1st Scene. Procession of Pharaoh, besides whose chariot a lion advances. 
In another chariot befoi'e that of the king is the standard of Ammon-Ha 
with the ram's head. — 2tid Scene. Fierce battle, the Mashauasha turn to 
flee. — ord Scene. The king harangues five vows of soldiers, who bring 
captive Mashauasha and Libu. The severed hands etc. are counted, 
amounting to 12,535. — 4th Scene (the first uncovered, from the right). 
Standards are brouglit out and weapons distributed to the soldiers. The 
king orders the archers to shoot so as to destroy the enemy. — 5th Scene. 
The king starts for Zeh (N.E. borderland); before him march soldiers 
with lances and bows. A small doorway, above which are Coptic crosses, 
made through the horse, conducts to the hall behind. — O'lh Scene. The 
king, standijig in his chariot, shoots arrows against llie enemy, who arc 

ISA Route 15. THEBES. West Bank: 

identified as Zekkari (Teucrians) from the curious striped caps, not unlike 
an Indian lieaddress. In the middle, among the latter, are ox-waggons with 
children in them. Some of theEgy])tian soldiers are Shardana, distinguished 
by the conical ornaments on their helmets. These, :it lirst enemies of Egypt, 
afterwards took service under the Pliaraohs. — 7tli Sce/ie (beyond a gap 
in the wall). The king at a lion-hunt. One of the lions, concealed in a 
thicket, has been pierced by tlie king''s spear and arrows; another lies / 
dying beneath the horse's feet; and the king turns to transfix a third, of 
which only the claws are shown. Ueneath is a jiroces.sion of the Egyjitian 
army with allies (Shardana and Kehak). — Ht/i Scene. Tlie king, having 
alighted from his chariot, shoots against the hostile fleet. The painting 
illustrates the occurrence mentioned in the inscription of the 8th year, 
on the second pylcju (p. 170) as well as in the long inscription in the 
colonnaded room. The hostile Sliardaua and Zekkari (Sardinians and 
Teucrians) had penetrated into the Nile delta, where tliey were held fast, 
like birds in a net, by the Egyptian army, until they fell beneath the arrows 
of the king and his followers. We may clearly distinguish the Teucrians 
by their caps resembling tufts of feathers, the Shardana by their horned 
helmets, and the Egyptians by their laced head-cloths. The representation 
is exceedingly animated, though not very distinct in the oblique light. 
One of the ships has capsi/.cd. The Egyptian vessels are denoted liy the 
lion's head on the prow. The ship below to the right is steered by two 
men with large oars, while the rest of the crew are rowers seated upon 
benches. Archers standing up ply their bows. In the interior of the ship 
are a number of bound Teucrians, and others appear in the lower row. 
The king himself is treading upon a captive foe. In front of him are 
some archers, and above him, the protecting vulture Ua/.i. — Hlli Scene. 
The king, having alighted from his chariot, graciously receives the grandees 
who conduct the prisoners. In the lower row the severed hands are 
being counted and the number noted. Above the horses a fortress is 
represented, named Alakatiro (Jligdol castle) of King Ramses. — loth Scene. 
The king presents two rows of caj)tives, described as Zekkari (Teucrians) 
and Hahu (Libyans), to Amnion, Bluth, and Khunsu, the Theban triad. 

We have now reached the second pylon, between which and the lirst 
pylon are two more Iteliefs. One represents the king attacking a hostile 
fortress, whose defenders, many of whom are pierced with arrows, beg 
for mercy. The other depicts the king, waving his sword, at the 
head of his charioteers, as he attacks a fortress. Some of his soldiers 
are beating in the doors, while others ascend l)y ladders. Trees arc being 
felled in the vicinity. 

(Jn the outside of the iSf. ^VaU (I'l. f) of the temple is a long Festival 
Calendar., which contains a list of the ajipointed sacrilices for the period 
between the 2Gth I'akhon (the day of liamses IIl.'s accession) anil the 19th 
Tybi. The mention of the rising of Sothis (Sirius) on the 1st Thoth 
(beginning of the year) has led to the probably erroneous assiuiiiitlon that 
under Ramses III. the Sothis-year of 3G5'/i days coincided with tlie 
Egyptian civil year of 365 days, and has thus provided a tixed era for 
Egyptian chronology. 

c. The Small Temple of Medinet Habu. 
Wo now quit tlic largo temple, besiilo wliieli wo iioto tlio ron- 
siilerablo ruins of the ("liristiau village, diuri'li stood in the 
second court (p. 177). Wo retrace onr steps between the pylons, 
and to the left wo see the smaller temple, foumled under the IStb 
Dyn., the oldest part of the remains at Medinet llabii. Even if the 
inscriptions had been defaced, the architectonic forms here used 
would have told us in what epoch of Egyptian history (he building was 
erected. Its axis is not exactly parallel with that of tho temple of 
Ramses. The small temple was otitorcd from the E. It is an open 

MecHnel Tlohu. THEBES. It,. Route. 185 

question how the rotirts were originally arranged, whicli preceded 
the actual sanctuary. Little of them remained, and the later Pharaohs, 
and even the Ptolemies and Roman emperors (notably Antoninus 
iPiiis) extended the old building. The following description begins 
at the E. facade, which faces us when we turn to the left (N.) after 
returning Ihrough the gate of the so-called pavilion. 

Tiie visitor approaching from the Nile is confronted with a hand- 
some Pylon (PI. K), to the N. of the entrance to the temple 
of llamses. In the centre is a beautiful gateway, with a well- 
executed winged disc of the sun in the deep concave cornice. The 
narrow fore-court in front was enclosed under the Ptolemies with 
columns, of which only the two at the entrance have been preserved 
(beside PI. 1). In the broader fore-court outside (PI. II) the car- 
touche of the emperor Antoninus Pius occurs several times. The 
large Pylon (PI. K) dates from the late Ptolemaic epoch, for it ex- 
hibits Ptolemy Soter II. Lathyrus worshipping the gods; but it in- 
cludes stones from an earlier edifice, some of which are upside down 
and some show detached fragments of inscriptions (e.f/. sacrificial 
lists, with the names of Ramses II.). Beyond the pylon is a Chapel 
(PI. L), only HO ft. long, dating from the reign of Nectanebus II., 
who was acknowledged as king by the Egyptians in the middle of 
the Persian epoch. The roof was supported by eight columns which, 
however, have disappeared, leaving only the low walls which coti- 
nected them like screens. Immediately adjoining the chapel is a 
Second Pylon^ 50 ft. wide, which was erected under Taharka the 
Ethiopian (25th Dyn. ) aTid renewed and provided with inscriptions 
by Ptolemy Lathyrus. On the front of this pylon appears Nect- 
anebus 11. , on the back Taharka. 15eyond this is a ruined Court 
(PI. M), with (to the right) the granite lintels of a gateway, built by 
Petamenap, a noble living under the 26th Dyn., to whom the 
large tomb at el-Asasif (p. 222) belongs. We now at last reach the 
Oldest Temple Buildings, begun under Amenhotep I. and Tut- 
mes I., completed under Ramaka, TutmesTL, and Tutmes III., and 
restored by later kings, including even Ptolemy Physkon. These 
late restorations were of trifling importance; as a whole the build- 
ing is beyond doubt a work of the 18th Dynasty. It consists of a 
Sanctuary (PI. N), like the cella of a Greek temple, forming the 
kernel of the entire edifice, surrounded on three sides by pillars, 
while on the rear it is adjoined by Six Apartments. Between the 
rows of pillars to the right and left and the cella, and also behind the 
latter, were polygonal columns, resembling those which are to be 
found at Benihasan and the oldest parts of Karnak. Those in 
front have been destroyed, but one has remained erect behind 
the cella. The inscriptions are written for the most part in the 
beautiful style of the 18th Dyn., but contain nothing of importance. 

The Builders'' Inscriptions, found on various parts of the temple, are 
interesting as throwing light on the IlrsTOitY of the edifice. Over each 
of the rows of pillars to the right and left of the colla are two long two- 

186 Route If). TIIKRKS. Went Bank: 

line inscriptions which inoet in llio middle, dating from the time of Tiit- 
mes 111. In front of the second dnor occurs a mention of the restoration 
of the huilding by llorenihob (18th I'yn.); within the cella Seti I. is 
named as a restorer; and in another place the second year of Merenptah I. 
is mentioned. The name of Kamscs 111. also occurs in the rooms behind. 
Inside the. cella we should note the tree on which the god Amnion is 
writinji the name of Seti 1. In the adjoining building on the N., the roof 
of which includes remains of the old building of Ramses II., not only is 
the priest-king I'inozem, son of Piankhi, of the 21st Dyn. represented, but 
also llakoris of the 29th Dynasty. Ptolemy Euergetes II. occurs in the 
upper inscription running round the cella. 

The building, though small, is distinguished by its harmonious 
forms. About 6o paces to the N.E. is the well-known Fresh Water 
Spring, a pool to which a subterranean passage leads. It is a re- 
markable fact that the fre.shness of the water remains entirely un- 
affected by the saline exudations from the ground, even in the ne- 
cropolis at Thebes. 

To the S. of the temples of Medinet Ifabu are traces of a. Sacred 
Lake of considerable extent, formerly taken for a hippodrome. At 
its N.W. angle is a small temple, now known as Kasr el-'Agt'iz, 
erected by Ptolemy Euergetes II. to his ancestors. It consists of 
a wide vestibule and three rooms, one behind another. Still farther 
to the S., at the S. W. angle of the former lake, stood a small sanc- 
tuary dating from the Roman period. It was erected by Hadrian 
and Antoninus Pius, while the ruined pylon bears the names of 
Vespasian, Domitian, and Otho, the last of exceedingly rare occur- 
rence owing to the emperor's short reign (69 A.D.). The temple 
consists of a <'ella stirroimded by apartments. A staircase leads to 
the roof from a space to the extreme left of the entrance. The in- 
scriptions announce that the sanctuary no longer belongs to the 
Diospolilan district, bnt to the district of Ilermonthis; and it was 
specially dedicated to the Isisoftlio W. mountain of Ilermonthis. 
— Grebaut discovered in IHS'J in the vicinity the remains of a Pa- 
lace of Amcnhotep III. and his consort Tli. 

16. Tombs of the Q,ueens. 

The Tomhs of the (Iwens are in every way liss important than those 
of the Kings in J5ibnn el-JInlilk, wliieh should in any case be seen; and 
a visit to the former, for which at least l'/4 hr. is necessary, renders it 
almost impossible, to Conijilele the lirst day's programme on the West 
Hank. Thr)se, who, however, decide to visit them should proceed thither 
direct from Medinet llal)n, and vi.sit I)er el-JIedineh on the way back, 
l''roni Medinet JIabu to the Tombs '/« •"'• 

The road from ]\Iedinet-Habu to the Tombs of the Queens crosses 
the desert to the \V.. and passes through a mountain valley with 
bare and lofty sidt^s of limestone, picturesquely formed and carved 
with inscriptions of various Icngtlis. The latter contain prayers to 
the gods ol' the regions of the d<'ad, atui date from the I'.lth and 
20th Dynasties. The Tombs of the Queens belong to the same 
period, excej)t a few which ;ire of the iSth Dynasty. Altogether 

Tombs of the Que.em. THERES. 

7«. Route. 187 

'20 have been discovered, many of them nnfinisliod and entirely 
without decoration, and in their rough and blackened condition, 
resembling mere caves in the rocks. It is rare to find either in- 
scriptions or representations carved in the stone ; even in the finest 
tombs the limestone walls were more often covered with plaster 
which could be adorned with paintings without much difflculty. 

Of the two tombs which we reach first, the second only (to the 
W. ), that of a qiieen of Hamses III., is preserved. Her name is no 
longer legible, but only those of her husband and her son Rn-hi- 
a.nemi-f. The tomb consists of an ante- 
chamber and a large hall with 4 pillars, 
in the midst of which is the broken sarco- 

The next three tombs, of which the 
farthest belonged to a Queen Sitra of the 
2nth Dyn., need not be visited. But of 
the four on the side of the valley next 
reached, the second and the first deserve 
notice. The former is the Tomb of Queen 

_d_ 6 ^J£- 



lies on the 



S. side of the valley and consists of the 
usual antechamber (PI. 1 ) open to the N., 
a long passage (PI. 2), and a large chapel 
(PI. 3) with a small chamber on each of 
its three sides. In this as in most of the 
better preserved tombs of the Queens the 
freshiiess of the colour is extraordinary. On the left wall (PI. a) of 
the Passage 2 we see the queen before Ptah, Ra Harmachis, the genii 
of the dead Amset and Tuamutef, and Isis ; on the right (Pi. 6) 
TTtT with the sistrum stands before Thoth, Turn, Ifapi, Keljsenuf 
and Ncphthys. Ptah is placed opposite to Thoth, Ka Harmachis, 
i.e. the morning sun, to Tum, i.e. the evening sun, the two genii 
of the dead Amset and Tnamutef to the two others Hapi ami Keb- 
senuf, and lastly Isis to her sister Nephthys. As a border above the 
figures runs an inscription from which we learn that TTtI was the 
daughter of a king, the sister and the mother of a Pharaoh, and 
queen of Upper and Lower Egypt, and that she received in the other 
world a friendly welcome and all that is wished for the dead. 

The name of the wife of Anienhotep III., which often occur.? on 
scarabfpi, is also mentioned on the cuneiform tablets recently discovered 
at Tell el-Amarnah. She was perhaps the daughter of a Habylonish king. 
This would account for the reddish skin and blue eyes with which she 
is represented here. 

In the passage leading to Room 3 are at PI. c the (loddess Isis 
(Selk with the scorpion on her head ), and at PI. d Neitli, 'the great 
lady of Sais, the mistress of heaven, and princess of all the gods, the 

1SS Route in. THEBES. M'est Bank: 

daughter of Ra; she lias not lior like'. In tho Side-chamber 5 is the 
muunuy-shaft. In tho innermost Chamher 6 Osiris sits cntlironed as 
supreme judge to whom Selk conducts the queen, liehind him are 
Nephthys and Thoth. On the walls e and f are tables ol' offerings on 
which, by the. side of distributions of bread etc., lie masses of flowers 
far larger than arc found in tho tombs of men. In the Si<le.-cli(itnher i 
wo see the llathor cow, richly decorated and standing out of a back- 
ground of radiance and flames of lire painted with dazzling colours. 
This painting, which meets us several times in tho tombs of the 
Queens, represents llathor as a goddess of heaven ami especially of 
the horizon. She is the cow wliich in the lower world givers birth 
to the young Sun, who begins his active life with flame and light. 
On the riiiht (lose to (he tomb of TTtT lies that of Queen Isis, 


Asl, wife <if Hamses IV. (Nefe,r-hak-an) of the 

'iOtli Dynasty. The entrance is filled up, and the inscriptions are 
much injured ami covered with debris. In the inner room coirespond- 
ing to room 3 in the tomb of Titi stands a broken granite sarco- 

On the W. side, running parallel to that Just described, the first 
tomb approached from the N. is in ruins; close to it is that of a 
queen, whose name has been obliterated, ami in its place another 
written with ink, appan^itly to be read Tuattent Apt. In this the first 
and third rooms were supported by pillars. The names are on the 
inner wail of the second room. The insin'iptions were incised. The 
two tombs beyond were the resting-places of another princess, the 
favourite daughter of Uams(is 11., Bant antn^ and of Amen-meri, 
i.e. (he beloved of Ammon, the latter consisting of a jirincipal 
hall with a chamber liehind and on (>ach side. Contrary to (•us(()m 
the shaft is on the left of (he entrance in ficmtof the principal hall. 

17. Der el-Medineh. 

No one slioiilil miss seeing the l)caiilit'iil siiinll I'dilcniaie ((Mii]i]c of 
DOr cl-Mcilmoli Ivin;; to the N.W. of Moilnicl JIaliu. It lies on llic way 
to Shckli 'Aha cI-Kiini;th citlicr from Mcdiiiol llaliii or IVoin (lie Toiiib.s of 
the. <iiieens. Kroin' Moiliiict lliibu \vc i-ciidi Dcr cl-Modiiieh in 'ill minutes. 

On the way from the Tombs of the (^(ueens to Dcr el-Me<lineh, 
wo pass ('/4hr.) a hillside with some remarkable historical steles of 
the 18(h, 19(ii, and '2()(li Dynasties. On om; appears King Ilamses HI. 
before Horns, anil his fa(li<\r Set-nekht befori; Ammon. Another 
contains ati account oldie campaigns ol' the former king. 

The graceful Temple of Der el-Medineh was founihid under (he 
Ptolemies for the worship of the deail, and dedicated to (he goddess 
llathor. It lies in a barren hollow, in whi(di s(!veral fragmenis of 
buildings are to bo seen, and is surrounded by a lofty wall of dried 
bricks which are fitted together in waving liiuis. Through this a 

Der €l- Medinch. THEBES. 17. Route. 189 

Doorway of stone (on the S.E.), by which we have to pass, leads into 
the temple, at the back of which (N.) are steep rocks. The sanctu- 
ary was founded by Ptolemy IV. Philopator I., and sculptures were 
added by others of tlie house of the LagidtC, and later also by the 
Emperor Augustus. The traveller on passing through the doorway 
in the outer wall sees on his left an archway of Nile bricks, and 
before him the front of the temple of freestone, on which many 
(Ireeks and Copts have written their names. In Christian times it 
was used by the monks as a dwelling-place, and to this is due the 
mutilation of many of the inscriptions and also its present name 
(Dcr = monastery). We tirst come to a small hypa-thral Antechamber 
witli 2 columns, and a few steps further reach the true Ptolemaic en- 
trance of the Naos. This is ornamented by two pilasters with masks 
of Halhor, and two columns with sculptured calyx-capitals in the 
middle, which support the architrave and are connected by walls re- 
sembling screens (^reaching half-way up). Between the pillars is a 
semi-portal similar to the one at Medamut( p. 161). The pilasters are 
brightly coloured and peculiarly ornamented, with a lotus flower and 
a bud on slender stems at the side. Above arellrreus-serpents with the 
crowns of both kingdoms. On the left side is an elegant window whicli 
lights a staircase. The inner portion of the temple is in three parts. 
Over the door of the middle room, the- sanctuary, are placed 7 Hathor- 
masks corresponding to the number of the Ilathors. Euergetes 11. 
and his wife are named as boautifiers of the temple, and the four 
sacred bulls, llapl, Urmerti, Temur, and Abekur, are portrayed. In 
the cell to the right is the king before the various gods of the lower 
world, and also an astronomical painting, Sothis(Sirins) and Orion. 
In the room to the left, on the left wall, is a remarkable represen- 
tation of the Judgment of the Dead. 

The valley of Der el-Medineh is rich in Tombs of various periods, 
some of them early and of great interest, with the colours of the 
paintings marvellously preserved. 

Here was discovered the well-knoven coUectiuii of J'apyri, obtained 
by A. C. Harris in 1855, containing: the famous papyrus of Ramses III. (see 
p. 120) , the largest known , from the archives of the temple of Medi- 
net Habu. 

The earliest tombs here belong to the beginning of the New Em- 
pire and to the times of Aahraes I. and Amenhotep I. They be- 
longed to great officials, especially to the Soiem-as, supreme judge 
at the Seat of Truth, possibly a college which met at Der el-Medi- 
neh. We may mention the small brilliantly coloured chapel of the 
royal scribe, Mesra, the similar one oi Kha, the tombs oi Amenmcs^ 
Zesken, and Amenhotep. In several tombs we find nuiiicrous frag- 
ments of mummies, damaged and ransacked by the fellahin. Con- 
tinuing farther into the valley we reach a tomb with a wide entrance 
from which tliere is a fine view of l)er el-Medineh and of the fertile 
plains to the E., traversed by the Nile and bounded by the distant 
Arabian mountains. In the foreground are seen Medinet llabu, the 

190 Route IS. THEBES. Wet.* Bunk: 

Colossi of Meiiiiioii, and the Ramesseuiu, and on the other side of 
the liver the gigantic ruins of Karnak. 

18. The Tombs of Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah. 

With tliis ])art nf tUi; 'Ni^crdpolis nf Thfl)i's, wliicli may In- icaclied 
from Dcr el-JMcdineh in ^5 niin., wc conclude our lirst day on tlic W. banli 
in our three days' jdan. Gaze's tourists make it tlieir second day, (book's 
begin their third day with tlie Ramesscum (R. 13) and the tombs of 
'Abd el-Kurnah, as in our five days plan. The tombs to be visited may 
be found' without a fiuide. They are reached by ascending the E. side of 
the Libyan mountains in a direct line from the Ramesscum. Many of the 
tombs here are inhabited by fellahin. The sepulchral chambers serve 
as dwelling -places, wooden doors are hung in the entrances, and the 
fore-court is often enclosed by a clay wall for the confinement of their 
live stock. In front of most of these cave-dwellings stand covered cy- 
linders like gigantic mushrooms, of Nile mud and straw kneaded to- 
gether. These are the primitive granarie.'! of the inhabitants of 'Abd el- 
Kurnah, several of whom are well-to-do, with houses of Nile bricks, con- 
spicuous from a considerable distance. Those who are desirous of staying 
any length of time should make arrangements with the wealthy and worthy 
Copt, Todrits, uncle of the German consular agent at Luxor. The erec- 
tion <if a house for travellers has been under consideration, and would 
be of e.special benelit to scholars by sparing them the daily .journey to 
and from Luxor. Shelter may be found in the house of Mohammed 'Abd 
er-Rasi"il, provisions being brought from Luxor. Several European schol- 
ars have chosen 'Abd-el-Kurnah as their centre for investigations on the 
W. bank, among them Champollion, Wilkinson, Lepsius (whose lodging 
in the tombs is still known by tlic fellahin as the Kasr Lepsius), Prisse 
d'Avennes, and Ebers. The visitor to the tombs must lirst face some 
savage dogs, but he will be thoroughly repaid partly by the interest which 
some of the tombs afford, and partly by the magnificent "View which is 
obtained from those in the higher positions, especially at sunset. In this 
part of the Necropolis of Thebes were buried the wealthy nobility of the 
18th Dyn., upon whose tombs largo sums of money must have been spent. 
The inscriptions record that the deceased were in their life-lime invested 
with the highest spiritual and temporal dignities and that they enjoyed 
almost royal estates, their pride in which they show in sculptures and 
inscriptions. However death is not forgotten in these tombs, for there is 
no lack of funereal epitaphs. In almost all of them too we find genea- 
logical tables, by which we learn that many of tliose buried liere were 
related to each other. 

The more important tombs were numbered by Wilkinson, but 'most 
of the figures have been obliterated. In 188.") Prof. Kiscniohr renumbered 
the tombs, in all 127, including those with no inscriptions. In the follow- 
ing description' of the tombs reference is made to these numbers, which 
appear in the adjoining small plan. If time is limited, it will be sufli- 
cicnt to visit the tombs of Kha-cni-hat, Ramses, Nekht, Sen-uefer, Anna, 
lloremheb, and Ranii;nkbepersen('b. 

Tlic traveller is reconmiended to begin with two tombs on the 
eastern side of tLo bill behind the Raniessenm. Tlic one to the left 

is that ofKha-em-hat / ""^^ iw| (No. 120), superinlen- 

J} ^ I 

dent of the royal granaries, of the time of Auienhotep 111. The tomb 
has been long known, and in consequence is much injured. It lies 
behind a square court cut out of the hill, and has two other tombs 
near it. 

The tomb of Khu-em-liat consists of three halls lying one behind the 
other, the first and third of which are at right angles to its length. On 

Shekh'Abd el-Kurnah. TUEBES, 18. Route. 191 

the sides of the lirst and third were placed niches of which ouly one (on 
the left) is preserved in the first hall, and three in the third. There is a 
wide passagje between halls 1 and 2. The third hall is adjoined by a 
fourth smaller room. On the left of the entrance is Klia-em-hat offering 
a prayer to Ra with uplifted hands. In the niche to the left two statues 
of Kha-em-hat and his relative, Imhotep, the treasurer (the neighbouring 
tomb 121 belonged to an Imhotep). On the right of the entrance is the 
deceased oiTering two dishes with two geese in each. On the left are four 
series; in the two upper, fowling scenes; below the king driving a four- 
horse chariot ; and in the lowest, harvest scenes. A flute player encourages 
the reapers. On tlie inner wall to the left, Kha-em-h?tt presents a report on 


the harvest to King Amenhotep III. I Ol?] V y I sitting beneath 

a canopy. The nine captive tribes, at the foot of the canopy, among whom 
are Greeks (ffaiiebu), should be noticed. On the right again the deceased 
with a peculiar head-dress delivers to the king the harvest report of the 
year 30. Behind him are two rows of his officials in humble attitude. 
The chess-board decoration of the ceiling is peculiar. In the entrance to 
the second hall on the right, there is a long 16 column inscription of 
deeply-cut hieroglyphics. In the second hall are several chapters of the 
Book of the Dead (110, 112). The sides of the third hall are destroyed, 
the fourth was entirely without inscriptions. 

To the right at no great distance is a tomb first opened in 1882 
(now No. 118), known as Stuart's Tomb from its discoverer Villiers 
Stuart. It belonged to Ramses, a mayor (mer nut zet) and his sister 
Ptahmerit,oi tlie time of Amenhotep IV., the sun-worshipper, who, 
as Khn-en-aten (splendour of the stin) removed his residence to 
Tell el-Amarnah (see p. 22). Here as there the sua is represented 
with his rays spread out as hands protecting the king and queen. 
Proceeding a little farther to the N., we soon reach the tomb of 
. Nckld (No. 125), first opened in 1889 (the door unlocked on rc- 
quest) with representations of fowling, wine-pressing, etc.; the 
drawing is rough but the colours fresh and well preserved. "We then 
climb the somewhat steep hill and, passing the richly decorated tomb 
(No. 119) of Amenuser, who lived under Tutmes III., come to 
that marked No. ' 35. Khamsatelutin , ^ by Wilkinson, at one tinio 
considered the most worth visiting of all. It consists of a vestibule, 
and a large chamber from the centre of which an unusually long 
passage of remarkable and gradually increasingjieight runs into the 
rock. It was laid oifct by a pfmce, goYenTor. etc., named Rekh-ma-ra, 
who died in the time of Amenhotep II., the successor of Tutmes III., 
when the tributes of Asia were flowing inio Egypt in exceptional 
abundance, to the benefit of the relations and favourites of the royal 

Tlie pictorial decoration of the walls can now be scarcely seen, and 
can be much better studied in the works of Wilkinson and Iloskins 
(Kthiopia). The tomb served as the abode of old Husen Karur, the com- 
panion of Harris and Lepsius, and is a convenient room for luncheon. 
The opportunity should be taken of looking at the faded paintings of tlie 
left corridor, and of the passage into the rock. They represent payment 
of tribute by the Ethiopians (Punt, Kefa) and Asiatics (Retennu), various 
kinds of work such as brick-making for building, pottery, carpentry, 
joinery, glass-blowing, carving and polishing of statues, and a company 
of mourners with harpers and women playing musical instruments. 


192 Kmtle 18. THEBES. WeH Bank: 

Mounting to the left of the tomb of lU'khmaru we reach (to the 
left of No. 48) a lately discovered tomb, rather diftl cult of access. 
The trouble of the ascent, however, is repaid by the beauty and 
freshness of the paintings. It belonged to Sen-nefer (good brother), 
superintendent of the southern city, overseer of the granaries of 
Amnion, and superior of the flocks of Amnion, under Amenhotep II. 
Strangely enough the name oi' Alexander (Arkes antes) is also I'ound 
here. To the ri^lit, immediately above the tomb of lie)ihmara, is 
(hat (now No. 51 ) id' Amuzeh, superintendent of the palace under 
Tutmes III. and Amenhotep II. This also consists of a largo vesti- 
bule with niches in the sides, and a rather long passage cut into 
the hill. 

Tlie representations on tlie inner wall of the vestibule are worth nu- 
ticing. On the left are the African tribes bringing in their tribute con- 
sisting of gold, ivory, apes, panther-skins and the like. On the right is 
the tribute of the Asiatics, jars, a carriage, a white and a I)rown horse, 
and various weapons. In both corners of the vestibule were steles, of 
which onl.v that on the right has been preserved containing a prayer (o 
lia in the name of the deceasiul. On the right-band side of the long pas- 
sage into the hill is a scene illustrating the chase of waterfowl. 

To the right close to No. Tvl is the tomb of Amen-em-lieb (No. oO) 
known to Champollion and described by Kbcrs and iSterii. It coff- 
sists of two halls one behind the other, of which the length is at 
right angles to the passage between them, and of a chamber behind 
the second hall. 

The historical Inscription on flic left inner wall of the first hall painted 
in l)lue on white stucco, and discovered by Prof. Ebers, is of si>ecial in- 
terest. In it Amen-em-hcb describes the part which he took in the cam- 
paigns of Tutmes III., and gives' exact information of the length of that 
I'haraoirs reign, and the accession of his s<iccessor Amenhotep II. lie 
does not forget iti record the honours which the favour of his jirince had 
heaped u]>on him. '1 was', lie begin.s 'his lordships great Hdelity, the 
pride of the king of Lower Egypt, the half of llie hi'art of (he king of I'pper 
Egypt. I followed my lord into the country of the north and of the south 
according to his will etc. 'Then he recounts how he took part in the victorious 

expeditions to South Palestine! _ 1 "^^^ r\^"^^ Nekeb ^53 I, Me- 
sopotamia (Naharain), the well-wooded Van westward of KhalyhonI Aleppo), 
Karkhemish, beyond the river of Mesopotamia (Die Euphrates), Tyre (V), 
Katesh, Niniveh, etc. Everywhere he obtained spoil and was rewarded 
with presents of rings and helmets, and decorated with necklaces, the. 
badges of orders, including the 'Ornament of the Lion'. The follow- 
ing is an interesting passage: 'Another time the lord of both worlds ])er- 
forined a mighty deed before Niniveh, when he hunted 120 elejihants for 
their tusks. 1 killed the greatest among them, fighting in the sight of Ills 
Majesty, and rut oil' ils trunk'. On returning to Egyjit Amen-em-hcb re- 
mained with King Tutmes UL, who died in the rill h year of his reign on 
the last day of (he third winter month. 'He ascended to heaven at the 
going down of the sun, and the servant of <!od made hiniseU' one with 
his Maker. When it was morning and (he earth became clear and the sun's 
face arose and the heavens were made bright, then did (he king ofl'iJiM'r 
and Lower Egypt, Amenhole]) II., ascend hi.s father's throne'. Under (his 
Pharaoh also (lie general enjoye<l high lionours. His skull is preserved 
in the anatomical museum of Leipsic. His biograi}hy was composed by 
another commander-in-chief, named Mali. 

IJelow this inscription are seen Syrians bringing tribute, some rais- 

Shekh Abd el-Kurnah. THEBES. 18. Boute. 193 

ing their arms in prayer, ntliers kissing the. dust. Among them are eu- 
nuchs, easily recognized liy the fatty swellings on their breasts. The gar- 
ments of the Asiatics are peculiar, white with coloured stripes down the 
seams even of the sleeves. Many of them wear white bands on their fore- 
heads. Their profile is strongly Semitic ; the red pointed beards and the 
hooked noses being carried almost to the point of caricatures. Some 
bring cattle, others finely worked vases. Amen-em-heb was a great 
lover of flowers, as we learn from other inscriptions in the first chamber 
of his tomb. 

In the Second Hall on the left inner wall there is a remarkably inter- 
esting picture of Amen-em-heb on his chariot, the latter unfortunately 
half obliterated. In his left hand he holds a long pointed staff, perhaps 
for urging on his horses, in his right a golden necklace, with which he 
has been decorated, his diploma (which is frequently mentioned), and the 
reins. On the right hand side of the inner wall there is a curious repre- 
sentation of an Egyptian party. There is an abundant provision of tood 
and drink. The servants in attendance carry flowers on the arm as modern 
waiters carry napkins. The wife of this lover of flowers has a green bud 
in her hair. The guests, two of them on easy chairs and three on stools, 
are offered refreshments. Below, in the second row, the ladies are seated. 
An attendant holds in each hand a staff wreathed and crowned with flowers, 
and all the lady guests have blossoms in the hair and round the neck, 
and hold a lotus flower in the hand. In the lowest row is a band of 
music in full activity. It consists of two harpers, a man sitting and a 
woman standing, a flute-player and a lute-player, both of them women 
standing. The women's faces, including those of the musicians, are exceed- 
ingly pretty. On the wall to the right are fowling-scenes. 

In the Third Room the dwelling-house is represented, and its roof is 
supported by a wooden pillar with a capital consisting of a rich varie- 
gated flower in red, white, and two shades of green, with two compara- 
tively lar^e buds on long stems projecting from the upper part of the 
shaft. — Below is the sledge with the sarcophagus drawn by servants 
and a white cow, and the arrival before Osiris. On the wall to the right 
is Amen-em-heb's garden, in the centre of which, surrounded by plants, is 
a pond with fish swimming in it. There is a plentiful supply of flowers and 
fruit, which the gardeners are preparing to carry into the house. 

We now ascend still further to No. 3J , the tomb of Pehsu-kher 
who was afljiitant to the lord of both lands, colonel in the army, 
and fan-bearer to the king. In this tomb whicb has been for a long 
time known, the colours are particularly well preserved. A large 
party of ladies and gentlemen is represented. On the large stele the 
different festivals kept by the Egyptians are mentioned. If there is 
time we may visit No. 39 (to the left), the tomb of Piuar, not to be 
confounded with the mayor of the same name of the time of Seti I., 
at the foot of the hill. This Piuar was a companion of King Amen- 
hotep II., and followed him, it is said, into all countries by land 
and water, and was therefore honoured with gifts. 

To the right and a little above the tomb of Pehsu-Kher (No. 31, 
see above) there is a deep pit into which one can be let down with 
ropes brought from the dhahabiyeh. The tomb of Amen-em-hat, 
who lies here, is remarkable for some hunting-scenes, and in the 
inner chamber for copious extracts from the Book of the Dead, 
written in black and red on white stucco. Ascending to the right 
(N.) we reach the tomb (No. 26) of Anna, prince (erpa-ha) and 
royal scribe, as well as overseer of the fruit-stores, who died after 
a long life in the reign of Amenhotep III. (18th Dyn.). The roof 
Baedekers Upper Egypt. 13 

194 Haute 18. THEBES. West Bank; 

of the antechamber has fallon in, and the sun lights up its walls, 
which are covered with a variety of interesting representations. 

On the fragment of wall to the left prince Anna is seen with his 
wife Tumi sitting under a light pavilion, supported by a pillar, which 
shows that the calyx-capital belonged originally to wooden buildings, 
and was only adopted later in stone architecture. The pavilion has a 
natural connexion with the picture of Anna's garden, as he was a zealous 
planter of trees. A number of the plants cultivated by him are named, 
and to this we owe our knowledge of the names and characters of several 
of the plants of ancient Egypt. C)n the long outer wall, on the left, we 
see the noble Anna again, this time standing upright, in full enjoyment 
of his rank, while receiving the ditl'erent kinds of tributes for the store- 
houses of Ammon. There are scribes to take down the amount of each 
contribution, and even the number of strokes which are inflicted upon a 
debtor. From Ethiopia there is a variety of contributions to be received, 
including negress slaves carrying their children in baskets on their backs, 
ivory, ebony, apes, panther-skins, etc. The Asiatics bring lapis-lazuli, etc. 

On the same outer wall but to the right of the spectator Anna is 
seen again, but this time in company with his united family. His hound 
is standing below his seat, while ostriches, wild asses, a kind of wild 
goat, and other goats and cattle of various kinds and colours are being 
brought to him. One man brings rows of pomegranates etc. on strings. 
The interior of the tomb is small, but is not without interest, especially 
from the abundant list of offerings on the right wall from which alone we 
learn the names of live kinds of wine and two kinds of beer. On the 
left wall is the country-house and garden of the deceased; two women 
are standing at the door, probably his wife and his mother. In the back- 
ground Anna is sitting with his wife before a richly furnished table of 
otferings. Opposite to him is seen his coflin being drawn along, and the 
weeping women throwing dust on their heads, just as may be seen in 
Egypt at the present day. The innermost room of No. 26 together with 
the shaft has been filled up with stones, and all that can be recognized 
of its paintings is the back of an enormous Apep serpent, the enemy of 
the Sun-ship of Ra. 

We notice the two long galleries to the left with numerous en- 
trances but without any remarkable tombs, and ascend again to the 
right to No. IG, a tomb well worth seeing, belonging to Horemheb, 
who seems to have held a series of offices, especially that of overseer 
of the cattle, in the successive reigns of Tutmes II. and III., Amen- 
hotep 11. and III., and Tutnios IV., of the 18th Dynasty. Close to 
it is the tomb (No. 17) of Tenuna, a fan-bearer on the king's right 
hand, and adjoining this, but turned towards the N., the tomb of 
Amenophis (No. 10'2), second Prophet to Ammon, and of his wife 
Rot. The" paintings in this contain a scale in which gold rings are 
being weighed, various workmen, one of whom is making a sphinx, 
clerks with tables writing out the crops, and a statue with a ram's 
head ; on the right music and dancing. 

A little higher to the right is the tomb of Zanuni (No. 104). Care 
should be taken at the entrance, to avoid falling into the deep shaft. 
The paintings represent Ketennu bringing presents in gold, silver, lapis- 
lazuli, and emeralds. 

We have now almost reached the summit of the hill, and can 
enjoy the magnificent ^ View including the Ramosseum, the Memnon 
statues, and on the other side of the Nile Luxor and Karnak; to the 
right below the hills is seen the temple of Dcr el-bahri, and the 
path leading to the Tombs of the Kings. We now descend past 

Shekh'Abd el-Kurnah. THEBES. 18. Route. 195 

No. 26 (see above) to the tomb of Bamenkheperseneb (No. 34) 
which, having been opened only for a few years, is remarkably'weu 
preserved and is well worth a visit. For stout people, however, the 
entrance is almost too narrow. The deceased was chief architect to 
Tutmes III. The right hand inner wall ot the large hall tells us of the 
Important works which were entrusted to him, such as the carving 
of a statue of the king from a single stone, the erection of a hall of 
pillars, and of numerous obelisks. Here again we see tribute being 
brought by princes, of Keftu (the Phoenicians) , of Kheta, Tunep, 
Kat, Katesh, etc. The arms and helmets of the foreigners, their 
carriages and handsome vases are remarkable. Near this, a little 
to the right, is the fine and well-preserved tomb (No. 54) of Amen- 
emha, the scribe of the harvest, in which should be noticed the 
harper and the long list of relations of the deceased, whose father 
and mother were named Tutmes and Entef. In a passage there are 
represented barges with mummies of himself and his wife Bekt. 
In the last chamber there is a Stele of the 28th year of Tutmes III. 
The shaft in the tomb contains a large room covered with writings 
Still farther to the right is the tomb (No. 60) of a prince (erpa-ha) 
Entefaker, and on the N.E. slope that of Amkhent, the son of Auta, 
which was completely excavated in 1883. A descent should now 
be made to the gallery, in front of which is seen Wilkinson's House, 
and to the tomb (No. 88) of Imaiseb, who was scribe of the altars 
of sacrifice under Ramses IX. (Neferkara). The festal barges with 
the name of the king should be noticed, as well as the many golden 
utensils, and the money-bags, and also a series of kings, among 
whom appears King Raskenen, who fought against the Hyksos, and 
whose remarkable mummy is in the museum at Gizeh. 

We now descend to the plain, where there are a few more tombs 
to be seen in the direction of el-Asasif, including that of Nefer- 
hotep, who lived under King Horus, the last of the 18th Dynasty. 
In this should be especially noticed the funeral processions by boat 
which have been copied by Wilkinson (Manners and Customs). The 
funeral services are also recorded. , 

We have to crawl through the entrance which is choked up. The 
ceiling is decorated, and has a regularly recurring series of hieroglyphics, 
signifying 'Firsf and 'Prophet'; the deceased in fact held the office of 
Prophet of Ammon. The family scene in the lirst room explains itself; 
the 39 rows of hieroglyphics above record the names of the relations of 
the deceased, who on the left are paying homage to King Horus with 
whom they were closely connected. In the second room we see Nefer- 
holep, sitting by the side of his sister who is adorned with flowers. Be- 
hind them is an Inscription which indicates that distinguished Egyptian 
families kept private bands of music : and it may be that the special 
duty of the harper whose song has been handed down to posterity by 
this inscription, was to gladden the hearts of the family when they were 
assembled in their ancestor's tomb for the solemnities in his honour. 
The song is not in any way of a mournful character, and it is clear that 
in the time of the Pharaohs, it was a pleasure to be reminded in the 
tombs of the shortness of life, and the duty to enjoy it, so long as it 
lasted. The song is headed: 'The words of the harper, who tarries in 


19G Route 18. THEBES. West Bank: 

the tomb of Osiris, of the righteous prophet of Ammon, Neferhofep'. 
After an introduction, wishing peace to the dead, and glorifying the 
sun-god, it continues literally as follows: 'Celebrate the great day, O 
prophet. Well is to thee, fragrant resin and ointments are laid before 
thee. Here are wreaths and flowers for the waist and shoulders of thy 
sister, who is pleasant to thine heart, as she rests beside thee. Let us 
then sing and strike the harp in thy presence. Leave all cares behind 
and think of the joys, until the day of the voyage comes when man casts 
anchor on the land which delights in silence'. 

Near this is the once splendid tomb of another Neferhotep, over- 
seer of the cattle of Amnion, but now in ruins and used as a maga- 
zine by the keeper of the Gizeh museum. There may also be visited 
in the neighbourhood the tombs of Kheruf^ of the time of Amen- 
hotep III., of Moi, and of an official in charge of the stables of 
Amenhotep II., the inner room of which is the resting place of 
Mahu, a writer of the treasury in the time of Ramses II. 

If the dhahabiyeh is lying at Lu.xor, the small boat should be ordered 
to wait with some men on the left bank of the river at the E. end of 
the island. 

19. The Mortuary Temple of Seti I. at Kurnah. 

Second Day on the W. hank: 1. Temple of Kurnah; 2. Tombs of the 
Kings (Biban el-Muliik); 3. Necropolis of el-Asasif and of Drah Abu'l- 
Neggah; 4. DOr el-bahri. 

To the W. bank as on the previous day, see p. 152. From the 
landing-place of the ferry we ride across the fields in a northerly 
direction and in ^/^ hr. reach the handsome *Temple, the front of 
which with its columns is visible at a considerable distance. The 
original building (see the annexed plan) was of smaller dimensions 
than the Ramesseum atid Medinet Habu, its complete length being 
518 ft., and of this only the actual sanctuary with its halls and 
chambers, 153 ft. in depth remain, while there are only scanty 
remains to prove the former existence of two Courts and the Pylons 
which enclosed them. The Sphinxes which were placed like guar- 
dians to the right and left of the door leading into the first Court 
on the inside, are half covered with earth. They were placed there 
by Seti I., and on the bases were inscribed the names of all the 
nations which he had coTiquered. Of all the buildings in the Necro- 
polis of Thebes, this one most reminds usoftheMemnoniiim of Abydos 
(p. 54), and a closer inspection of the style of inscriptions and re- 
presentations will both bring out and explain their similarity, for 
the temple of Kurnah was fouTided by Seti I., the builder of Abydos, 
and both the sanctuaries were restored and completed by Ramses II. 
They both served the same purpose, as a place where the manes of 
the founder might be remembered, and offerings made. At Abydos 
it is true that throughout attention was paid to the pilgrims to 
Osiris, while here it is the gods of Thebes that were promi- 
nent, and this was the centre of the festival of the mountain valley, 

a)w5Cs I (the entraticc to the neighbouring B.ib el-Muluk was 
ci r>-^-\^ / 


«^ -5 =5 -3 

^ ^ =5- ?; 3 



-a cm 





° 7 c ^ 




Tempd of Seti I. THEBES. 19. Route. 197 

probably the scene of the festival^. Moreover in the Meninonium 
also Seti I. with filial piety thought of his father Ramses 1., the de- 
ceased Ramses Ra-meu-pehti. To him are especially dedicated the 
sculptures on a false door, which is reached by 
passing through the left entrance door from the 
colonnade on the last fagade, and crossing the hall 
with two columns 'and the long chamber lying be- 
hind it. On the-' inner wall of this last, on the right 
and left panels of the "false door referred to, Ram- 
ses I. is seen enthroned as 'King Osiris', and from 
two inscriptions between these which are divided 
by ornaments and two others which frame the whole, 
we learn that Seti I. dedicated this portion of his 
Memnouium to the memory of his father. His son 
did for him what he had done for his father, while later kings, 
Mereuptah, Siptah, and Ramses HI., had their names carved in 
various places, but do not seem to have either restored or enlarged 
the Memnonium. The traveller should especially notice the extra- 
ordinary beauty and purity in style of the inscriptions and paint- 
ings. The existing remains of the temple of Kurnah may be divided 
into four parts: 1, the colonnade on the front of the temple facing 
the E. ; 2, 3 and 4, the three series of halls, chambers, and closets 
separated by partition-walls, one in the centre, one on the left, and 
one on the right. 

The Colonnade (PI. A) originally displayed 10 fine columns 
with papyrus-buct capitals, excellent specimens of this order, but 
of these one on the S. side (left) has been destroyed. In its 
inner wall, the eastern wall of the temple, are three doors (PL a, 
b, c], which lead into the three series of rooms mentioned above, 
and the sculpture on it is of great interest, representing 12 pairs 
of divinities, each a god and a god'dess, eight of which may cer- 
tainly be taken to represent branches of the Nile forming the Delta. 
On their heads they carry well-known geographical symbols. Of 
each pair it is said that they come in order to bring gifts to Pharaoh. 
The dedicatory inscription reads: 'The saying of the gods and the 
goddesses of the north to their son etc., Ramses II. We come to 
thee, our arms are laden with choice goods and produce. AVe ga- 
thered for thee all good things from all that the earth brings forth, 
to place the temple of thy father in a festival of joy . . . Thou hast 
made good that which had fallen, and built up thy father's house, 
in that thou bringest it to an end with works of eternal standing. 
Thou didst cause to be shown by art his sacred boat of 

This boat is often 

represented, and was borne in procession at_the feast of the mountain 
valley. The Canopic arm of the >'ile was considered the most im- 

198 Route 19. THEBES. West Bank: 

portant, but otherwise tlie branches were reckoned from east to west. 
More to the left, but not so well preserved, are the river-gods of the 
southern Nile. Here the dedicatory inscription tells us that Seti I. 
set this up to Ammon-Ra, the lord of the throne of the universe, 
in the region of Amnion of the western Thebes for millions of years 
etc., and that his son Ramses II. was the restorer of this building. 
'Not all his works', it literally continues, 'were finished in writing 
or in hollowing out. So his son, the lord of both worlds, 

O ) Ramses II., commanded to build up everlasting 


buildings in his temple opposite to eastern Thebes' etc. 

Passing through the middle door(Pl. b)of the colonnade, we enter 
a kind of Hypostyle with 6 papyrus-bud columns (PI. B). This is 
bounded on each side by three chambers, and beyond the last pair 
of these expands to their full depth. It is considerably smaller than 
other similar halls, measuring only 50 ft. by 35 ft. A part of the 
roof has fallen in, on the slabs which are preserved are the vul- 
ture forms of Hebent (Nekheb?) and two inscriptions. On the right 
is the ordinary dedication of the building , on the left a special 
mention of this hall, which like all similar ones is called 'T/ie Hall 
of Appearance' . Everywhere we see on the walls Seti I. offering 
incense to the gods of Thebes , and bringing the symbol of his 
name, and flowers etc. On the right and left of the door Seti I. 
meets us as a boy, with Muth on the one side, and Hathor on the 
other giving him the mother's breast. The young prince already 

wears the helmet /j and holds the symbol of princely rank \; Hathor 

with the horns of a cow and the disc upon her head, supports with her 
right hand the nourishing breast, and says : 'I am thy mother, who 
fashions everything that is perfect. Feed thyself with my milk'. 
Besides the Theban triad are mentioned Hathor as goddess of the 
western horizon, Isis, Turn, Ptah, and Anubis. The Frieze of the 
Hall of Appearance displays the name and surname of Seti I. con- 
stantly repeated. Several inscriptions show that Seti left this hall 
unfinished, and that Ramses completed what his father had begun. 
In the adjoining rooms tiiere are several clear references to the 
cultus of the dead which was celebrated here. In hall C, whicli is 
supported by 4 pillars, we see Seti I. before a Naos with the boat 
of Ammon-Ra. 

Tlie series of chambers to the left divides into two parts : a 
Hall (PI. F) with 2 pillars, into which three long rooms open, while 
behind are three running parallel with the axis of the templi*, and 
three in a N. and S. direction, which are reached by a passage from 
the extreme left of the inner wall of the colonnade. Tiiis part of 
the building was dedicated to the memory of father, son, and grand- 
father, Seti I., Ramses II.. and Ramses I. For the inscriptions to 
the last see above. 

Temple of Seti I. THEBES. 19. Route. 199 

The right hand portion of the temple consisted of a long Hall 
(PI. E) with 10 columns (no longer standing), and of five rooms 
behind, three larger and two smaller, originally separated from 
it. The sculptures of this part are of the time of Ramses II., and 
far inferior to those of the central building and left hand portion 
of the sanctuary. 

A little to the N. of the temple is a water-wheel and spring with 
some sunt trees, used as a watering-place for cattle. Passing this 
we leave to the left the side of the Libyan mountains with the 
Necropolis of Drah Abiil Neggah, and continue directly by the lower 
path to the valley of the Tombs of the Kings. 

Srah Abu'l Neggah is one of the oldest cemeteries of Tliebes, and 
the treasures discovered by Mariette's excavations have been of extra- 
ordinary value, but the tombs are now filled up, and the traveller will 
find nothing unless he excavates for himself. Tombs of the 11th, 17th, 
and 18th Dynasties were discovered here, and in one of them was the 
mnmmy of Queen Jah-hotej}, whose precioiis ornaments are preserved in 
the Gizeh Mnseum (Vol. I., p. 302). In her time it was the custom to pay 
more attention to the decoration of the dead body than to that of the 
tomb. The Necropolis of Drah Abu'l Neggah was a source of plunder 
from a very early time. There are papyrus legal documents, preserved 
in London and Turin, which acquaint us with the proceedinsis taken 
against thieves, who had robbed the tombs at Drah Abu'l Neggah, and 
those of the queens during the 20th Dynasty. 

20. Biban el-Muluk. Tombs of the Kings. 

The entrance to the valley of the Kings' Tombs may be reached in 
about ^/i hr. from the landing-place of the ferry on the W. bank of the 
>>ile, by the path indicated above via the temple ofKurnah. The moun- 
tain-track via, el-Asds{f, more fatiguing though shorter, is better followed 
on the return. 

We enter this valley of the dead by an old road of the Pharaohs. 
Beyond a rocky ravine we reach an open space, whence two roads 
diverge. That to the left leads to the Biban el-Muluk proper, visited 
by all travellers ; that to the right to the W. cross-valley of the 
gorge of the Kings' Tombs. The latter route describes a wide curve 
round the greater part of the Biban el-Muluk and leads past steep 
crags, on which hundieds of vultures perch in the afternoon, to two 
Kings' Tombs. We reach the valley of the Tomb of Ai (Arab. Turbet 
el-Kurud or Tomb of the Apes) by the route leading to the right 
from the open space, or by a very difficult path (not recommended ) 
over the mountain (between Nos. 8 and 9). ■ — Visitors wlio are 
pressed for time may content themselves with inspecting Tombs 
Nos. *9, *11, *17, *6, 8, and 14; Cook's tourists visit Nos. 2, 6, 9, 
11, 17, and lunch in No. 18. A visit to the W. tombs (see p. 202) 
will also be found interesting. The numbers have been inscribed 
on the entrances of the tombs by Sir Gardener Wilkinson. The name 
Biban el-Mul(ik means 'gates of the kings' (biban pi. of bab, the 
gate). The inhabitants of Thebes apply the name wiLj TJdi to every 

ancient tomb. 

Straho tells of -40 tombs -worthy of a visit', the scholars of the 

200 Route 19. THEBES. West Bank : 

Trench Expedition mention 11, while at present 25 are accessible, 
to which a few more have quite recently been added. Pausanias, 
^lian, Hcliodorus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and other anciei\t 
authors refer to them as the Syringes (aupifY'O of Thebes, which 
name also occurs in the Greek inscriptions within the tombs. The 
word 'Syrinx' meant first a shepherd's pipe formed of longish reeds, 
then it came to mean a hollow passage, and thus was applied to the 
long rock-hewn passages of Biban el-Muluk. 

These tombs and the subjects represeuteJ in them require some 
words of explanation. The tombs which are in good condition and ac- 
cessible are !Nos. 1,'i, P, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17; the rest either contain only 
the name of a king, or are unsafe owing to snakes (e.g. No. 7) or are 
simple passages cut in the rock. Plan mid Arrangement. Nos. 1 and 2 simply 
consist of a passage, a hall for the sarcophagus, and an inner room. Of the 
rest only Nos. 9 and 11 are completed. In the first the plan is most 
clearly seen : 1) three long halls, 2) a square hall, 3) first smaller hall with 
pillars, 4) one or two inclined oblong halls or passages, 5) a square room, 
6) a second larger hall with pillars, the hall of the sarcophagus, in the 
corners of which are side-chambers, 7) at the end another square or 
several oblong rooms or passages. — The lirst hall with pillars has also 
a side-chamber to the right, as in Nos. Sand 11, and with some variation, in 
No. 17. The roof of the second is supported by 8 pillars, and as in No. 17 
may also have an adjoining room on the left. From the plan of No. 14 we 
conclude that this tomb was intended for several persons, as there are 
two sarcophagus-halls. The tombs of the 18th Dyn. were arranged quite 
differently from those of the 19th and 20th. In those a sloping passage 
leads into the square sarcophagus-hall, and adjoining this is a second hall 
with pillars, the entrance to which is placed six feet above the ground. — 
The oblong rooms usually contain niches, which were hewn in the stone 
at four to six feet above the ground, possibly for the keeping of sacrificial 
vessels. All -the tombs slope downwards into the rock, except Nos. 1, 2, 4 
and 14; in those of lieti I. (17) and of Ai we find a flight of well-worked 
steps at the entrance, while in the others the descent is made by inclined 
planes. Although the general plan is the same in all, and the ditVerence 
in size seems to have depended only on the amount of time and money 
which each Pharaoh was able to give to the work, there is no similar 
arrangement of inscriptions and representations ; in fact only a certain 
general resemblance can be observed, though the inscriptions vary not in 
sense or even in words, but only in quantity. The style is often enig- 
matical and the interpretation of both the signs and their meaning 
is extremely difficult. The following is a brief account of the inscrip- 
tions and representations. In the first place there is cut in the wall a 
long hymn to Ra in Amenthes or the lower world, which recounts the 
74 forms of Ka with the invocation : 'Praise be t(j Ra, the Almighty !' 
Then it is said tliat the king knows the 74 forms of the god by name. 
The works of Ra are farther glorified, and his victories over his foes. 
In front of this hymn there is usually represented an antelope's head 
with a serpent beside it above the disc, and an antelope's head with a 
crocodile below. It is usually found in the first oblong hall, as in Nos. 2, 
8, 11, 15 and 17. The t<'xts are more or less injured or defective, and 
it has been the task of MM. Naville and Lefebure to collate and correct them. 
— The /S««, with which the worship of the Egyptians began, was conceived 
by them-in various forni.s, as we have seen (Vol. I., p. 125). According 
to one conception, which is the prevailing one in Uibun el-Mulilk, he is 
the god Ka, who in the golden age of the Egyptians ruled over the earth; he 
is dead and dwells in Amenthes ; Khepera is light as the unchangeable being, 
constant in the midst rif continual change, represented in the form of a 

scarabtius Vrf- whicb iln id'oi'e is placed in the dark grave; linally 

Drah Abu' I, Neggah. THEBES. W. linute. 201 

Ammon-Ba is the lord and master of the throne of the universe, the 
living and acting God of heaven. These three form a trinity which is 
the deity of Biban el-Muluk, and is worshipped in Amenthes, as we find 
represented in every tomb. Here also Isis and Nephthys mourn for 
the dead, and worship those who have become Ra of Amenthes; for as 
the pilgrimage of human life is only an image of the daily and yearly 
pilgrimage of the sun, so the dead king, who once ruled over the land, 
becomes like a Ra of Amenthes, and every royal tomb an image of Amenthes 

The largest part of all the representations is occupied by the Descrip- 
"TL <^ 

Hon of Life in ■)/< ^C\ i.e. Tua-t, or the depth of the grave. The 

j£^ cm 

centre of this life is Ra the blessed, who is here always called Afu-Ra, 
i.e. the body of Ra, in opposition to his soul which dwells not in Tua-t, 
but in heaven. He passes by in a boat, always accompanied by S'a and 
Hekau. Sometimes he is followed by other gods; he stands in a pavilion, 
round which a serpent coils. The gods of Tua-t draw his boat. By 
the side of this we are generally shown these deities worshipping him, 
and also Tum piercing with a lance the serpent which resists his boat. 
The serpent may be either good or evil. In Ko. 8, Room V, the Urseus- 


serpent 1 / , and the serpent of life are instances of good serpents. Those 

that place themselves before the boat are evil. They are called by 
various names: Nehebka, Neheb-Ashuheru, etc. Sometimes they are 
rearing up in combat, sometimes lying slothfully coiled up, and some- 
times they appear with legs and wings, and scattering lire. The serpents 
at the doors apparently only held the post of Boab, or doorkeepers. 
Besides these we find mentioned a large number of other beings con- 
nected with Tua-t. 

As to the Nations represented in Kos. 11 and 17, it need only be said 
that all are humbling themselves before Ra, after all his enemies have 
been conquered by Tum. 

An active life prevails in Tua-t; there is driving, singing, lighting, 
reaping, etc. It should be noticed that the same representations of Afu- 
Ra are found in many of the papyrus-rolls. 

The Gods of the Dead by whom the deceased are introduced into this 
world are almost all represented here. Most often it is the jackal-headed 
Anubis that is invoked as god of the dead by Isis and Nephthys in 
favour of the deceased. The infernal Hathor or Mersekhet also often 
appears. The worship of Osiris gives way to that of the blessed Ra, but 
still the king is represented as adoring him, usually over the door of the 
hall of the sarcophagus. Thoth and the Moon only occasionally appear. 

Before the Kiiiff can enter his last resting-place in peace, he must 
first be justified; and referring to this the I'iSth chapter of the Book of 
the Dead is usually found in the square room in front of the sarcophagus- 
hall, as in No. 9, VIII, and No. 2, IV. In No. 6 it is found on the left 
of the entrance. . j 

The Priestly Ceremonies connected with the king's efflgy, in which/ 
apparently his son took part, are most perfect in No. 14^. less well pre-I 
served in" No. 17, and most abridged in No. 11, in the passage leading 
down from the hall of pillars. 

The whole represents the Fortunes of the Dead. After Afu-Ra and 
with him the king have overcome the obstacles of evil, and he has justi- 
fied himself from all his sin.';, he enters into the Jlost Holy Place, the 
Empvrean, the highest heaven or abode of the blessed, where the visible 
world of Ammon-Ra appears to touch the Tua-t ot the blessed Ra. Here i 
the songs of joy and hymns of praise resound, and Ammon-Ra spreads 
out his wings like a mighty bird. The gods move past in their barks, 
the stars rise and set, the hours, the days, the years pass by. The king | 
is placed among the gods, he dwells among the stars, and the Divine ' 
Comedy is finished. 

202 Route -20, 


West Bank : 


discovered by the French 

a. West Valley of the Tombs of the Kings. 
The W. valley of the li'ibCin el-Muluk should be visited im- 
mediately after Tombs No. 9, 11, and 17 by those who are pressed 
for time. Tlie first tomb here is that of Amenhotep III. 

Expedition. "We enter from the W. ; the tomb soon bends at a right 
angle towards the N., but finally resumes the direction from W. to E. 
The three first passages have either been destroyed or were never 
completed. The way to the fourth crosses a deep trench, which is not 
easily crossed without a ladder. It contains 
several representations of the reception of the 
king by the gods. The gods are making Kini 

are pouring puri- 

i5 Ih '-^ 


H • AAAAAft i.e. 


fying water over the hands of the king. The coun- 
tenances are all well-formed and even gentle 
and the colouring is unusually well-preserved, 
hut the face of the Pharaoh has everywhere been 
obliterated, as his successor, Amenhotep IV. Khu- 
en-aten (p. 23), discouraged the worship of Am- 
nion, which Amenhotep III. favoured. Some of 
the pictures have been only sketched in, and the 
field divided into squares. Portions of the Book 
of the Dead are painted in 
red upon stucco. The sar- 
cophagus has been broken ; , 

and beside it lie human -•" ^ 

bones (no skull), perhaps 
belonging to the king, whose 
mummy was not found in the shaft of Der el-bahri. Fragments of the 
coffin of Amenhotep III., found in this tomb, are now in the museum at 
(iizeh. The Astronomical CeUing-painling.'s in the chamber with the sar- 
cophagus are noteworthy. The chambers beyond this room have no in- 
scriptions and are full of bats. 

The second tomb, called by the Arabs Turhet el-Kurud (Tomb 
of the Apes) is in a very retired spot. It belongs to Ai 

the 18th Dynasty. 

A staircase descends to an apartment, with cobnired inscriptions, and 
containing the magnificent sarcophagus. To the right is a portrait of the 
king, witli the serpent - sceptre and birds, and beside him is that of his 
wife, whose name, like the king's, is scratched out wherever it occurs. 
To the left are twelve sacred apes, with double names. The king before 
the dark-green Osiris, and again before the goddess Mersekhet, who per- 
forms the 'nini' (see above) and places the symbol of lif 
mouth; four white-clad genii of death, sitting opposite each other in 
pairs , Kebsenuf and Tuamutef with the crown of I'pper Egypt 

priest-king of 

Amset and llapi with that cjf Lower Egypt \J . In a boat 

ife "TT" in hi 
2r ii 


Tomhs of the Kings. THEBES. 20. Route. 203 

are Harmachis, Turn, lord of An (Heliopolis), Shu, Tefnut, Seb Nut 
Osiris, Isis, and Horus. Behind the hoat is Nephthys. Adjoining are 
sepulchral inscriptions. 

On the steep cliff near this tomb is a ruined hut in -which a Coptic 
hermit is said to have sought a retreat from the world. Here, as 
elsewhere in the Biban el-Multik, names have been inscribed by 
Egyptian scribes, Greek travellers , and anchoretic Christians. The 
still undiscovered Tombs of the Kings of the 18th Dynasty (Amenho- 
tep II., Tutmes IV., and Horus) will perhaps one day be found in 
in this W. valley. 

b. East Valley of the Tombs of the Kings. 

The E. valley, usually the first visited, contains the tombs of 
kings of the 19th and 20th Dynasties. On the right (W.) of the path : 

Eamses VII. 

/. Chamber. To the left the king sacrifices to Ra-Harmachis or is 
being greeted as justified; to the right he sacrifices to Ptah-Sokar- 
Osiris, enthroned as the beneficent god of the deep, who addresses the 
king : 'Thy name remains fresh, according to the judgment of Sokar 
Osiris, while thy body rests in the coflin. But thy heart appears daily 
in thy disc'. The union of the king with the sun is indicated by these 
words. To the left is a boat with a disc, round which a serpent winds, 


and two companions and y symbols of 'that great god Khnum' ; 

above, worshipping figures and serpents rearing themselves aloft. To 
the right, a seven-line inscription to the goddess of the deep and of the 
tomb. To the left, 18 figures who 'extol Ra, bewitch the serpent Apep 
(Apophis), and present their sacrifices' ; beneath is the boat of the god, 
who sits in a tent, round which a serpent winds ; Hekau and Sa appear 
as his companions here, as in numerous other paintings. Four figures, 
preceded by a guide, drag the boat, and other gods accompany it. Adjacent 
are the words : 'this great god travelling on the path of the deep, and 
the gods of the deep drawing him'. Beneath are about a score of 
recumbent or fettered enemies. The inscription runs : 'Turn ac- 
complishing a noble deed, bringing destruction upon his enemies; I 
vindicate my father Ra against you', etc. To the right are curious figures, 
9 serpents , 7 genii with bulls'-heads , and numerous others, standing, 
reclining, and enclosed with serpen ts as i n a frame; also five women with 
arms hanging down, on the sign '^~^-^, the meaning of which is still 
undetermined. — In the corner of Koom I, the high -priest, clad in 
a panther-skin, off'ers upon an altar a sacrifice to Osiris. Below the roof 
the goddesses Hebent and TJaz, with vultures' ur serpents' heads, spread 
their protecting wings over the king's cartouches. — //. Chambei; con- 
taining the sarcophagus. To the right and left of the entrance are 
represented the tutelary deities of the dead, Vr-heka, with a flower, and 
Sekhet Bast , who bestows 'the duration of life'. On the left wall : 
, Various scenes of worship of Osiris, who appears as a mummy, or lies 
in his coffin, or is represented as the Body of Ra., with the head of a bull 
or of a crocodile. Beneath are four worshippers, then Osiris and Kephthys, 
tearing their hair as a sign of grief, and then gods with heads of animals 
or men. On the right wall are other curious figures : the worship of the 
sun-god with a ram's head, Tatunen and Seb worshipping Osiris, who 
stands beneath an awning, Turn destroying his enemies with a lance. 
An officer of those appointed to bind the worthless (enemies) may also 
be distinguished. The entire room is surrounded with a border of bound 

204 Bnule -JO. 


We.^l Bank: 


— r t'n the rear-wall is the king. and tbe disc of the sun. 

— JII. Chamber. The king, bearing the symbol of truth on his hand, 
appears before Osiris. — A kind of standard, composed of the various 
signs of power and protection; sacrilicial table; boat with two discs, 
in the midst of which stands a pig. — A Greek Inscription proves that 
the tomb was known and accessible in .*:iieek times. 

the some- 


J C 

what larger tomb of jtamses IV . To tlie right, 
before the entrance, is a Coptic inscription 
with a cross and a corpulent bishop raising 
his arms in prayer. Above the door are Isis 
and Nephthys, worshipping the solar disc 

withKhmiiu and%jf. 

To the left, in the First Corridor, appear the 
king worshipping Harmachis, and the large so- 
lar disc (Vol. I., p. 133). Behind, in good pre- 
servation, begins the 'Book of the praise of Ra 
in Amenthes' (45 lines). The continuation of this 
inscription in the second corridor and on the 
right wall of the first corridor is not so well 
preserved. The iSecoiid Corridor contains two 
other inscriptions: 'Worship of the infernal 
gods, when Ea perishes in life' ; the other, 'O 
Ra, come to th.v son\ Above are numerous 
demons. In the T/iird Corridor are serpents and 
praying men and women, like those in Tomb 1. 
Farther on are other worshippers, before tbe cof- 
fin and the rams-headed Ehnum (Kneph), and 
then an inscription: '<) ye gods of the deep and 
of the tomb of Amenthes, Avho guard the doors', 
etc. lioomlV, a smaller square apartment, has 
an inscription from C/iaplcrs 123-12') and 127 of 
the Hook of the Dead, ichieli contain the Justifi- 
cation of the Dead, liuom (', the main chamber : 
Boat of Afu-lla, who stamls beneath a canopy, 
encircled by a serpent ; in front is the king, kneel- 
ing, with the symbol of truth %y\ in hi.s luiud. 

Hekau and Sa also appear in the boat. The in- 
scription runs: 'Thus this great god traverses the 
path of the deep'. (The god is uniformly named 

, the hirnhi or rather the Bodii of Ra, in 

these inscriptions.) Farther down is Horus, with, 
the words, 'The deed of Horus for his father : 
he makes him noble; he rewards him'. Oppo- 
site is an exactly similar representation, except 
that Horus is replaced by Turn with a lance in 
front of the coiled .\pep serpent, while the in- 
scription runs: 'The deed of Turn for Ua, for 
he made the god noble, smiting hi.t enemy". The 
boat with Afu-Ua and (he King advances in 

Tombs of the A7n,a>\ THEBES. 20. Route. 205 

victory, for the enemies are bound or lie upou the ground. — Beneath 
the roof extends the double body of Nut, apparently supported on the 
left by Shu. The visitor should observe the constellations im the body 
of the goddess of the sky, the demon.s of the constellations, the three 
crocodiles (one sitting on the back of another) and, farther dovpn, the tables 
of the hours. The goddesses of the hours have distorted (too broad) faces. 
The roof is vaulted. The sarcophagus is 10 ft. long, 6 ft. hroad and 
7',2 ft. high, and is adorned with representations. In the next corridor 
are inscriptions: 'O ye gods of the deep', and 'Doorkeepers of the tomb', 
etc. Then toUovrs a representation of the boat of Khnum above the double 
lion. To the left of the praying king are the words 'May the coming in and 
the going out be blessed', recalling a similar Christian wish. In the room 

behind is a representation of the mummy of the king (j, repeated 17 

and then 23 times; finally comes a bier, beneath which stand canopi. 
A representation of the tomb of Kamses IV., giving the dimensions, 
occurs in one of the papyri in the museum at Turin, published by 

No, 3, to the left of the path, is filled 'svith rubbish ; but it is 
known to have belonged to another Ramses. 

No. 4. Tomb of Ramses XIII. (or according to Maspero Ram- 
ses XII. J. 

illDI Hi 

., AAA^AA / 

This tomb is not quite finished. Even in the First Chamber are out 
line drawings upon the stucco, most of which, however, has been scratched 
away. To the right and left the king sacrifices to the god of the wind, 
who has four rams' heads , to the sun-god , and to Mersekhet. In the 
last chamber is a wide and deep shaft, in which perhaps coffins still are 
to he found though probably already plundered by the fellahin. In the 
Second Corridor, as in many other tombs, above ground, are niches 
sunk in the rock, and generally bearing a long series of gods or demons. 
They served probably as depositories for vessels, canopi, etc. 

No. 5, farther on, to the left, is a hole without inscription. 

\ n i") ill T 11 I <rZ>/. \U. ^^^AAA 

Ramses I X. (according to Maspero Ramses X. ), a finely executed 
tombl Before the door is the disc, with the king on both sides 
worshipping it. Behind the latter are Isis and Nephthys, who ex- 
claim 'Praise be to this god when he comes forth from his mother, 
to lighten the earth with his beams'. 

la. Chapel, in which the king stands before Ra-Harmachis and 
Osiris. ■ — b. Inscription from the i2oth chapter of the Book of the 
Dead. — c. Chapel, with the king standing before Ammon and the 
goddess Mersekhet, i.e. the subterranean Hathor and Hecate. — 
d. Worshippers with heads of jackals and bulls. The scattered 
stones in the side-chambers are a serious hindrance to the visitor. 
— In Chamber II., at the entrance e, is the large serpent, rearing 
itself, with the words '0 thou great serpent in the tomb, who there 
watchest the door of him who dwells there, that he do not escape 
his watchers in the darkness'. At f is another serpent, with the 
address '0 ye serpents in the hidden place, who watch the gates of 

206 Route 20. 


West Bank : 



stows the kingdom of Ra in 


Osiris'. In the niches are represented gods with curious names (e.jr. 

'the great cat'). — At y is a fine figure of the king with an in- 
scription containing the chapter on the 
Entering of the Great House. Thereafter 
the king appears again, and at his head 
Hebent, of whom it is said that she he- 
's I®, 

i.e. the city of the thousand gates, hovers 
in the guise of a protecting vulture. 
Farther on we observe the king praying 
before Khunsu, 'he who is beautifully 
united with Shu, separating the earth 
from heaven, who raises himself millions 
(of miles?) above the ground, the great 
god, who has powerful wing.'^, and who 
dwells in the flre-pool in Antset of Mem- 
phis '. This god says to the praying king, 
'I give thee my dignity, my lifetime, my 
seat, my throne upon earth, to become a 
shadow in tlie Amenthes'; and farther on 
'I give thy soul to heaven, but thy body 

CI ~ to the deep for ever . Above are 

IJ [Z-Zl 

goddesses with peculiar names. — To 
the right f/ij are serpents, Osiris-flgures, 
veiled forms, etc., before Afu-Ra. There 
are also symbolic signs and-ilhe annihi- 

tation of Osiris in his Secrets is very re- 
markable: Isis and Nephthys bend over 
the moon-shaped Osiris-mummy, above 
which floats the disc. Under the roof are 
tables of the hours. — At III we again 
see the rearing serpents to the right and 
left. — k. The king with the sun-disc 
worships before seated deities beaiing 
swords, Horus, Benti (dog-headed) apes, 
a demon with heads of Seth and Horus 
and even limbs of Osiris. Beneath is the 

CJ l^ I boat of Khnum, with Sa, Apheru, etc., 

1 [\ I and some curious symbols. — i. Demon 

■• ^ with \ in his hand; others with knives. 

Behind the seated Osiris appears the god Khnum. — p. The king 



lated soul 

The represen- 

Tombs of the Kings. THEBES. 20. Route. 207 

lianils the symbol of truth to Ptah , 'tbe lord of heaven, the 
king of the north and the south , with the beautiful counte- 
nance', in front of -whom is a small figure of the goddess Ma. 
— 0. The black mummy of the king lies stretched out over a 
constellation. The disc and scarabaeus float above it. — I. The 
back-view of a man with extended arms and legs, eight times 
repeated. — At m appears a boat gliding over the coils of the 
snake ^j|||ti with the scarabfeus and the two Uza-eyes ~^^, and 
in front of it a series of serpents being killed with poisoned 
arrows. — At n are four figures bent backwards, taking the seed in 
their mouths , and spitting it out as a young (diild. Beneath is a 
border of bound enemies and, under the roof a number of persons 
with no inscription. — IV., defaced except at s, where a priest, 
clad in a paTither-skin, sacrifices before a standard. — V. is com- 
pletely destroyed. — VI. Disc with worshippers. The refrain of 
the inscription here is 'Ah, I have penetrated into the deep , and 
the enemies of Osiris are destroyed'. Room VII , with much de- 
faced astronomical pictures, in all probability represented heaven, 
the Holy of Holies. The dead entered it after he had overcome the 
various obstacles and had been justified. The 125th chapter of the 
book of the Dead, relating to the justification, must have occu- 
pied Room V. Above the entrance of Room VII, the disc with 
Khnum is worshipped by theBenti-apes, and under the roof stretches 
the long double body of Nut, the goddess of heaven. 

Opposite, on the right side of the path, is Tomb 7, half filled up 
\vith rubbish. Visitors are warned against the snakes in this tomb. 
This large and spacious tomb, difficult of access, belonged to 

Eamses II. or XII. The 

y\ ^ I 111 

coffin of Ramses II. was found in the shaft of Der el-bahri in 1881 ; 
and the remarkable mummy of a man over eighty years old was 
unrolled. Papyrus-rolls now in London and Liverpool describe the 
plundering of this tomb (see p. 199). 

No. 8. lies in a side-gorge, a little to the right of the path. Near 
it, to the left, is a rock with hieroglyphic inscriptions, preserving 
for us the names of several of the writers. This tomb belongs to 

Merenptah I., the 


_ D I 

supposed Pharaoh. 'of Scripture, who endeavoured to hinder the 
Exodus of thT'Children of Israel, and is said to have been drowned 
in the Red Sea. 

Above the entrance are Isis and Nephthys, worshipping the disc 

with Khnum and M. In the adjoining inscription, Harmachis and 
Osiris grant the deceased a seat in Amenthes. — I. Corridor: 
to the left , a. The king before Harmachis. The former wears the 

208 Route 20. 


We^t Bank . 

hiizli f'eather-iTO 

NM. []j 

'lie praises R.i, he extols llarraachis'; the 

latter bears the sceptre 

and •¥" 

in his hands, and says 'I give 




n a 




thee the beginning of Ra\ Farther on (h) is an inscription con- 
taining the ''Book of the praise of Ra and of Temt in Amenth€s\ 
This rubric occurs only here and in the 
tomb of Teti II. ; it is followed by the text 
of the Hakennu (praising), continued at c 
on the right in tolerable preservation. This 
is the most important inscription in the 
Tombs of the Kings, and it is here more 
perfect than in No. 6. Beneath the roof 
are the goddesses Hebent, with the vulture's 
head, and I'zi, with the snake"s head, ox- 
tending their wings over the cartouches of 
the king. — //. d, in the recess are gods 
and demons; beneath is the soul of Ra, 
a mystic form, also frequently represented 
as a talisman. The side e, to the right, is 
destroyed. Then above, to the left, are 
other gods, with the great cat beneath. At 
/"and g appears Anubis, god of tombs, and 
before him Isis or Nephthys. The goddess 
speaks: 'I come, I extend my protection 
to thee, I give thee breath for thy nostrils 
and the north wind which proceeds from 
Turn, and I praise thee'. At h three gods 

with three crocodiles below ( and the Uar-tesiu 


are represented. 

i. and k. is an inscription, 'A prayer to this 

great god of the tomb'. — III. I, Boat of Afu-Ra (flesh of Ra), in 
which are Horus and Seth (Typhon); beside it, the snake Nehebka. 
with three heads, four legs, two wings, etc., and other gods, appa- 
rently sidereal. — At m. Boat of Afu-Ra, with Apheru, Ilorheben, 
Nehes, Hu, and other gods. The inscription is 'lie approaches 
hither, this great god, while they draw him to this tomb". Above 

are the standards | of the cycle of the nine gods, to which belong 

Khepra, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Meht 
netert. — JV. is a small ante-chamber. At n, to the left, the king 
is received by the demons Amset, Tuamutef. Anubis. Kher-Keb, 
Isis, Neith, and to the right, Hapi, Kebsenuf, Anubis, Hor. Neph- 
thys, and Selk. Below is Anubis, with Tuamutef before him; to 
the right is Ilorus, with Kebsenuf before him. — V. Large chamber 

Tombs of the KingK THEBES. 20. Route. 209 

The pillars usually bear representations of the king standing before 
a god, sacrificing to him, worshipping him, being touched by him 

with the symbol -r", etc. To the right, at o, are two kinds of 
serpents in ponds, first the Urseus-serpents 


Tutu, and second the serpents of life nr Ankhtu. To the 

1 ® 111 
left, at p, is a long row of persons (Heniu), worshipping the god of 
the under-world. On the rear-wall, at q, where there is a descend- 
ing passage, are representations of a double shrine and of the king 
worshipping Osiris, with the inscription : 'He is surrendered to the 
lord to all eternity'. There are no inscriptions in the passage, as 
the tomb was never completed. — At r is an inscription : 'They 
gaze at the view of Ra, they enter following him', etc. To the right 
is the boat of Afu-Ra: 'this great god being drawn by the gods 

of the deep'. Above are many figures , like Tfl i.e. the 'bearers 

of the Metau', etc., a large serpent, and other forms, of which the 
last is 'the leader in his corner, who commands men in the under- 
world'. At s, in the rear wall, to the left, is the boat of Afu-Ra, 
with Hekau and Sa. Throughout the chamber are inscriptions from 
the Am tuat, the Book of the Under-world. — The side-chamber VJ 
has only a few paintings in a recess in the left wall. 



This tomb was named by the French Expedition La Tombe de la 
Metempsychose , and by British scholars, following the groundless 
traditions of the Romans, the Tomb of Memnon. This large tomb 
is characterized by an abundance of mystic representations and in- 
scriptions, of which, however, none are executed in a good style. 
Coptic and Greek inscriptions are most numerous in this tomb; 
among them one to the effect that 'Herniogenes of Amasa has seen 
and admired the Syringes ; but this tomb of Memnon, after he had 
examined it, he more than admired' (or admired more than the others, 
'j-EpsSciuiJ-aGa). — It is a remarkable fact that the cartouches of 
Ramses VI. are superimposed upon others, which either represent the 
earlier name of Ramses YI., or probably of his predecessor Ramses V. 

Before the doors are representations like those before No. 8. — 
/.To the right is the king before Harmachis, to the left, before Osiris, 
then the serpent Apep, demons %Uth heads of bulls and serpents, 
chained captives, etc, — //. Representation like those in Room v. of 
No.8 : 'the heniu of the deep', 'the bearers of the cord in the fields of the 
deep', etc. In a chapel with steps appears Osiris, and on the steps are 
men with a guide. Above is a boat, out of which an ape is driving a pig 

Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 14 

210 Route -JO. 


West Bank: 

^^f^- Another ape stands in front of the boat, and a third approaches 

with an axe, perhaps to lend emphasis to the expulsion of the pig. 
— To the right are long inscriptions and 
blank forms standing on their heads (the 
annihilated) before Khnum. Coptic in- 
scription. — Jll. Corridor, to the left. The 


bearers of the 

the feather of Ma 

or the 'truthful', and beneath , the boat 
with two attendants, then a bearer of the 

sceptre I , and beside him pictures of the 




gods Tum, Seb, Shu, Hur, and Uer shef. 
Beneath is the 'lord of satisfaction' Neb 
put ab, 'the chosen who harvest the grain 
in the fields of the under-world', and the 

'bearers of the sickle' 

t'arthor on 


T ^ 

are the bearers of the measuring-lines that 
VI measure length and breadth, and the 

hearers of a line that measures depth. At 
this point is a Greek inscription, which 
can scarcely be anterior to Constantine the 
Great: Ney.Tdtpto; Ner/.ojJtYjoeui; 6 Ac/|j.7rp6- 
Tf<To; 'xaSoXixo; (v) Al'jU'zoo doiuv i%a'j- 
(j.a3a. 1, Nectarius of ISicomedia, the 
august catholicus (chief of the exchequer) 
of Egypt, saw and admired this'. Next is a 
boat, in front of which is a band of twelve 
'sceptre-bearers in Amenthes', and four 
mummy-forms. — III., to the right: de- 
feated enemies, beside which are the sun's 
disc and serpent. Here also is represented 
the double lion of the horizon Aker, witli 
human face, ami above him the disc and 
scarabicus. and Seth bejiding down upon 
J ^ L him. Emerging from the Aker, to the right 

1 I are Sebti, Afni (sic) and Turn ; to the left 

Tefnut, Nut, Isis, and Nephthys. — Next 
follows a long inscription, then chained 
captives standing on their heads, beside 
whom is a cat-headed goil Malifti. The 
captives are indicated as the groaning, the 
weeping, the shrieking, and the lamenting. 
J'.i;iicnih is t)siris in his Secrets, as in No. 6, II. The ceiling, from 
the third corridor to the first main cbamber with four pillars, is 


Tomhs of the Kings. ±^ THEBES. M 20. Route. 211 

occupied by a continuous representation of the vault of heaven, i 
embraced by the long extended figure of Nut, with the twelve hours / 
of the day (O) and those of the night (^). At the end are two ce- ' 
lestial charts, and tables of the culmination of stars during the 
hours of night, from fortnight to fortnight throughout the year. (Si- 
milar tables are found in Tomb 6.) The results are arranged on the 
different parts of a human figure. Biot, the French astronomer, 
used these tables in calculating the date of their formation. — IV. 
First small antechamber. To the left : picture of the serpent Kheti, 
darting fire against fettered forms; demons stand upon it. In the 
second row are persons 'bathing and swimming' in Nun, i.e. the 
Ocean, and also souls piaying. To the right; Disc, serpent, and at 
the left angle a curious representation of Seb ; then (in the left \ 
angle) the serpent rearing up, and 'this great god' in ithyphallic re- 
presentation. V. First Room with Pillars, considerably deeper than 
the preceding. In the corner to the right, the boat of the sun upon 
the hands of Nut; above the door (twice) Osiris and the king offer- 
ing sacrifice. Under the roof. Nut. — The bodies of two gigantic 
winged serpents with crowns stretch hence down into the following 
room ; to the left is Hebent, with the double crown, to the right, 
Mersekhet , princess of Amenthes, with the crown of Lower Egypt. 
— VI. and VII. are two farther corridors. The representations in 
the former are so mystic as to defy description. The latter con- 
tains gods, serpents, boats, the moon (Q, and, above the door, a 
hitherto unexplained figure. — VIII. Second small antechamber, 
with inscriptions: the king before Ma, the goddess of Truth, and 
Chap. 125 of the Book of the Dead. -7— *IX. Room, a large hall, of 
which the corner pillars remain unfinished. The sarcophagus placed 
in the centre is destroyed. On the pillars appears the king praying 
to various gods. This has been called the Hall of Astronomy, ion 
account of the representations on the roof, which have been executed 
with the greatest skill and with incredible labour and trouble. "We 
here see, twice, the goddess Nut, with stars and gods, who sail in 
boats on the lake of the heavens. The deities of the hours also 
appear, with curious symbols beside them. Next the entrance is the 
sky by day, towards the back wall, the sky by night. The imagi- 
nation of the artist who designed this ceiling-painting was licen- 
tious , as the immodest representations in the left angle indicate. 
On the long wall to the right, above , are the Hours , looking 
behind them , and each casting on the one preceding a ray from 
the disc on her head. Then follow the most varied forms of 
the light-god, the solar-disc, the stars, etc.; and finally an inter- 
esting *Representation oftheboatof the ^, accompanied by Khepra 

and Tum, being drawn on the waters of Nun or the celestial ocean 
over the eastern Aker or lion of the horizon, and sinking from the 
western, being received by Tatunen. The .Arabs call this the Shellal 


212 Route 20. THEBES. West Bank: 

or Cataract. The remaining figures are repetitions of those seen 
elsewhere. On the left wall the paintings representing the punish- 
ment of enemies and evil-doers are particularly interesting. In the 
last room, the names of the hours appear to the side ; straight in 
front are the sun's disc and a divine figure. The last is held by a 
form, beside which the king sits, saying: 'Praise be to Ammon-Ka, 
Harmachis, to the great fire-disc, to the light-god Khepra in the 
boat of Seti, Tum, when he perishes, to the beloved soul of heaven, 
the venerable Sekhem, who there causes fruitfulness' +. 

No. 10 destroyed. The stucco has been torn from the walls, 
and the shaft filled with rubbish. It belongs to a king Amonmeses, 
whose position in the 19th Dynasty is uncertain. It is, however, 
certain that he preceded Ramses III., for the tomb of the latter (see 
below) has had to curve to the right to avoid impinging upon this 
tomb of Amonmesos. 

Ramses III. This imposing tomb, usually called 'Bruce s Tomb' or 
'■The Harper's Tomb\ owes its existence to the lavish builder of 
Medinet Habu (p. 172). Inferior in size only to No. 17 and No. 14, 
this tomb with the former of these, most deserves careful examin- 
ation. The style of the sculptures is not the best, but the variety 
and richness of the representations are unexcelled. This tomb pos- 
sesses a unique peculiarity in the ten side-chambers, one on each 
side of the first corridor, and four on each side of the second corridor. 
Above the door appear Isis and Nephthys praying on their knees 
to the sun-disc, as at No. 8. At the entrance here the cartouche 
of Ramses III. has been chiseled over that of his predecessor Seti- 

nekht (© ] ) , who rests in Tomb No. 14 (p. 215). At each 

side is a pillar, with a bull's head in bas-relief at the top. — I. (to 
the left) : the king before Harmachis; then the 'Book of the extoll- 
ing of Ra in Amenthos'; in poor preservation. Of the two side- 
chambers in this corridor, that to the left (No. 1 ) is devoted to the 
Festival. Oxen are being slaughtered, their flesh cut iii pieces, and 
thrown into cauldrons. A servant is blo^ng the Are, while another 
wields a ladle. A second group attends to the wine. All kinds of 
eatables, cakes, and implements are at hand, and the cooks are busy. 
Two dancers enliven the scene with their performances. In side- 
chamber No. '2 ((() the right) a dhahabiych in full sail is ascending 
the Nile, and another, with sweeps, is descending it. — 11. In the 
recesses is a long series of demons, including the 'great cat', the 
'lamenting one', with hair hanging down, etc. To the right, the 

+ A larpe number of tho pictures and insc-riiilions in (his tomb bave 
been published by Uhauipullion in his Notices (vol. 11., pp. 40L)seq.); the 
rest by I.efebure in liis HyiMiyJes Eoyaux (vol. II). 

Tombs of the Kings. 


•20. Route. 213 

wicked of Ameiithes, with arms tied together. Eight side-chambers 
adjoin this hall. No. 3 (to the left) is dedicated to the gods of 
harvest, the inundation, riches, 
and food, who are represented In 
human guise with an ear of corn 
on their heads, but in the second 
row, also as serpents. No. 4 (to 
the right) is the royal Armoury or 
Arsenal. Sacred standards, bows, 
arrows, huge swords, helmets, 
scourges, shirts of mail, etc, are 
here represented, and are peculi- 
arly interesting and instructive 
on account of the admirable pre- 
servation of the colours. To the 
right of the door and on the same 
wall is the black cow Hesi, from 
the N. basin, and to the left the 
black bull from the S. basin, 
with a red caparison. No. 5 (to 
the left): 'May the blessed king 
by the good god receive all pure 
and beautiful things'. And in 
fact all kinds of things are re- 
presented as being presented. A 
man (the Nile) bears flowers, a 
woman (An, the northern Helio- 
polis) brings flowers, fruit, and 
partridges, Ta-mehi (an arm of 
the Nile) brings flowers and fruit, 
Sekhet (the fields) plants and 
sheaves, a man fruit, a woman 
(Sais) geese , another woman 
ducks and sheaves, Memphis, 
sheaves and fruit. Nine other di- 
stricts besides the Nile bring their 
produce to the king. A kind of 
list of nomes or domains is here 
presented to us. Four gods of 
wealth are also here depicted : 
Hapi, Hu, Ra, and Zefa, each with 

W on his head. No. 6, to the 

right. Domestic Furniture of the 

king : jars, pots, baskets with the 

royal arms; bottles, trinkets, bows, the panther-skin worn by the 

Pharaoh as high-priest, couches ascended by steps, head-rests 

214 Route 20. THEBES. West Bank: 

, and sofas of great beauty and splendour. No. 7, to the left, 

the~'yellow bull (Mnevis) standing and the black bull (Apis) lying, 
both richly adorned. Also two serpents, one with the crown of Up- 
per Egypt, the other with the crown of Lower Egypt. At No. 8 (to 
the right) a landscape is represented, on the banks of the Nile, with 
men ploughing, sowing, and mowing. Other men are filling the 
granaries n /~\/ i, the celestial deities approach, and the boat of the 
sun-god appears on the horizon. At No. 9 (to the left), are two 
/ Harpers, one, to the left, before Anhur and Harmachls, the other, 
( to the right, before Shu and 'J'um, with the inscription 'these are 
the two harpers who play to the infernal deities'. Ry the door is the 
refrain of the song they are singing: 'Receive the blessed king 
Ramses'. No. lU, to the right, is the Osiris Room, in which Osiris, 
with whom the king is now united, appears under 12 different 
forms and names. — III. The Pharaoh offering to Turn and Ptah, 
on the left, and to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris in a coffin, to the right. In 
the right corner, Osiris, lord of the under-world. Towards Room iv, 
the king surrendering the symbols of his power to Anubis. The 
tomb here makes a slight bend to the right in order to avoid the 
adjoining tomb of Araonmeses (p. 212). — IV. At the entrance are 
prayers to the infernal deities, and two-headed and three-headed 
serpents, etc. In the recesses, Khepra. — V. The king standing be- 
I fore gods. — VI. Chamber with two pillars. Serpents and figures 
bearing symbols, bearers of Amu (serpents), and, to the left, 
bearers of Nennuh. In the left corner are representatives of the 
four races (p. 219) subject to Pharaoh, conducted by Horus. This 
game subject appears also in Tomb 27. 

" ^ t^K ] Tmehu, with pointed beards, ^ ^\ t^ Amu, yellow 
cx-=< _2f I light brown (Libyans). | _g^ Jf | (Semites). 

-A § n '^ I Nehesu, black "^^^ yj^ ^ | Retu, dark 

(Negroes). y — s S>\ tH j (Egyptians). 

VII. (much blackened by time). At the entrance, Neith and 
Selk; to the right, the king with one hand [grasped by Ilarmachis, 
before whom he stands, while he stretches the other to Thoth, re- 
presented as the raoon-god. In the other paintings are spirits 
engaged in mowing and reaping. — Passage VIII. contains a re- 
presentation of the ceremony of erecting the image, in which the 
crown-prince, the high priest with the panther-skin, the Kherheb 
with the book, and other spiritual dignitaries take part. The in- 
scription contains the ritual used on this occasion. — IX. The king 
confesses his sins in presence of several gods. — X. This large 
chamber, supported by eight pillars, was found by the French Ex- 
pedition to contain a sarcophagus, now in the Louvre. The lid, 
which was wanting, is now in Cambridge. The mummy of the king 

Tombf^oftheKinf/.i. THEBES. 20. Roule. 215 

from the shaft of Der el-bahri was discovered in a large cofflii of 
queeiiNofretari, along with a female mummy, which fell to pieces. 
This is the 'astronomical' room. On the wall to the right, Aramon- 
Ra spreads wings like a bird; while elsewhere there are numerous 
representations of stars, the hours, etc., and other curious figures. 
The paintings in the small rooms at the corners also refer to the 
sidereal bodies; e.g. stars in No. 11, the cow in No. 14, etc. — XI. 
At the entrance is a green ape with a bow. Then, to the right, 
men with lizards in their hands, probably indicating length of 
years, for <^=lv^ a«'« means 'many' or 'numerous'. — XII. The last 
rooms and recesses are devoted to Anubis-headed gods, i.e. with 
jackals' heads, and especially to gods of the dead. 

No. 12. Cave, without inscriptions. 

No. 13. Very low, and largely filled up, shows the cartouche 
of Seti II. 

Siptah and his wife '^::==::^ (c ^^^ | 1 r^ ^ jjV^ j Tauser. 

Seti Nekht. 

This tomb originally belonged to an anti-king Siptah and his 
wife Tauser, but it was afterwards appropriated by Seti-Nekht, 
father and immediate predecessor of Ramses III., and suppressor 
of a rebellion in his kingdom (p. 172). Whether the tomb also 
contained the names of Seti II., who rests in the adjoining tomb, 
is exceedingly doubtful ; they are not now visible. The queen Tauser 
is more conspicuous in the paintings here than her husband, whence 
it has been justly inferred that Siptah founded his claim to the 
throne on rights vested in his wife. 

/., to the left : The queen before Harmachis, and before Anubis ; 
King Siptah before Isis, and before Horus; the queen before Nefer- 
tura-Hor. Then a Hekennu inscription. To the right: The queeii 
before Ptah and Ma,' Siptah and his consort before a god, the queen 
before Harmachis, Hathor, and Nephthys, Hathor with flowers. — 
II. King Seti Nekht before Somti. Champollion believed that he 

had here discovered the cartouche of Seti Nekht f ] j engraved 

above that of Seti II. ( | W ), and the latter above those of Tauser 

and Siptah. Now, however, there is no visible trace of this super- 
position, which woiild assign to Siptah a date anterior to Seti II. 
— ///. Anubis and other genii, armed with knives, watch in front 

2 1 6 Roule 20. 


Weill Bank: 

of a chapel, 'to keep off the evil ones'. Hathor again appears in 
the doorway at a. — IV. Large representation of Anubis and the 
genii of tlio dead ; and also of Isis and 
Nephthys. At 6 6 is the king, at rr, the 
high-priest with the panther-skin. — V. 
Above the door Anubis and Horus sacri- 
fice to Osiris ; figures witli knives in front 
of chapels ; beneath, the king. In the door- 
way the winged Ma, for only truth may 
find ndniittance here. — VI. The ha nub 



f^iii^ or HaU of Gold. 'The act of the 

opening of the mouth by the royal likeness 
in the Hall of Gold. 'The high priest (Sem) 
is represented with the staff and panther- 
skin , the Kherheb with the book , and 
there are priests of inferior rank who take 
part in the ceremony. Besides these there 
are people introduced and named as 'Those 
who come to the tomb', 'One who enters 
that he may see it' etc. They appear to 
make offerings. A peculiar kind of incense 
( 6et; is used. The columns of text below 
this representation contain a ritual con- 
sisting of versicles and responses by the 
priests and the son who has set up the 
likeness of his father. A special birth-day 
festival is also referred to, and mention 
made of another ceremony which occurs 
elsewhere, 'the opening of the eyes' with 
a hook. — VII. Anubis by the bier and 
the canopi beside him. — VIII. Ante- 
chamber. Representations of the gods: 
Osiris enthroned, Isis, Nephthys, Horns, 
Seb,Ptah, embracingMa, offeringsbrought 
to llarmachis and Ma, Thoth with the moon Q) upon his head; on 
the door to tlie next principal room. Ma with wings. — IX. In this 
large hall a second sarcophagus may have been placed, and the 
representations of coftins and seats render it very probable. On the 
right hand wall is Ammon-Ra as a bird with outspread wings, on 
the left the serpent, at e the boat. A god with the head of Seth and 
Horus spreads his hands over the double lion, at d is a swimmer 
in the ocean. — The corner room and the succeeding side-wings 
remain unfinished. — A' and XI are empty. — XII. The colouring 
of the carved stone ends here. The serpent Ashu-horu is seen with 
many heads, also the boat. — XIII. A chained serpent with knives 
in its back and captive foes. — .\JV. The liall of tlie sarcophagus 

Tombs of the Kings. THEBES. -20. Route. 2 1 7 

is damaged in many places, the pillars bcin<!;- entirely destroyed. 
The sarcophagus of Queen Tauser bears her likeness between Isis 
and Nephthys. 

\ I I I I 1 AAAAAA / \\J. I I AAAAAA '^ A /| 

Seti II. Merenptah II. 

This scarcely completed tomb lies farthest up the valley. The 
king in addition to the ordinary titles is called '!Sun of the earth' 
and 'Sokaris'. 

I. To the right and left of the entrance is the winged Ma. On the 
right the king makes ofl'erings to the lla, of Merenptah, he presents Ma 
to the god Sokaris of Merenptah: then begins the Ijook of praise of Ra 
in Amenthes, the iirst part of which is carved and painted, but the end 
merely sketched in red. On the left is the worship of the god Ptah, 
well preserved. Farther on, the disc with tlie crocodile, and the 75 Ile- 
kennu or invocations to Ra the almighty. The stone of this tomb is 
dazzling white like marble. — //. Outline sketches for the picture of the 
boat, etc. — In /// are sketches which are barely visible. — IV. a the king 
in a small boat, 6 Isis and Kephthys. Also symbols and banners. — V. 
Over the door two otferings are made to Osiris, there are also the boat, 
and the heniu, the bearers of the measuring line, of the Metau, and of 
the Secret. A sloping passage leads downwards from the hall with pillars; 
all the rest is destroyed. The torso of a broken statue of Isis lies on 
the ground. 

No. 16 has no inscriptions. 
*No. 17. fo^^tifiifi^l 

1 — 1 \ 


Seti I., 

usually known as BelzonVs Tomb from its discoverer in Oct. 1817 
In beauty of execution it far surpasses all the other tombs of Biban 
el-Muluk, and the sculptures on its walls appear to have been 
executed by the same artists whose works we had the opportunity 
of admiring at Abydos. In size it resembles Nos. 11 and 14; its 
length is 380 ft. The descent is made by a steep flight of steps, 
in which it resembles only the tomb of AT. 

/. On the left begins 'The book of the praise of Ka in Amenthes', 
which has been edited by Naville. It says : 'When this book is read, 
the figures of clay are upon the ground at the going down of the 
sun, i.e. the lordship of Ra over his enemies in Amenthes; who is 
wise on earth is wise also after death'. This paragraph of the book is 
followed by a picture divided into three compartments, in the 
middle a scarahaeus with Khnum, below a crocodile with an ante- 
lope's head, above a serpent with an antelope's head reversed. The 
first chapter begins in the first corridor on the left, and runs straight on, 
occupying only a part of the wall. In the second corridor on the left 
begins the second chapter, while the upper part is covered with the 
15 forms of Ra in long niches. The two sides of the second corridor 
contain the 2nd, 3rd, and part of the 4th chapters. At the end some 
passages were omitted, and the rest of the 4th chapter was placed 
on the part of the right hand wall of the first corridor that was yet 
unused. — //. Here the process of the work may be followed, a part 

2 1 S Route 20. 


We^t Bank : 





being sketcheci, anil another part 
still unroloured. In several places 
the artist had to lay down his chisel 
or pencil when in the midst of his 
work. The roof is painted with 
vnltures and the cartouches of Seti I. 
The wide passage slopes downwards 
with a double flight of steps of dif- 
ferent width. At a is Isis, at h 
Ncphthys represented as kneeling 
before Amibis. — ///. At c the boat 
of Afn-Ka is being drawn along by 
gods on the ocean; his foes are also 
seen and before them a goddess, of 
wliom it is said that she lives upon 
their blood, close by is Horus, stand- 
ing upon and holding the wings of 
a serpent stretching itself over the 
lion. At d the twelve-headed ser- 
pent Nehebka, another winged ser- 
pent, etc. — lY. The king before 
several gods. To the left, <", he is 
brought before Isis by Horus. At f 
he makes offerings to Ilathor of 
Thebes, the Heniu of heaven, and 
the princess of all gods in the re- 
gion of Ameiithes who says to him : 
'I give thee the throne of Osiris". 
g The king before the mummy of 
Osiris. By the side is written : '1 
grant thee the ascent into heaven'. 
h Osiris, Aniibis and Horus. i The 
king before the mistress of the 
worlds in the land of Maniiii. k is 
similar to /'. This room seems to 
bear the name of Hall of the iiods. 
A shaft was found here, and it was 
considered to be the end of the 
tomb, until the hollow sound of the 
wall betrayed to Belzoni that there 
were more rooms beyond. — V. Hall 
with 4 pillars. To the right and 
left of the door at I and m are re- 
presented two great serpents rear- 
ing their heads, from the Book of 
the Lower World (IV, V"). One is 
called Set-ra-ar-tef, or flre-eyed, 

Tombs of the Kings. THEBES. 20. Route. 219 

the other Teka-her, or torch-faced. 'They illumine', the text by 
the side tells us, 'the hidden dwelling, they close the door after 
the entrance of this great god'. Near them is seen a double door, 
in which are represented nine mummies one upon the other, 
guarded by two fire-breathing serpents. At n we see the heniu, ihe 
worshippers, the 'cycle of the god' in the boat, and the god being 
drawn along, and lower down Turn (?) destroying his enemies with the 
lance. All these scenes are taken from the Book of the Lower 
World. Here also are to be seen the four nations which we met in 
Tomb 11, Room VI. The Libyans and Egyptians are fairer here. Ato 
are the bearers of the measuring-line, the bearers of the serpent, the 
souls (bau ; miimmies with heads of birds), the people of the lower 

world, and the bearers of the Hau y ; at m the bearers of the Metau, 

of the Amu serpent, of the Manenu i(, a chain which comes from 
the neck of Osiris. On the entrance-wall to the right in the second 
row is the boat of Afu-Ra with Sa and Hekau, drawn by the dwellers 
below, and lastly the mysterious bearers of the Secret. In the third 

row is Tuti -^^ on a serpent Neheb, on which twelve mummies rest, 

■they who tarry with Osiris, who have travelled hither and are 
weary'. — From this hall on the left a flight of 18 steps leads into 
the long Pa.<sa(/e T7/, and so to the other rooms. Atthebackof Room V 
a small flight of steps leads to Hall VJ. The inscriptions in this are 
merely written on stucco. In one place we see serpents which spit tire 
at figures lying upon the ground, in another we see them roasted 
in an oven, scenes suggesting the Inferno of Dante. — p Demons 
carrying a serpent before the boat, q Others with bows and spears. 
r A cow standing on the symbol of sovereignty, a ram, and a bird 

with a human head ^ y , all scenes of the 9-12th hours of the 

Am-tuat. The outline sketches of some of the unfinished figures 
are most remarkable, and some of the greatest modern artists have 
expressed their astojiishment at the master-hand which they display. 
— From VII other steps lead down to V7//, the Hall of Gold., of the 
priestly ceremonies of the 'opening of the mouth' (ap-ro). Un- 
fortunately" it has not remained uninjured, though on the whole in 
better preservation than the hall of gold in ISo. 14. — IX. The king 
before the infernal Hathor, Anuhis, Isis, Horus, Hathor and Osiris, 
twice repeated; then Ptah in his shrine. — A'. Large hall with six 
pillars. Unfortunately some of the reliefs on the pillars have 
been removed, and in consequence, this, the finest hall in the 
tomb, threatens to faU in. s t On the door to the right is seen the 
serpent AkebT, to the left the serpent Saa-set, and passages from 
the Book of the Lower World. The dwellers below praise Ra, and 
offering is made by 'those in the depths" by the side of '24 figures 
who drop their hands in prayer, below is the boat of Afu-Ra with 

220 Route W. THEBES. West Bank: 

Sa and Hekaii, ilrawn by 'those who are in the depths'. To meet 
those represented liere come other gods 'who have already found 
admission'. Below all is Tum, the conqueror of the foes, who lie 
bound on the ground before him. Again we see the boat, the heniu, 
and the men or people of the lower world; also the members of the 
household of Ka, to which belong (1) nine apes which sing when Ra 

enters the depths, (2) fire-breathing serpents lA. I which illumine 

the darkness in the depths, (3) nine men with arms upraised, 
who praise Ra on the ninth of the month, (4) twelve women who 
do homage to Ra, when he enters the Atur uarnes, or Ocean. The 
roof contains astrological figures, lists of decani, constellations and 
the like, below is Api etc. The magnificent sarcophagus of alabaster, 
together with the fragments of the lid, discovered here by Belzoni 
(Oct. 19th 1817), is now at the Soane Museum in London. It was 
empty, and the splendid mummy of Seti I. was discovered in 1881 
in the shaft at Der el-bahri (see p. 2'29) in a sarcophagus borrowed 
from the high-priests of the 2ist Dynasty. — XI. Serpents at the 
door, boat, recumbcTit Osiris, etc. — A77. Astronomical figures. 
The cow, supporting Shu, and surrounded by worshippers. — Xlll. 
Larger square room, with one of the pillars supporting the roof 
destroyed. Round it runs a parapet on which statuettes, vases, 
amulets etc., probably stood. The astronomical figures are ex- 
ceedingly difficult to understand; below is a serpent with the heads 
of the four genii of the dead, n The boat of Afu-Ra with his usual 
companions. At their head Isis, with hands outstretched, exorcises 
a serpent, which has many knives sticking in its body, and is held 
by the neck and throttled by a goddess. — Z/Tremains unfinished. 
The rudely constructed passage which slopes downwards some 
70 yds. farther ofl'ers nothing more, and the traveller may now return 
satisfied with what he has seen, and astonished at the labour which 
it must have cost. 

No. 18. (OM y) " 0) Ramses X. The name which is 

\ V^ ill AAftAAA / I 

lialf destroyed can have belonged to no one else. The tomb con- 
tains nothing worth a visit, but is a convenient place for luncheon. 
No. /.9 is not a king's tomb, but was made for a prince of the 
19th or 20th Dynasty, a royal scribe and commander-in-chief, named 

1^ ^ - 

-MESES MENTU-HER-KHOrESn-F ( ^^ ( 1 .. aaaa^ 


I'lie inner part of the tomb is filled up. The portrait of the deceased 
,-liould 1)0 noticed. In 1885 several ornameTits, fragments of a gar- 
iiioiit of many colours and with gold buttons, etc. were discovered 
ill the tomb. 

Near the above is a passage sloping downwards for 80 yds., first 
ill a westerly and then in a southerly direction, which may possibly 

El-Amslf. THEBi:S. 27. Route. 221 

have been connected with the shaft of Di?r el-balui, in wliich the 
royal mummies were discovered. 

21. From Biban el-Muluk to el-Asasif 
and Der el-bahri. 

From Bab el-Muluk we need not return by the way we came, 
but may take the path over the hill which separates the Tombs of 
the Kings from Der el-bahri and el-Asasif. The path, which cannot 
be missed, begins at tomb 16; from tomb 17 which every one will 
visit, it is reached by going a few steps to the west. Persons not 
equal to the climb may ride to the top, but it is a great strain upon 
the donkeys. Riding down the hill is by no means to be recom- 
mended. The donkey-boys usually lead the animals by a narrow 
path over the ridge, and await the travellers at the foot. The zigzag 
path is fatiguing but safe, and is easily accomplished in ^ji hr. The 
* View is most remarkable ; first into the desolate valley of the Tombs 
of the Kings, then from the summit and as we descend into the pe- 
culiar ravine of Der el-bahri; we see the steep projecting mountain 
side with its tombs, and buildings old and new, with the rich green 
of the fertile plain below spread out on both sides of the Nile, and 
here and there its groups of palms and gigantic temples, as far as 
Karnak and Luxor on the E. bank. 

Those who are interested in the prehistoric stoue-age, and the flint 
implements of the childhood of the world, may notice at the beginning 
of the path as well as on the top of the hill, and as they descend to Der 
el-bahri, several open spaces covered with fragments of tlint. Lenormant 
and Hamy considered these to he prehistoric knife-manufactories, and the 
myriads of fragments lying about to be the work of man; but Lepsius 
has proved that they are nothing more than the fragments of flint nodules 
such as may now he seen lying about, which split owing to the rapid 
changes of temperature. The traveller will in fact find thousands of 
fragments resembling knives and scrapers. And this is only natural, for 
whether the splitting is due to nature or to art, the same shapes are likely 
to be constantly produced. The calcareous limestone of these hills is full 
of crystals of silex. The walls of the tombs may be remembered with 
the dark broken nodules which stand out against the light-coloured lime- 
stone. What Hamy and Lenormant took for flint manufactories at the 
entrance of Biban el-JIulOk are only heaps of stone, cut out of the rock 
with metal tools at the making of the tomb. The fragments of limestone 
and flint were necessarily removed from the excavations and were thrown 
down on the sides of the valley. On the other hand Yirchow assvimes 
a prehistoric Egyptian stone period, and considers the stone-fraguu-nts 
of Der el-bahri "to be to some extent artificial productions. 

Before turning to the temple of Der el-bahri which is seen, with 
the tower of clay-bricks, as we descend the hill, a visit .should be 
paid to the Necropolis lying between Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah (p. 190) 
and Drah Abu'l-Neggah (p. 199) known as — 

El-Asasif. The part to be visited is known by the Arabs as el- 
Asas'tf el-hiihr'tyeh or the northern Asasif. Numerous tombs of various 
periods lie liere in the series of low hills, which form the back as 
it were of the steep rocky range rising behind Der el-bahri. Only 

222 Route 21. THEBES. West Bank: 

a few tombs at el-Asasff are usually visited by the ordinary traveller. 
Some belong to the 18th and 19th Dyn.. but the most important 
are of the 26th. Broken walls seem to indicate that the cemetery 
was divided into sections. We also find here various brick build- 
ings and a large arched doorway. During Mariette's excavations 
many mummies were found, not in regular tombs, but either in the 
earth itself, or in small vaults 3 to 6 ft. below the surface. In some 
of them, papyrus-rolls of great value were discovered. The tomb of 

PetamenapY [J (J ^w^ ) is larger than Nos. 14 and l7 

at Biban el-Muluk, and is worth a visit on account of its great size. 
Petamenap was a prince of the empire and an official of the 26th 
Dyu., whose remarkable position entitled him to the unusual honour 
of completing buildings at the temple of Medinet-IIabu, and of 
placing his name upon them. The tomb is cut out of remarkably 
beautiful limestone; and its inscriptions display the neatness of 
finish which is peculiar to the sculptures of the Egyptian renais- 
sance. It has become the home of thousands of bats, which render 
the attempt to copy the inscriptions in the inner rooms very difficult 
by constantly extinguishing the light. The smell, moreover, which 
they cause is so strong and oft'ensive that a thorough inspection of 
the tomb is recommended only to those who can overcome the feel- 
ing of nausea. Any one who is subject to giddiness should avoid 
going far into the tomb, as in the middle it is necessary to balance 
oneself, though only for a few steps, along a narrow path on the 
edge of a deep shaft. Sir Gardner Wilkinson undertook the measure- 
ment of the tomb, and the inscriptions have been almost completely 
copied and partly published by Diimichen. These are important 
chiefly for the details of the funeral ceremonies. 

The entrance, a.s in all the tombs in this part of the uecro- 
]>(ilis, is by an open courtyard without walls, 103 ft. wide and 76 ft. deep, 
which leads to a hall in the rock (the mortuary chapel), with side- 
chambers and passages. This is 67 ft. wide by 63 ft. deep, and its roof 
is supported by two rows of pillars. All the walls are ornamented with 
inscriptions and reliefs carefully executed, but now unfortunately much 
iigured and blackened. These, almost without exception, refer to the fate 
of the soul in the lower world. — A va\ilted Corridor leads into a second 
large /I'ooni (63 ft. by 37 ft.) in which 8 pillars remain to prevent the roof 
from falling, while in the liooin adjoining it, 3'27'.; ft- square, only 4 have 
been spared. A Chamber with niches (21 ft. by 12 ft.) concludes this series 
fif rooms, the total length of which together with the courtyard is 312 ft. 
The nature of the stone having apparently prevented further advance into 
the rock in this direction, the masons turned to the left and dug out a 
wide Hall, and also to the right, where six successive I'assages were 
made at right angles leading to a small room. These not being on the 
same level were connected by flights of respectively 9, '23, and 9 steps. 
In the small room mentioned is a shaft 45 ft. deep with a chamber. 
Caution is necessary here. This series of passages is 177 ft. in length. 
From the room containing the shaft a Corridor runs again to the 
right, and leads to a transverse Chamber, making 60 ft. in this direction. 
However, before reaching the steps on the second line, we find leading 
to a second shaft a fourth .set of passages to the right, 125 ft. long in a 
straight direction. Adjoining this on the left is a large Gallery, 58 ft. 

Der el-bahri. THEBES. 21. Route. 223 

square, in the decoration of wliicli tlie central block is treated as if it 
were an enormous sarcophagus. In fact the Sarcophagus of the deceased 
lies below the centre of this block, and is reached by means of a per- 
pendicular shaft, 18 ft. in depth, at the end of a Corridor to the right of 
the main passage. By descending the shaft, a room I91/2 ft. deep is reached, 
and from the roof of this there is an entrance to the sarcophagus-hall, 
which is e.xactly beneath the square block above described. The length 
of this private tomb without the side-chambers is 862 ft., and its super- 
ficial area 2470 sq. yds. or with the shaft-chambers 2660 sq. yds. 

To the N. ot this huge tomh are several smaller ones of the 
same period, with finely worked antechambers, and false doors, and 
carefully executed inscriptions. Some of these, especially those of 
the royal ladies and priestesses of Amnion, Shep-en-apt and Neit- 

■ '^CIK 
akert or Nitocris 


contain valuable contri- 

butions to the knowledge of the family of Pharaohs which formed 
the 26th Dynasty. A queen Nitocris of the 6th Dyn., known as a 
pyramid-builder, is said to have been.beautiful and light-haired. 
With her may have been confounded the princess of the 26th Dyn. 
with the same name, who was buried at el-Asasif, and lived shortly 
before the famous courtezan of Naucratis, named Ehodopis or the 
losy-cheeked. Nitocris the elder and Rhodopis were probably called 
by the same name, i.e. the fair one, in the mouths of the Egyptians, 
and Herodotus hearing that the 'Fair one' had lived shortly before 
Amasis, confused the two, and reported that the courtezan Rhodopis 
was considered the builder of pyramids. See Vol. I., p. 346. 

The Terrace-Temple of Der el-bahri. 

This temple derives its name , meaning the North Church or 
North Monastery, from an ecclesiastical brick building of the Christ- 
ian period, the remains of which are mentioned on p. 227. Der 
el-bahri is reached from el-Asasif in 10 minutes. Its situation is 
remarkably fine, its terraces which we ascend, being framed by a 
semicircle of high and rugged rocks, of a light brown and golden 
colour. If Thebes had been in Greece , this is where its citizens 
would have placed their theatre. The p]gyptians whose thoughts 
were fuller of death than of life, founded a sanctuary for the 
worship of the dead. Apparently an avenue of sphinxes, of which 
some traces remain, connected this with the landing-stage, where 
boats coming from Karnak on the W. bank were anchored. This 
magnificent work was carried out during the rise of the New Em- 
pire, and the numerous processions of pilgrims began in the 
i6th cent. B.C. The laying out of the terraces was begun by Tut- 
mes I., and completed by his daughter, (Jueen Hatshepsu, or Ha- 
tasu-Ramaka, familiar to us as the raiser of the great obelisk of 
Karnak (p. 133). Here too her brothers, Ttitmes 11. and III., 
although their names are mentioned, fall into the background 
when compared with their energetic and ambitious sister. After- 

224 Routed! THEBES. West Bank: 

vartls Tutraos III. erased in many places the name of his ohnox- 
ious guardian, who seems also to have been the wife of his elder 
brother Tutmes II. The great monarchs of the 19tli Dyn., Seti I. 
and Ramses II., Merenptah, son of the latter, Ramses III., Pinozem, 
one of the priest-kings of the 21st Dyn., Taharka, the Ethiopian, 
of the 25th Dyn., Psanimetikh II. and Nitocris of the 2()th Dyn., 
Ptolemy IX. Euergctes 11. and his wife Cleopatra, and Ptolemy X. 
Lathyrus, all contributed by works of restoration to prevent the 
building which had been completed under Ilatasu , from falling 
into decay. Both the style, and the inscriptions tell us thatDcr el- 
bahri is to be considered completely a work of the beginning of the 
New Empire. The size and simplicity of its parts, and especially 
the polygonal columns are a sign to those who are familiar with 
the development of Egyptian architecture, that tlie Hyksos period 
must be considered to have been a time of stagnation in Egyptian 
art, and that exactly the same forms and arrangements of columns 
were common to the architects of the ;12th and to those of the 
18th Dynasties. In Thebes, and not least at Der el-bahri, the ob- 
server is tempted to regard the New Empire as an immediate con- 
tinuation of the Old, although between them lies a period of five 
hundred years. 

The plan of this terrace -temple is remarkable, and cannot be 
compared with any other in Egypt. The arrangement in four 
terraces rising from the level ground up the steep side of the Li- 
byan mountains is quite unique. The stages were cut out of the 
E. slope of the mountain , and support was given to the outer and 
inner walls by means of blocks of the finest sandstone. At the S. 
end of the terraces we can best see the care taken to support tlie 
earth-w'orks. The outer wall consists here of finely polished blocks 
of limestone with simple but eifective ornamentation. Broad pi- 
lasters, but only 3 in. deep, placed some distance apart, project 
from the wall with which they are connected. Above each is 
enthroned a gigantic hawk with the crown of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, standing upon an Uranus-serpent, and above it is the symbol 
of life supported by an Ura;us-serpent. 

A long Avetiue of Sphinxes , probably beginning with a pylon, 
near the entrance to the tomb of Petaraenap (p. 222j led up to the 
series of terraces, the successive stages being reached by steps 
placed in the middle. 

The First Terrace (beginning from below) is almost entirely 
destroyed, but we can make out the pathway which led from the 
bottom to the top, and divided the whole into two equal 2>arts. Be- 
low the Second Terrace (Mariette's Terrasse dc I'Esi) are the ruins 
of !i Hall, supported by columns of 16 sides, which in tliis form 
were xised only umler the 17th and 19th Dynasties. The pressure 
of the earth is sustained by a lofty inner wall on which are some 
well preserved inscriptions, and representations of ships, soldiers 

Der el-baUri. THEBES. 21. Route. 225 

with axes, olive-branohes, etc. Lying on tlie ground is a peculiar 
capital, such as may be seen also in other parts of the temple, con- 
sisting of a cube, with the ma?k of the goddess Hathor carved on 
the front and back. The upright broken shafts should also be 
noticed; one half was treated as a pillar, the other as a polygonal 
column with 7 sides, and an inscription was placed on the surface 
of the pillar. 

The *Third Terrace (Mariette's Terrasse du Centre^ deserves 
especial notice Underneath there were on each side, left and right, 
two rows of il square pillars which together formed two Jialls, 88 ft. 
long, open to the east. Of these the pillars of the left hall still 
stand, only two remaining in that on the right. These halls sup- 
ported a roof, of which all that remains is a fragment of the archi- 
trave and a broad slab on the 11 pillars in the back row. The 
scenes represented on the inner wall and on the left side are of 
great interest. 

Disregardingfor the present the part of the temple totheleft('S^/)eo.3 
of Hathor, p. 227) we begin with the right side of the inner wall 
below the third terrace. The first scenes are somewhat damaged, 
but those which follow are in a good state of preservation, and refer 
chiefly to the expedition on which Queen Hatasu-Ramaka sent her 

/ n A/VWV\ \ 

ships to Arabia ( ^^ Punt ). 1. Ramaka represented as 

king, with the double crown on her head, and the staff in her hand, 
before Ammon-Ra. There is a long but obliterated inscription. 
2. The queen with two bowls full of grains of incense, and with 
the helmet on her head, before the sacreil boat of Ammon-Ra. The 
boat with a ram's head at each end is carried by priests, of whom 
the two in the centre are high-priests, clad in leopard-skins. Next 
we see 7 Neha-trees in tubs, probably incense-bearing trees imported 
to Egyx)t from the East; men with tubs are piling up the incense 
in heaps. Above are the weighing and measuring of prei'ious metals, 
as may be seen elsewhere. The weights iised for weighing the gold 
rings are in the form of oxen lying down. The goddess Safekh marks 
the result on a tablet. Next are 3 Neha-trees. Below is seen a group 
of 8 cattle, two eating the reed-grass on the river-side. The scene 
reminds us vividly of Pharoah's dream (Gen. xli. 1). 'And it came 
to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed: and, 
behold, he stood by the river. And, behold, there came up out of 
the river seven well favoured kine and fat-fleshed; and they fed in 
the reed-grass'. Near this are sacks with cosmetics (rnestem). Again 
we find the king with the insignia of power. Then 2 rows of ships 
belonging to the fleet which Ramaka-Hatasu seTit to Arabia. The 
shape of the vessels, their rigging, oars, and rudders should be 
noticed, as well as the cargo which can be seen on board, and the 
loading by means of a small boat. The necessary explanations 
are given by small inscriptions above the pictures. To the left, 
Baedeker's Upper Egypt, 15 

226 Route 21. THEBES. We«< B,tnk: 

below, is an inscription of 13 lines, of wiiich the 8th and 9th 
were destroyed by Kanises II., for the purpose of inserting his own 
name in lionour of Ammon-l{a, the lord of heaven, etc. It speaks 
of 'the voyage on the sea, the beginning of the great journey to 

1 Ta neter, i.e. the holy land, the happy arrival in Arabia of 

the soldiers of Pharaoh, the lord of the world, according to the 
command of Ammon, the lord of the gods', etc. — Another in- 
scription between the trees, to which the boat is fastened, tells us 
that Punt as well as Arabia Petraja was dedicated to the goddess 
Hatlior. To the left of the two ships are 10 lines describing by name 
the different kinds of wares which sailors are carrying on board along 
narrow planks. 'Loading of the ships with UTitoId quantity of 
valuables from Arabia, precious kinds of wood from the holy land, 
heaps of the grains of incense-gum (kemi-ent-anta)t, Nehut trees 
of fresh incense-grains (anta), ebony (hebni) for sacred vessels with 
gold and silver from of the land Amu (Asia), Deas+t, and Khesit- 
wood, possibly cassia-bark, grains of Ahemtti-, incense and cos- 
metics (antimony), Anau and Kefu apes, Desem beasts or grey- 
hounds, coloured panther-skins from the south, natives and chililren'. 
The inscription concludes with the statement that nothing like it had 
been done under any king before, and it speaks the truth. Hatasu 
showed her people the way to the land whose products were later 
to fill the treasuries not only of the Paraohs, but also of the Phoe- 
nicians and the Jews. — These pictures are of special interest as 
exactly illustrating I Kings x. 22 : 'Once in three years came the navy 
of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks'. 
Except these last named birds all the treasures may be seen on tlie 
vessels of Hatasu. Her expedition must have been accompanied by 

some nature-loving priests, as below the ships we see the water-line 

/www in which are swimming various kinds of the most remarkable 


flsh of the Red Sea. The drawings of these are so characteristic that 
Prof. Doenitz has been able to determine their species. Among them 
are Naseus unicornis, Xiphias giadius, Platax Teira, Ralistes assasi, 
Acanthurus velifer, Chaetodonstrigangulus, Scarus viridescens, etc. 
In a sole 'one eye was drawn larger tlian the otlier, showing a flue 
observation of nature'. 

On the. wall adjoining the riglit-hand corner there was to be seen 
until a few years ago the transport of the incense-trees, 9 soldiers with 
officers, and in two places, one above the other, the prince of Punt, named 
rira/iu, coming from the left, and followed by his wile, remarkable for her 

yptian ^ ^^ ^ S ° '^'''"'' 

+ From the Kgyptian ^ V\ (j (J O kemi, resinous exudations from 

various trees, comes our word gum. 

+t From the fruit of thi^ Deas tree a sacred ointment was obtained, 
ttt These belong to the mineral kingdom. 

7)er el-hahri. THEBES. 21. Route. 227 

obese appearance, a son and a daughter, as well as a donkey, to carry the 
princess on her travels. Unfortunately this piece of wall has been de- 
stroyed by tourists, and only a small fragment showing the princess and 
her husband is preserved in the museum at Gizeh. 

The representation ends with a settlement of the inhabitants of Punt. 
It lies close to the water which is populated by lish, turtles, and craylish, 
and it would seem as if the inhabitants were lake-dwellers. At all events 
their conical houses rest upon piles. The door could only be reached by 
a ladder, which the artist has not forgotten to represent. Palms and in- 
cense-trees give shade to the village. In this southern landscape appear, or 
rather used to appear, on the right a cow reclining, and on the left a long- 
tailed bird flying through the air. 

The third terrace was formed by the roof of this hall, on the 
inner wall of which were the above-described paintings, together 
with a Temple, placed in the centre and supported by round columns 
and by the ground behind. From this terrace a well-preserved 
granite doorway leads to the burial chambers lying behind (see 

At the end of this terrace to the left there is a remarkable small 
Sanctuary dedicated to the goddess Ilathor, and built by llatasu and 
her husband-brother Tutmes II., which should not be left unvisited. 
The two outer rooms are in ruins, so that even the partition-walls 
betweeen the halls lying 07ie behind the other are scarcely recogniz- 
able. Some of the pillars and bases of the columns, however, are 
still iipright. We turn to the right and find the remains of a Hathor 
Cow. There are also some more paintings of ships, but very faint. 
On the outer wall of the temple built into the mountain, is an ox 
licking the hand of king, i.e. queen Ramaka. As the adjoining 
text says, 'She licks Horus to whom she gave birth". To the right 
of the door is Tutmes III. (Ra-men-kheper-ka), and within Tut- 
mes II. who built the door and gave his name to it. 

The Burial C/»am6er.? lying behind are reached through an ante- 
chamber with two small niches on each side. This is succeeded by 
another long room with a flat blue ceiling, ornamented with red stars 
at one time probably gilt. On each side of this funeral chamber 
are niches. Next is a narrow room with two niches. At the back 
of this last on the two side-walls above the shaft is an exceedingly 
interesting * Representation of Queen Hatasu, drinking the milk of 
life from the udders of the Hathor Cow. The cow is the finest piece 
of animal painting which has come down to us from Egyptian an- 
tiquity. The cartouche of the queen was erased, probably by order 
of her indignant ward Tutmes III. when he became independent. 
All the inscriptions and paintings in this room (cynocephali, lions, 
etc.) are perfect in style; those in the niches tell us that these were 
used for the storing of offerings. 

The last ov Fourth Terrace is badly preserved. We first come to 
a granite doorway built by Tutmes III. on the central path, on the 
left hand side of which we see an inscription of the 3rd year of 
Merenptah I. Next we reach the tower and fragments of wall, both 
of rough Nile bricks, belonging to the monastery or church, which 


228 Route 21, THEBES. West Bank : 

has given its uamo to the pla(;e. To tlie left are the remains of 
other rooms. The name of Ramses II., inserted by himself as a 
correction, shonld be noticed; behind are offerings for the dead. The 
fine roof is not a true vault, the stones lying horizontally and being 
cut out. Tlie colours are fresh ; to the right and left of the door 
are Tutmes III. and Tutmes II. ; over the door 4 bulls. — Ascend- 
ing 34 steps further we reach another granite doorway also built 
by Tutmes 111., through which we enter a vault sprinkled with stars. 
This last rests against the wall of rock which rises above Dcr el- 
bahri, without being cut into it. A second archway with 2 side- 
niches leads deeper into the mountain, and there isathirdunvaulted 
room which was constructed under Tutmes I. of the 18th Dynasty, 
but appropriated by a distinguished official named Amenhotep, 
under Ptolemy Euergetes II., and his wife Cleopatra. The inscrip- 
tions of this later period compare very disadvantageously with 
those of the time of the Tutmes kings. 

From the N. side of the third terrace it ia possible to creep into the 
Burial Chapel, half lilled v?ith rubbish, which is supported by 12 eighteen- 
sided columns in four rows, and contains two empty sarcophagus-chests. 
<Jn the inner wall arc Anubis and ofl'erings for the dead. This is followed 
by a vaulted Chamber the arch of which is pointed, and from this a simi- 
larly vaulted Passarje runs ofV at a right angle, to the W. of which is a 
very small Hoom, also va\ilted in the same way. We thus find three vaulted 
rooms, each smaller than the preceding. In front of this arrangement of 
tomhs there was a huilding of which there now remains (on the right 
as we leave the tomhs) a Colonnade with 7 eighteen-sided columns, bear- 
ing an architrave, the astragal, and the concave cornice. These rooms are 
much choked up, and full of fragments of mummies, and linen rags. In 
later times they were used as a common burial ground. The same fate 
from the 26th byn. onwards hefel the rooms at the end of which is the 
line picture of the Hathor Cow (p. 227); but these are now kept clean and 
easily accessible. 

On the fourth terrace also pictures of a procession have been pre- 
served. Of the row of ships nothing is left but the water-lines below them, 
hut it is from here that a picture of a ship now in the Berlin Museum 
was taken, with an accompanyinii inscription telling us that the Procession 
was arranged by Tutmes III. in honour of Tutmes 11. 

At no great distance from Dcr el-bahri there is a roughly worked 
passage cut, only about 3 ft. high and scarcely accessible, which was ex- 
plored by Kbers. It leads into a sepulchral chamber, entirely covered 
with semi-hieratic inscriptions, in which was buried a princess named 
Nefru, a favourite, and perhaps the mother of a princess Ilatnsu belonging 
to the early period of the New Empire or, according to Navilb-. in the, 
11th or 12th iJynasty. 

This neighbourhood should not be fiuitted without a visit to the shall 
from which the famous royal mummies were obtained. In order to reach 
it we walk over the heaps of sand to the right at the foot of DOr el-hahri 
(or we may take an easier path from the village and tombs of Shekh 
'Abd el-Kurnah down the slope to the west). In scarcely 10 min. we are 
in front 'of a narrow chasm in the rock, up which there i.s a steep climb 
for 5 minutes. Above is the Shaft, Git. square, descending perpendicularly 
for 3H ft. A strong rope and great caution are necessary in order to be 
let down. At the. bottom is an entrance 5 ft. wide and 3 ft. high which 
leads in a straight direction for 24 ft. This pas.sage then turns to the right 
in a N.K. direction for the length of more than l'J5 It., its height vary- 
ing from G to 13 ft. To the right five or six rude steps lead to a niche. 

Dh tl-halm. THERES. 2/. Roufe. 229 

Straight on is a room about 25 ft. long. Here on July iith 1881 Emil 
BrugscU discovered the famous royal mummies, now in the Oizeh Museum. 
Since January 1876 Tshabtis, tablets, and large funereal papyrus rolls ali 
coming from this spot, had been sold to wealthy tourists through 'the 
medium ofMustapha Aga, the English consular agent at Luxor. Attention 
was aroused by the Papyrus of Noiemit, a queen of the 21st Dyn. which 
was produced in several pieces, one of which is now in the Louvre, another 
in the British Museum, having been presented to the Prince of Wales, and 
a third in the possession of a Belgian lady. Enquiries showed that there 
were several brothers "^Abd er-Rasul who were especially concerned in the 
sale of these antiquities. The arrest and trial of Ahmed, one of the 
brothers, followed by flogging, led to no result. However partly from fear 
of punishment, and partly for a promised reward the secret was betrayed 
by Ahmed's elder brother Mohammed, to the Mudir of Keneh, who gave 
information to the Khedive. Brugsch describes the discovery as follows: 

'Every inch of the subterranean passage was covered with coffins and 
antiquities of all kinds. My astonishment was so overpowering that I 
scarcely knew whether I was awake or whether it was only a mocking 
dream. Resting on a coffin, in order to recover from my intense excite- 
ment, I mechanically cast my eyes over the coffin-lid, and distinctly saw 
the name of King Seti I., the father of R;imses II., both belonging to the 
19th Dynasty. A few steps further on, in a simple wooden coffin, with 
his hands crossed on his breast, lay Ramses II., the great Sesostris him- 
self. The faither I advanced, the greater was the wealth displayed, here 
Amenophis 1., there Amosis , the three Tiiimes, Queen Ahmes nofertari. 
Queen Aahholep, all the mummies well preserved; in all 36 coffins, belong- 
ing to kings and their wives or to princes and princesses 

By the evening of July 11th all the mummies and c(jffins had been 
carefully packed at Luxor. Three days later the Museum steamer came 
to carry the precious burdens to Bulak. From Luxor to Kopfos on both 
sides of the Nile, the fellahin women followed the boat with loosened 
hair and uttering plaintive cries, while the men fired off guns, as at a 
funeral. The coffins were taken to the museum at Billak^ and thence 
removed to the new museum at Gizeh. — The discovery included King 
Rasekenen, of the 17th Dyn., the opponent of the Hyksos ; of the 18th Dyn. 
King Aahmes, queens Aahmes nofertari and Aalihotep, kings Amenholep /., 
Tulmes /., //., and III., prince Siiamon, princesses Sitamon and Meri- 
tamon, ^''ebsen^ a priest, and others; of the 19th Dyn. Ramses I., Seti I., 
and Ramses II. Ramses III. of the 20th dyn. was also afterwards found. 
Of the prlcst-kings of the 21st Dyu. Pi7io-em, Nozemit, Ramaka with her 
dau'jihter, a second Pinozem, queen Sathin-hont'aui, Masahirta a priest, two 
princesses Asl-em-kheh and A'esilihoiisu, and others. There were also found 
a large leather tent in red, green, yellow, and white for Ast-em-kheb, the 
daughter of King Pinozem, 40 canopi, 3700 statuettes of Osiris, 12 to 15 
ceremonial wigs, and 46 wooden chests together with inscriptions, bronze 
stools, papyrus rolls, and the like. The inscriptions found on the older 
mummy-chests, e.g. that of Seti I. and on the wrappings, were of great 
importance, recording that the mummies had been taken from their tombs 
by the priest-kings of the 21st Dyn. (Herhor, Sitamon, Pino/.em, and Ma- 
sahirta the priest] and removed to that of a lady named An keh or An 
liapu, in which also lay Amenhotep I. In the Abbott Papyrus, which is a 
judicial enquiry into the robbery of the tombs, the passage 120 ells long 
in the tomb of -Amenhotep I., which was to the N. of the temple of Amen- 
hotep, is mentioned. This corresponds to the passage in the Der el-bahri 
pit. The colours of the garlands of flowers were marvellously well 
preserved. The plants have been named by Prof. Schweinfurth. 

On June 1st 1886 by the wish of the Khedive the unrolling of the 
mummies, a somewhat bold proceeding, was taken in hand, beginning with 
the grey-haired Ramses the Great, whose sharp features and curved nose 
are remarkably striking. In the coffin of Nefertari the mummy of Ram- 
ses III. was strangely found. Then followed Seti I. with his mild features, 
Rasekenen with his fierce look and broken skull, having perhaps fallen in 
battle with the Khcta, Aahmes I., and the priest-kings of Thebes. A mummy 

230 Route 22. ERMENT. From Thebes 

unknown showed terribly distorted painful features, as if it had died by 
poison. In the course of a month all the mummies were unrolled, meas- 
ured, described, and covered up again, though whether they will long sur- 
vive the process remains to be seen. Excellent photographs of the mum- 
mies unrolled were taken by Emit Urugsch, the conservator of the museum. 
In Feb. 1891 another large rock-tnmb was discovered to the E. of the 
temple of DOr cl-baliri, containing 163 mummies of priests and dignitaries 
of the 19tli, 20th, and 21st I>yn., besides a large number of papyri, Osiris- 
statuettes, chests and boxes, baskets of flowtrs, funereal offerings, etc. 
Several of the sarcophagi are elaborately adorned with religious scenes. 
Judging from the manner in which the sarcophagi were piled upon each 
other, and from the fact that several of the mummies are damaged, it is 
probable that, like the royal mummies, they were hastily removed from 
their original tombs to preserve them from spoliation. The contents of 
the tomb are now at Gizeh, where the deciphering of the papyri will be 

22. From Thebes to Edfu. 

Comp. Ma}} p. BS. 

67 M. Steamer, up in ll'/a, down in 7>/2hrs.; Dhahabnjch in 3-5 days, 
according to the wind. 

The picturesque forms of the Arabian side of the Nile reniaiu 
long in view, Kom el-Hetan being the last of the Meninonia to dis- 
appear. In 2 hrs. the steamer reaches — 

9 M. (W. bank) Erment, the ancient Hermonthis, with an im- 
portant sugar factory belonging to the Khedive. 

The place contains nothing else vvortii seeing, as the temple buildings 
distant about '/z !»'■• from the town have been almost entirely destroyed, 
or built into the factory. It was a Mameisi or birth-place dedicated to 
5j3i ' ^ ■ ■ ■ -J the goddess Ilalaii, wlio as mother of the young Horus is com- 
pared to Cleopatra, and contained pictures of the famous Cleopatra VI., 
and of Ctrsarion the son of .Tulius Caesar and that queen. The Temple con- 
sisted of a court with columns, about 55 ft. wide l)y 65 ft. deep. This was 
followed by a long room, surrounded by columns, in the centre of which 
was the cella in several divisions. Tlie length of the whole temple was 
190 ft.; the front faced south-west. Until a few years ago the cella, and 
5 columns on tlie left, and 2 on the right of the fore-court were stand- 
ing; scarcely anything now remains. 

To distinguish it from the northern An or Ileliopolis (Vol. I., p. 833) 

llei'inuiilhis was known in hieroglyphics as ]l aa(-/w\ i.e. the An or On 

of the god Month, or (11 -i J H i.e. An Kemat, or the southern An, a 


name which probably apjilicd to the whole district of Tliebes, to wliich 
it belonged in caiiicr tiiue.i. I/ater it is mentioned as the capital of a 
special district or nome, and large portions of Thebes were included in 
it. Under the l't(jleniies an important royal excise-office had its seat here. 
— A Chriitian C/iurch, now in ruins, must at one time have been a build- 
ing of considerable size. 

Travellers who liave abundance of time, should land. The bank 
is shaded with stately sycamore trees. Close by are a clean Bazaar 
and a shop kept by a Frenchman. Donkeys for hire. A good road, 
bordered with trees and traversing a well-cultivated district, leads 
in less tlian half-aii-liour to the village, among the houses of which 
lie prostrate columns. The inhabitants cherish (he curious belief 

to FAlfu. GEBELEN. '22. Route. 231 

that Moses was born here. Near the cemetery are some ancient sub- 
structures, with fragments of inscriptions recording that Hermon- 
this, which must have existed even under the old moTiarchy, was 
adorned under the 18th Dyn. with fine buildings for the deity of 
the city. Strabo relates that Zeus and Apollo were worshipped and 
that a sacred bull was kept here. As a matter of fact the monu- 
ments, besides mentioning several female deities, name Month 
(Zeus) and seven forms of Horus (Apollo) as the chief gods atHer- 
uionthis, while the coins of the Nomos Hermonthites bear the figure 
of a bull turned towards the right, and preparing to light, witli 
lowered horns and extended tail. The Pharaoh is described as fall- 
ing upon his foes, like 'Month, the bull raising himself to combat'. 
— At Rhagdt^ A^/^ M. to the S.W. of Erment, a stele of the 18th 
Dyn. was found, in which this place is named 

On the right bank, facing the curve which the Nile describes at 
the village of Sendd, lies the village of Tud, the ancient 2'uphium, 
with a ruinous chamber, the sole relic of a small temple of the 
Ptolemies. Maspero recently discovered here a granite sacrificial 
table, with a dedication by Usertesen I. to the god Month. Steles 
of the 12th and 13th Dyn. (now at Gizeh)were found at Salamlyelt, 
13 4 M. to the W. of Tud. — At Mealdh, on the E. bank, are frag- 
ments of a sphinx with the name of Amenhotep I. 

On the W. bank, 13 M. above Erment, and opposite a large is- 
land, rise two rocky heights, known asGebelen, i.e. the 'two moun- 
tains', on one of which is the tomb of a Shekh Musah, probably 
confounded with Moses (see above). Here, on the site of the ancient 

I ^"'■'^ Q Anti. probably once stood the ancient Aphrodito- 

1 \\ IHBl 


polls, which, according to Strabo, must be looked for between Her- 
monthis (Erment) and Latopolis (Esneh). Extensive excavations 
carried on at this spot by Maspero yielded sanophagi of the l'2th 
Dyn. and also numerous domestic articles, etc., appropriate to per- 
sons of comparative poverty. 

On the VV. bank, I31/2 M. farther up, lies Esneh, the ancient 
Latopolis, a town of 9000 inhab., where the tourist-steamers halt 
for 3 "hrs., while the mail-steamer on the downward voyage stops 
all night. The profane name of this place under the Pharaohs was 
Jl ^ Sen, whence came the Coptic citH (Sne) and the Arabic 
Esneh. Esneh has large grain and cattle markets, at which prices 
are lower than at Assuan. The town, in which there are numerous 
coffee-houses and ghawazi, is somewhat notorious for the dissolute 
disposition of the otherwise industrious inhabitants, many of whom 
are employed in wool-weaving. The Bazaar, at the entrance to 
which is a kind of Market-Place, is tolerably well furnished. Tlie 
streets are well built and some of the shops are European in cha- 
racter. There is also a Druyyist's Shop. Passengers usually land 

232 Route 22. ESNEH. From Thebes 

either near the former Mmliriycih (now removed to Keneh), beside 
wliii'.h are some ancient riparian constructions dating from the Ro- 
man imperial times, or near the post-office, a little to the N., where 
the steamers lie. The chief object of interest is the Temple; and if 
time permit the garden of the Khedive to the N. of the town (p. 235) 
and the old Coptic church (p. 23")) may also be visited. The former 
lies 10-15 mill, from the lamiirig-place (see above), and is reached 
by passing through part of the town. Tiie old temple-site is at pre- 
sent ui^ed by the P2xcise Office for storing the grain, beans, and 
other tribute paid in kind, but travellers will have no difficulty in 
inducing one of the by-standers to fetch the keeper who will unlock 
the door. Cards empowering a visit to the antiquities must not be 
forgotten [see p. xiv). 

The so-called Tem2>le is in reality only a I/j/potlt/le, wliicli evidently 
from its size must have belonged tu an unusually large sanctuary. The 
ground-level of the town has been raised by accumulations of rubbish etc. 
to the height of the capitals of tlie columns, so that travellers descend 
by steps into the interior of the building. Above the rest of the temple 
now pass streets, the removal of which would probably bring to the light 
of day many monuments of antiquity. The savants of the French Expe- 
dition weiu profoundly impressed by the siplit of this huge colonnaded 
hall; and as the traveller standing in front of the steps leading to it, 
gazes down into the mysterious twilight of the ancient sanctuary, he can- 
not but be struck by the air of solemnity that pervades it. 

The remarkable "" "Hypostyle o f^Egneh is built throughout of 
excellent sandstone, and remains in perfect preservation with the 
exception of the lower part of tlie rear wall, which has been some- 
what corroded by the saline exudations of the soil. The noble hall 
is kept clean by government. The roof is borne by 24 columns 
(in 6 rows), the first six of which are connected by balustrades; atid 
a dim light penetrates to the remotest corner of the hall between 
the columns. The facade is 120 ft. wide and almost 50 ft. high ; the 
rectangular hall is 52' 2 ft. deep and lOS ft. broad. Each column 
is 37 ft. high and il'^'4 ft. in circumference. The intercolum- 
niation is II/2 times the diameter of llie columns, except in the 
central passage, where it is nearly 3 times the diameter. Upon the 
somewhat lofty abaci of the columns rests a massive architrave, 
which sn))ports rooling-slabs, 22-26 ft. long and 6' 2 ft. wide. It has 
been calculated that about 110,000 cubic feet of sandstone have 
been used for this one hall alone. The enormous wall-space, the 
entire ceiling, the shafts, the ant;c (on the facade), and the archi- 
trave are covered to the last inch with inscriptions. Though these 
last fall short of the dignity of style which claims admiration in the 
earlier works of Egyptian art, yet they display that remarkable care 
in the representation of details aiid that elaborate variety of form 
which at once distinguishes the inscriptions of the time of the 
Ptolemies and ot the Homans, and renders their interpretation more 

The temple of Esneh was founded not later than the 18th Dyn. 
under Tutmes III., according to one of the inscriptions; and prob- 

to Edfu. ESNEH. 22. Route. 233 

al)Iy the sanctuaiy founded by that prince still lies beneath the 
houses of the town. The hypostyle, however, must have been ruined 
and rebuilt under the Ptolemies, for the adornment of the hall be- 
gun by these princes was continued by the early Roman emperors 
and completed by their successors. The inscriptions on the rear- 
wall were begun by Ptolemy VII. Philometor. The Dedication In- 
scription above the entrance celebrates the 'autocrats' Tiberius, 
Claudius, Germanicus, and Vespasian as the builders, while a share 
in the decoration of the interior was taken not only by these prin- 
ces, but also by Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Anto- 
ninus Pius , Marcus Aurelius , Commodus , Septimius Severus, 
Caracalla, Geta, Julius Philippus, and Decius (249-251). The name 
of Decius is specially noteworthy as being the latest imperial name 
that appears in hieroglyphii^s on any Egyptian monument. 
It appears in the following capricious form : — 

— H — i^ Q ^ 

i.e. the sun, the lord of both worUls, the autocrat Caesar, son of the 
sun, and lord of the diadems, Tekis ente-khti , i.e. Aexioj asPaaxo?. The 
emperor eflfers a lire-altar to Khnura. On the main architrave is Vpspasian ; 
on the abacus and entrance-door Titvs; on the lower side of the main 
architrave Domitian ; on the columns Nerva and Trajan. Nerva occurs here 
only once and is found nowhere else. Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, 
and Cominodiis, occur on the exterior wall ; and the last also on the N. 
half of the W. wall and on the N. wall. Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and 
Oeta appear on the N. imd S. walls; Caracalla and Julius Philippus on the 
left half of the rear-wall; and Decius at the foot of the rear-wall. 

The building, referred to several times in the inscriptions, as 
the 'House of Khnum', was dedicated to the ram-headed Klmum- 
Ra, with whom, forming a triad, appear an his-Neith under the name 

//f fNebuutl, and a peculiar Horus-form, named Hirka. 

There was also a special cycle of gods of Esneh, at the head of 
which was Khnum, followed by Ra, Turn, Khepera, Shu, Osiris, 
Horns the son of Isis, Thoth, and Khunsu. Strabo narrates that 
Athena and the flsh Latits were worsliipped iiere in Latopolis ; and 
he was not misinformed. We not only tind the latter mcTitioned in 
the inscriptions of the hypostyle, but the latus gave the town its 
name under the Greeks, while the coins of the Latopolitan Nome 
bore the figure of a tish, and finally an inscription at Edfu informs 
us that the people of Latopolis were forbidden to eat tish. Athena 
(Nebuut) frequently appears, as we have seen; and as Strabo makes 
no mention of Khnum, who was undoubtedly the chief of all the 
gods of this sanctuary, it must be concluded that he was for some 
reason led to assign to the latus the place of this deity. Probably 

234 Route 22. ESNEH. From Thehes 

tliis fish, wliii'li appears not only on tlie coins, but is also repre- 
sented with the (lis v between the horns, was used as a symbolical 
representation of Khnum-Ra, especially as we actually findKhnum 

united with the fish on the rear-wall of the temple *VIIJ\ f<=a 

The SiJ>i: Walls are entirely covered with paintings and in- 
scriptions. The former show the king making offerings to various 
divinities of the temple, who promise him in return the good things 
of life. At the foot of the wall to the right of the entrance is the 
emperor Commodus with Arueris and Klinum capturing with a net 
the various products of the Nile (birds, fishes, plants, etc.). On the 
other side of the net is Safckh. 1'his symbolical representation po-;- 
sibly refers to the legend according to which Dorus fighting against 
Seth-Typhon fell dead into the water and was drawn out of it 
again living, — a legend, which is connected with the course of 
the moon. A main door and two side portals are seen in the rear- 
wall of the temple. The latter probably gave admittance to a corri- 
dor surrounding the Sanctuary, which was entered by the central 
portal. Recent excavations in this direction have hitherto remained 
without result. 

On the pieces of wall between the pillars on the Front are sev- 
eral highly important inscriptions, of Mhich by far the most 
valuable is the celebrated Calendar of Festivals on the wall-pillars 
to the right and left. A specimen of the eccentricities and freaks 
indulged in by the hierogrammatisls under the Romans, may be 
seen in the crowd of crocodiles on the pillar at the extreme left of 
the E. or entrance wall. 

The 24 Columns of the portico are specially noteworthy on a('- 
count of the shapes of their capitals, some of which are overladen 
with ornament. Of the columns, 18 stand detached, while 6, to- 
wards the front, are built into the outer wall. All the columns have 
Hat plinths, and shafts most elaborately adorneti with inscriptions. 
The Capitals are of various shapes and of unequal height, but this 
irregularity docs not ollend the eye owing to tlui fact tluit the annuli 
of all the columns are arranged so as to lie in the same horizontal 
plane. Most of them belong to the calyx order, and are not adorned 
merely with painting as at Karnak or the Ramesseuni, but with 
richly carved ornaments from the vegetable kingdom. 

We begin with the front row, reckdiiel fnnn the rif;lit(N.). Columns 
1-G: Four petals, separated at tlie tnp, .siirrdund (lie calyx, which is or- 
namented with marsh-plants and mushnioiiis. — 7-12 (second row): calyces 
with circular horizontal section, adoriieii with palm-twi(;s and other fo- 
liage. — 13 (beginning of third row, to the right). Calyx with palm-twigs. 
— 14-17: Calyx with foliage. — 18. Smooth calyx-capital, in circular ho- 
rizontal section, ailorncd with palm-twigs amongst which appear a 
profusion of all kinds of fruit, especially grapes and dates. — 19, '20 (two 
lirst to tlie right, at the rear wall): Calyx-cajiitals, with marsh-plants. — 
21-23: Calyces at the base of which are fruits in flat work, interrupted 
by leaves, towards the top, a network of slender plant-fronds. — 24: The 
base of the capital is formed of luxuriant vegetable forms in exaggerated 

to Edfu. ESNEH. 22. Route. 235 

liivishness, the steins of which, of considerable thickness, surround the 
(op of the shaft. The leaves lying against the upper part of the calyx are 
(if an exaggerated coarseness. 

In connection with the whole of which they form a part, these 
capitals produce an impression of great richness; while regarded 
separately they may he taken as specimens of the rococo period in 
Efiyptian art, if the phrase may be permitted. — The Ornament on 
the front and back walls is sunk into the wall ('relief en creux'); 
the side-walls and columns were on the other hand adorned with 
bas-reliefs. — The Ceiling is occupied with a rich profusion of 
astronomical representations. 

The small Coptic Church in the town contains little of interest. 
As in most Jacobite churches, the Nave is divided into two parts by 
three arches. Behind the wooden screens, which are tastefully inlaid with 
ivory and mother-of-pearl, lies the sanctuary, in four parts. The figures 
of the saints are poor and comparatively modern. They represent St. George 
and the dragon, St. Michael, the Madonna and Child, and an Ascension. 
Ih^Pnlace of the Khedive ( Kasr Efend'mah), built by Mohammed 
'Ali, lies near the Nile, to the N. of the town. The buildings, in- 
cluding a handsome rotunda, are much neglected, but the gardens, 
with their profusion of roses, lemon-trees, and orange-trees, are 
very attractive. The gardener, who usually presents the visitor with 
a nosegay, expects a small gratuity (about 4 piastres). 

The Quay on the right bank of the Nile, near the Mudiriyeh, 
also contains some fragmentary inscriptions of the Roman impe- 
rial epoch. 

A Temple, which formerly stood about Q'A M. to the N. of Esneh, 
is now represented only by a few fragments of columns, which bear the 
name of one of the emperors; and with it have disappeared also the 
beautiful zodiac and the lists of peoples, among which Macedonians and 
Persians were mentioned. This temple too was dedicated to Khnum. — An- 
other temple, datingfrom the later Ptolemies, stood on the opposite 
Ksneh (Contra LatopoHs)\ but this was demolished before 1880 and has 
left not a trace behind. 

Numero\is memorials of an early Christian civilization are still to be 
traced in the Convent of Ammonius, which is considered the oldest con- 
vent in Egypt and which was certainly founded at a very early date, 
possibly by the Empress Helena. The route thence from the town follows 
at lirst an embankment towards the S., and then strikes off to the W. 
across the fields. The Convent Library still contains numerous Coptic li- 
turgical writings, some of them lying on the floor in a locked room. A 
visit to the now abandoned convent, the key of which is kept by one of 
the felliihin, is not without interest, for the sake both of the curious MSS. 
and of the ancient paintings and Coptic inscriptions. A cruel persecution 
of the Christians is said to have taken place at Esneh under Diocletian 
at the beginning of the 4th cent. ; and the convent is said to have been 
founded in honour of the martyrs who suffered here. According to other 
accounts the Christians expelled from Medinet Ilabu by the Arabs were 

About 7i/, M. to the N.W. of Esneh, on the road to el-Khargeh (p. 
348), lies the large ruined Convent of Pachomius, with numerous elegant 

Esneh is sometimes selected as a starting-point for journeys to the 
"W. oases of Ddkliel and Khdrgeh; see R. 35. 

El-Ken'nn, I3V2M. to the S. of Esneh on the W. bank, where 
there are ancient river-embankments, is perhaps the ancient .ff/mw- 

236 Iiout€22. EL-KAl'.. From Thehes 

his. On the W. bank strelclies a broad and fertile i)laiii, on the 
1'^. is the finely shaped Gehel Sheroneh. At el-Hmri, on the E. bank, 
appears the first sandstone. 

On the W. bank, about ^U br. farther to the S., is llic pyramid of 
el-Kulah, which now presents the aspect of a step-pyramid, owing to the 
decay of the lilling-in material. The entrance was on the W. side. In 
spile of its rninous condition it is still about 30 ft. high, while its base 
occ\ipies an area about 55 ft. square. Maspero recently carried on exca- 
vations here, which injured the building witlujut yielding any important 
result. As there are no inscriptions it is diflicult to determine the date 
of its construction. 

18 M. El-Kab, on the E. bank, the ancient Eileithyia. — The 
station of the ibiir week steamers ( I'roni 9 a.m. to '2 p.m. ) and of 
the mail-steamer is at Biwdlyeh, properly ts-SuWuyeh. 

An old fellah appears to proHer his services as soon as a dhaha- 
biyeb lands. lie is well-informed and provides donkeys, though with very 
poor saddle-cloths. 

Half-a-day suffites for a fiyinji visit to the following: 1. the 
*Ruins of the ancient town ; 2. the Rock Inscriptions ; 8. the *Ch<ipel 
of Ajnenhotep HI.; 4. the Rock Ttmpel of the I'tolemies ; and f). the 
*Tombs. If so much time cannot be spared, the last should at least 
be visited. The various monuments may be visited in the above 
order as follows. We skirt the boundary wall of the ancient town, 
which Is distinctly visible, then turn to the E. to (3/4 hr.) an isolated 
hill, rising from the plain, on tlie right side of which are most of the 
rock-inscriptions. At tlie end of this valley we turn a little to the 
left to reach the chapel of Amcnhotep 111., with four columns in 
the interior. M'e here turn round, and following the S. wall of the 
more northerly chain of hills, reach the steps which lead to the 
rock-temple. We may then visit the small temple of Thoth (called 
by the Arabs el-llnnmdin, 'the bath'), or proceed to the tombs, 
about 1 M. i'rom the river. 

The now vanisheil town of Ilchenl was called by the Greeks 
Eileithyia or Leucotheti (I'liny ), and in the inscriptions the Fortress 

Hehent I 1 , often with the surname of T ( ) '■the white toxvn\ 

The intt^rpretation of the name of the city and its goddess as Nekheh 
and Sulien is jirobably wrong. The *Giiiiji,e Wall is in excellent 
preservation, and encloses a square the sides of which are 700 yds. 
long, with a total circumference of '2800 yds. The wall itself is of 
immense thickness, 37 ft. or as wide as a considerable street, and 
is built of huge sun-dried Nile-bricks. The savants of the French 
Expedition estimated that the ancient town accommodated 10,000 
inhabitants. Yisitors should not omit to mount the broad ascent to 
the top of the wall on tlie W. side, from which a good survey of the 
tombs on the IS', hill-chain is also obtained. Appar(Mitly only the 
temples and public buildings, the 'inner city', stood within (bewails, 
while various suburl)S stretched beyond them: though in times of 
danger the entire population found refuge within the ramparts. The 

to Edfu. EL-KAP.. 22. Route. 237 

temple was destroyed only a few months before Champojlion's ar- 
rival at el-Kab in 1829, and only a few scanty traces of it (a basin, 
some faint hieroglyphics, etc.) are now left. The sanctuary, which 
stood within the wall , was dedicated to Sebek and Hebent and 
existed even under the 18th Dynasty. ChampoUion saw here the 
cartouches of Tutmes 11., Ramaka, Amenhotep III., two scenes in 
which Ramses II. did homage to Sebek and Hebent, and Hakoris 
and Nertanebus I. from later times. The town itself was founded at 
a much earlier date, and iir fact is, as we shall see, one of the very 
oldest in Egypt. It existed even under the ancient empire. During 
the period of the Ilyksos it was scarcely less conspicuously than 
Tliebes the residence of tl\e legitimate Pharaohs who had been driven 
towards the S. The most important monuments for the history of 
the freeing of Egypt from the foreign domination are to be found 

Rock Inscriptions. — The route leads due E. from the E. gate- 
way in the girdle-wall, and crosses the dazzingly white sand, past 
a small ruined Temple close to the wall. In rather more than V2^r' 
we reach the small temple of Thoth, known to the Arabs as el- 
Harmnnm (p. 239). We keep straight on, leaving the larger temple 
of the Ptolemies on the left, and soon reach two Rocks projecting 
from the plait^, at the point where the road turns N. towards the 
desert, halfway between el-IIammam and the E. temple of Amen- 
hotep III. Both rocks bear numerous inscriptions, most of which 
use the hieratic contractions. The royal names of Pepi and Teta 
refer these to the 0th Dynasty. The inscriptions are chiefly names 
of priests and their sons, who probably selected this spot for the 
consummation of the sacrifices to the after-world. At all events there 


are but few representations of offerings to the local goddess 

Hebent-Eileithyia. There are also some brief prayers. On the 
S.W. side of the larger rock is a very interesting Figure of an An- 
cient King., with bare head, above which hovers the disc with the 

The small temple or Chapel of Amknhotep III. lies fully 1/4 'ir- 
to the E. It may be reached direct in about an hour from the Nile, 
though the shadeless route, especially at midday, is somewhat fati- 
guing. The little temple which is nearly ftO ft. deep is of consider- 
able interest from the artistic forms which it displays. The small 
Cella (^221/3 by 19 ft.) stands upon a paved platform, which was at 
one time surrounded by a wall of freestone. The gateway still 
stands, and was formerly connected with the sanctuary proper by a 
passage, at the sides of which stood smooth columns with calyx- 

The Interior of the cella forms a single octagonal chamber, the roof 
of which is supported by four sixteen-sided columns. _ An attempt was 
made, as we have already noted at Der el-bahri, to continue this column- 
form of the ancient monarchy, along with the plastic demands of tbo 

238 Route 22. EL-KAr.. From Tkehes 

arcliitecture of the new monarchy ; and we here see, in place of the ca- 
pital next the central passage, the mask of the goddess Uathor, witli her 
ciiws' ears and head-dress. The front of a small portable temple with 
handles, which rested on the head of the goddess, was placed on the aba- 
cus, and upon this rested the architrave. The mask of Hathor here ap- 
pears only on one side of the capital ; at Der el-bahri it appears on two 
sides. This artistic form was afterwards abandoned, but was again re- 
vived by Nekhtneb-f (Nectanebus II.), a rival king to the Persians, be- 
longing to the 30th Dyn., who loved to compare himself to the e.xpellers 
of the Hyksos, and who therefore reverted to the art-forms introduced by 
them. Finally under the Ptolemies this form was developed into a capital 
in the fullest sense of the term. The masks are here united with the 
plinths by means of a vertical Ornamental Stripe^ covering two of the 
sides of the polygonal shafts and adorned with inscriptions. As each of 
the sixteen sides or faces of the columns measures 5 inches in breadth, 
the stripe is 10 inches in breadth. — On the walls at the height of the 
architraves, beneath the roof, appear other Ilathor masks, alternating 
with the names of the royal builders. Amcnholep III. dedicated to his 
father Tutmes IV. the chapel of the goddess //efteraf, who here appears be- 
side Ammon-Ra in place of Muth. Both hieroglyphics and pictures re- 
tain the freshness of their colours. The former represent the making of 
offerings. On the side with the door appear two lions, like door-keepers, 
beside lucubrations of later travellers in demotic characters. 

On the Faqade of this chapel, K/ia-em-ut, chief-priest of Ptah 

f\ Pt) a/vn/w\ q 

I ^\ Q , and Ramses II's favourite son, whose mummy was 

I _M^ D ^A . 

found in the Scrapeum at Memphis, has commemorated himself. He came 
hither in the 4lst year of his father's reign, to attend the fifth great 
festival held in honcjur of Hebent. On the rear d(jipr-posts, .fSefi I. — 
Another Inscription in cli'ar hieroglyphics must be mentioned here. It is 
certainly the latest found in Egypt, and was dedicated to llebent, 'in the 
13th year of his majesty, lord of both worlds, Xapoleon HI. 

l0 1ll<C=> 

It was engraved in the rock by a celebrated young French Egyptologist, 
whose name we suppress. 

At this chapel we turn, direct our steps towards the Nile, and in 
1/4 br. reach the Kock Temple, on the right side of the valley, re- 
cognizable from a distance by the Stair leading up to it. The latter 
consists of 41 steps hewn in the rock, with a massive balustrade 
on each side. The temple was constructed under Ptolemy IX. 
Euergetes II. (Physkon), and subsequently provided with new in- 
scriptions by Ptolemy X. Sotcr II. The site was regarded as holy 
even before the building was erected, as we are informed by an in- 
scription of the reign of Ramses VI., cut in the rock on the E. side 
of the door leading into the mountain. 

The Jivck Chamber has a vaulted ceiling covered with stucco, and, 
being the sanctuary of the temple, was constructed earlier than the pre- 
ceding chambers to which the stair leads. The latter form two parts. 
On reaching the top of the stair, we pass through a doorway to a Fore- 
Courl, not quite 33 ft. wide, the exterior sides of which were bounded by 
low walls built between columns. Two rows of columns in the centre led 
to the door of a smaller Halt (only 19 ft. wide) of curious construction, 
being bounded on the ri:jht and left by four low walls, of which each 
was built in between a i)illar and a column. The <lo()r leading to the 
rcjck-chamber opened at the back of this hall. This sanctuary also was 
especially dedicated to Hebent. 

of both worlds, Jsiapoleon HI.' 

to Edfu. EL-KAB. 22. Route. 239 

The Small TEjirLE below, farther to the S.W, in the valley, is 
ill good preservation, but it is only 16 ft. high and 27 ft. deep. The 
Arabs call it el-IIamrndm, i.e. the Bath. 

As the walls are about 3 ft. thick the Interior is very small. Ou the 
left aud back walls i.s a small window, at some height from the ground. 
Thoth, Hebent, and Horus, the gods here worshipped, are represented as 
forming a triad. In the doorway is the Pharaoh ottering sacrifice, below; 
and a cynncephalus with the moon-sickle and disc on his head, above. 
It was to be e.vpected that the sacred animals that symbolize the qualities 
of Thoth should be found represented here along with the moon-goddess 

*RocK-ToMBS. A donkey is not necessary for a visit to these. 
They are reached in about 1/4 br. from the usual landing-place of 
the Nile boats ; and the last few minutes' climb up the hill-slope 
on which the tombs lie , must be accomplished on foot. The 
Shafts, found both outside and inside the tombs, require caution. 

These Tombs, hewn side by side in the rock, are, like all the monu- 
ments at el-Kab, of small dimensions, but their distinct pictures of an- 
cient Egyptian domestic life will interest even those travellers who have 
already seen the tombs of Benihasan and 'Abd el-Kurnah. t)ne of the 
Inscriptions (in the tomb of the ship-captain AahmesJ see p. 241) is of the 
greatest scientitic importance, partly on account of the contemporary 
narrative of the expulsion of the Hyksos which it contains, partly on 
account of the simple and intelligible style iu which it is expressed. It 
has been critically translated and analysed (by E. de Rouge) as the first 
of all the larger inscriptions. — Most of the tombs were constructed be- 
fore, during, or shortly after the rule of the Hyksos, for male and female 
members of noble families, who discharged the peaceful duties of chief 
priests of Hebent or of tutors and nurses to the royal princes. There 
are 31 tombs iu all, but only 13 have inscriptions and only 6 repay a visit. 

We first enter the third inscribed tomb, counting from the E., 
which is conspicuous by its wide opening. This belonged to the 

overseer 1 ' \. ) , of el-Kab, the scribe (i.e. savant) Pihari 

grandson (daughter's son) of the ship -master 

Aahmes, son oiAbna, whose tomb lies farther to the left (W.). It is 
distinguished by a series of representations from the life and burial 
of the deceased, on both sides of the tomb. 

To the left (W.) of the entrance appears the deceased with his staff 
of office in his right hand and a long stick in his left; behind him stand 
three servants. The accompanying inscription is: 'The inspection of the 
labours of all seasons of the year, which take place in the fields, by the 
overseer of Hebent (el-Kab) by the manager of Anit (Rsneh)'. — The La- 
bours of the Field are next represented in three registers, beginning froni 
beneath. In the lowest row: a cart drawn by two horses, showing that 
horses were used by the E^iyptians as early as the beginning of the 18th 
I>yn.; tilling the ground with hoe and plough, ploughing and sowing. — 
Middle row: Reaping, the grain being cut not close to the ^'round but 
one-third or one-half way up the stalk; vessels with refreshments for 
the workers are represented, and kept cool by a screen; binding the 
sheaves ; reaping or pressing the fruits of the earth. — Top row : Ears of 
corn carried away in baskets ; threshing by means of oxen ; piling up the 
fruits of the earth; packing them in sacks or storing them in granaries. 
Above the oxen treading out the corn is the following song, inscribed 
also in the tombs of Benihasan (p. 12) and Sakkarah : — 

240 Route 22. EL-KAB. From Thebes 

Thresb for yourselves. 

Thresh for yourselves, 

Oxen thresh 

For yourselves. Thresh 

Fur yourselves. The straw 

Remains for you to eat. 

The grain is for your masters. 

Do not let weari- 
less steal over your heart. There is abundance to drink I 
In the series below these, Pihari is seen with a book in which he is 
writing, before him a large writing apparatus. The accompanying inscrip- 
tion is : 'Recording the number of cattle by the overseer of Anit, the. director 
of the fields of the S. district, from the temple nf Hathor (Aphroditopolis, 
p. 231) to el-Kfib.' — Then follow cattle nf various kinds, calves, oxen, 
asses; several of these being prepared for tlie table or for sacrifice; a fire- 
place. Next appears Pihari, seated and insjiecting the weighing and ship- 
ping of gold which is mostly made into rings. Farthi;r to the right, the 
catching and preparing of fish and also of poultry, Piliari standing and 
looking on. — Above Pihari bears on his lap the young prince I'azmes, 
second son of king Aahmcs (1(580 B.C.), whose nurse [i.e. tutor) he is 
named. Pihari with his wife At 7-enheh, in a bower, receiving fruit. 
Grapes are being gathered, and trodden out in a wine-press by nude 
figures, holding cords as they work. 

The remaining paintings illustrate the Burial of Pihari, whose coffin 
is drawn upon a sledge. On the right wall Pihari and his wife receive 
an offering made by their son Amonmes., who is clad in a leopard's-skin. 
Beneath the chair is a cynocephalus. Behind Amonmes the mourning 
friends are seated in two divisions. At the head of each division is a 
seated married couple, and then two rows of relatives, father, mother, 
grandfather, grandmother, brothers, sisters, and aunts ; above is the ship- 
master Aahmes, son of Abna, with his wife; below is Ateflera the nurse 
of King Vazmes, and at the loot, female musicians and a female harper. 

Of the tombs to the liglit that oi Aahmes suniamed Pen heben or 
Pen suben is noteworthy, not only because two stones from the base 
of a statue witli historical inscriptions (now in the Louvre) were 
found here and because a statue of Aahmes was discovered in 1883 in 
the ruins of el-Kab, but also because the services rendered by the 
deceased to the kings of the 18th Dyn. and the rewards he received 
are recorded on the right and loft of the entrance, as well as on the 
stones above-mentioned. The kings mentioned are Aahmes, Amen- 
hotep J., Tutraes 1., II., and III., and Oueen Uaniaka, with her son 
and (laughter. See Lepsius's Denknuiler III, 4r}(). 

From these inscriptions we learn that A't/ime.i, surnamed Pen heben, 
followed the kings of tlic 18th Dyn. from Aahmes to Tutmes HI. on their 
various campaign.^ to Zalii, Kush, Naharina, and against the Shasu, and 
tliat he captured men, horses, and chariots, for which he received rich 
gifts. In this tomb is also commemorated the royal prince Amen/iolej), sur- 

named J/apu, chief I lep J of El Keb, whoso father, grandfather, 

and great-grandfather also held the same dignity. Probably this Amen- 
hotep reposed also in this tomb. 

To the left of the tomb of Pihari, which we inspected first, is 
tlini oi' Selau, whoso daiigiitcr's husband iJrtmsc'f A'e/c/ifu in a leopard's 
skin brings to him the offoriiigs of the high-priests. A crowd of 
relatives, including llui, another son-in-law, is also represented. 
In this tomb mention is made of the 4th year of a king Ua-neferka . . ., 

to FAlfu. EL-kAb. 22. Boute. 241 

whose name also occurs with Aahraes, Biiipu, ami a king Suazen 
on the pedestal of a statuette of ilarpocrates, now in the museum 
at Gizeh. Those, with the exception, of course, of Aahmes, were 
probably provincial or local kings. Above some ships in the left 
part of the tomb a festival of Ramses III. is mentioned, probably a 
later addition. According to Maspero this tomb dates from the 
20th Dynasty. 

Farther to the left lies the tomb of Aahmes, Chief of the Sailors, 
the son of Abna and her husband Baba, who was the maternal 
grandfather of Pihari. The Funereal Inscription is carved in the 
rock instead of being painted on stucco , a fact which lends great 
importance to this tomb. 

The inscription covers nearly the whole wall to the right, as we 
enter, sharing it witli the figure of the deceased. Aahmes appears with 
Aipw his wife, seated in a chair beneath which cowers a pet monkey; 
before them stand their daughter's son Pihari, who caused this tomb to 
be adorned fur his gallant grandfather. Beneath is another Pihar, offering 
saerilice to his father llarari and his wife, and beneath him again are 
three scms, including yet another Hhar. Beside the door to the side- 
chamber is another dedication to Aahmes, the chief of the sailors, from 
his grandson Pihari (p. 239), to keep his memory green in this spot. The 
biography of Aahmes thus begins: 'Aahmes (Amasis), commander of the 
sailors, son of the late Abna, speaks : 1 speak to you, all ye people. Learn 
the marks of honour which fell to my share; for I was distinguished 
seven times with the golden necklace, in the presence of the whole coun- 
try . . . Male and female slaves were my own (the names of the slaves 
presented to Aahmes are inscribed on the outside of the tomb), and I 
received many fields. The name of a great hero which he (the speaker) 
won for himself, will nevermore be obscured in this land. He speaks: 
I was born in the town of Ilcbent (Eileithyia) ; my father was a colonel 
under the late king Rasekenen (Vol. I., p. 89), and was named Baba, son 
of lloan ; then I served in his stead as captain on board the ship 'The 
Young Ux\ in the reign of Ra-neb-pehti (i.e. Aahmes I.). I was young 
and unmarried and slept on the couch of the Khennu (perhaps those ex- 
cluded from the dwelling of the married, i.e. bachelors). But after I had 
founded a household (taken a wife), I betook myself to fight in the N. 
fleet. Then I followed the king on foot, when he mounted his war- 
chariot. When the fortress of Ha-war (Abaris, a stronghold of the Hyksos, 
Vol. 1., p. 89) was besieged, I had to fight on foot before the king. Then 
I was appointed to the ship 'Kha em Mennefer' (Ascent in Memphis); we 
fought in the arm of the river at Abaris and I acquired booty and won 
a hand (of a slaughtered enemy). This was reported to the officer of the 
king, and I received the golden necklace for valour. Another contest took 
place on the same spot and 1 was again awarded the golden necklace fnr 
valour'. Aahmes was decorated a third time at Takemi, to the S. of the 
fortress. 'Abaris was taken and I captured there in all 4 persons, a man 
and 3 women; His Majesty assigned them to mo as slaves'. — The next 
lines inform us that after "the king had captured the fortress of the Hyk- 
sos and overcome the nomadic tribes, he carried on war with the tribes 
of the S., in which Aahmes took part and won fresh laurels. He served 
also under Amenhotep 1. and Tutmes I. Under the last-named prince the 
Egyptian army penetrated far into Asia. The inscription goes on : 'There- 
upon his majesty set out for Syria (Ruten), in order to reduce the peoples 
to his good pleasure. He reached Mesopotamia (Naharina). His Majesty, 
the living, sound, and strong one, met this wretched one (the prince of 
Mesopotamia), and undertook the attack. The king wrought terrible but- 
chery among them; and the prisoners taken alive by His Majesty were 
innumerable. I was present as colonel of my soldiers, and His Majesty 
praised my bravery. 1 captured a war-chariot, with its horses, and him 

Baedekkk's Upper Egypt. 16 

242 lioute22. EL-KAR. 

who stoud in it; I led tbcm as living captives to His Majesty, and once 
more was awarded the golden necklace. I have hecome great, I have 
reached old age ... I shall rest in the vault, which I have prepared 
for myself. 

The tomb of lienni, still farther to the left (W.), contains 
niinierouR representations of interest. The deceased, a son of a lady 
named Aahmes and father of another Aahmes, was a prince (erpa 
ha) and a large landed proprietor. Two obelisks seem to have stood 
at the entrance to this vault; and the statue of the deceased is to 
be seen in its recess. 

The roof of the chapel is vaulted, and covered like the walls with a 
thin coat of stucco, on which the representations and inscriptions were 
painted. On the right wall are the funeral of Renni and other .^cenes 
connected with his death, while on the left wall are scenes from the life 
of the deceased, who accompanied by his dog, surveys his possessions. 
Here appear his carriage, his serfs busied in tilling the ground, and his 
family in friendly union. Beside each of the persons waited on by the 
servants of the deceased appears his name and his relationship to the 
head of the family. Among the livestock belonging to Renni l.'JdO swine 
are mentioned , a circumstance which appears somewhat 8urj)rising at 
iirst, for the flesh of swine was an article of diet as strictly forbidden 
to the Egyptians as to the Jews. Renni, however, was a prophet of 
Hebent, and had to provide swine to be sacrii'ced to this guddess, which 
accounts for his possession of the otherwise abhorred animals. This re- 
markable, circumstance did not escape the notice of Herodotus, who 
writes: 'They sacrilice swine to no gods except Selene (goddess of the 
moon, i.e. Hebent) and Dionysus; making this sacrifice to the iiiocm al- 
ways at full moon, at which time they also eat swine's flesh. Tlie Egyp- 
tians assign a particular reason for abhorring swine at other festivals 
and ollering them ;it this one, butfalthough I know it I am not permitted 
to reveal it\ Herodotus was bound by an oath not to reveal the mystery, 
from which, however, we may be able to lift the veil by a study of the 
monuments. It is related that Typhcm (Seth), while hunting by moonlight, 
fell in with the coffin of Osiris, and hewed the corpse into l4 parts, i.e. 
the 14 n ghts of the waxing and waning moon. This orb is called the 
left eye of Horus, and, as the inscriptions exjilain, it watt in jeopardy 
on the ITith night, i.e. the time of the full mimn. It had been observed 
that eclipses of the moon alTected the light only of the full moon, and 
thus arose the myth that Seth Typhon, in the form of a swine, attacks 
the orb of night at the full moon and endeavours to swallow it. The 
desire of injuring the enemy of the moon and of assisting the latter in 
her contest against the animal that seeks to devour her, i nds symbolical 
expression in the slaughter of swine at the time of the new moon. Many 
other Egyptian customs are also to be explained by reference to the 
contest betwixt Horus and Seth. 

The last three tombs farther lo the left fW.) appear to date from 
tlie 13th Dyn., and are therefore much more ancient than those 
just described, unless wo regard the 14-17th Dyn. as ruling in 
Upper Kgypt contemporaneously with the Uyksos in Lower I'^gypt. 
Tlie first was erected to a lady named •'^cbeknefrii, by her father 
Jkha.1 who possibly himself is buried here too. Sebeknefru was 

1 <ci suten am, i.e. belonging to the king's court. 

Brugsch has published the contents of a Stele from the rear-wall of 
this tomb, in which Beba records the great si/e of his household, and 
also bis distribution of grain during a long continued famine. To recog- 
nize in this, however, a reference to the famine tlia' brought Joseph's 
brethren to Egypt, is entirely gratuitous. In the lajjt tomb to the left, 

EDFU. 23. Route. 243 

belonging to the prince Seh elihi there occurs an a ctual mention of a king 
of the 13th Dyn., viz ( O Y ' A I Ra-sekhem-suaz-tati. 


The tomb between the two last-mentioned belongs to a lady named Sebekhi, 
perhaps a wife of Beba. 

On the W. bank opposite el-Kab, on a hill about 3 M. from the Nile, 
are the partly destroyed rock-tombs of Kora el-Ahmar ('Red Hill'), dating 
from the time of Tutmes I. Landing at Ghemawiyeh, we procede thence 
due E. through the Held via, (20 miu.) Munitdt. In 20 min. more we reach 
Kom el-Ahmar^ on the site of the ancient town (mentioned by Sti-abo) of 
JlieraconpvUs ('City of hawks'), Egypt. Krmihesu, with the town Nekheii © @ 

or . The three hawks are Horus, Tuamutef, and Kebsenuf. A 

hawk is also named in the tombs as a local god. The name of User- 
tesen was not found on the heaps of rubbish in 1885 by Professor Eisen- 
lohr. — About 1/4 M. farther to the E. begins the desert, and V4 M. 
farther is the ancient Roman fort of /^efian, on which large vultures fre- 
quently perch. In '20 min. more we begin to mount the hill with the 
tombs. There are altogether eight tombs, of which only the first to the 
right (Two and the Orst to the left (fforame.?, chief priest of Hieraconpolis) 
repay a visit. The former contains a well-preserved stele of the time 
of Tutmes I. ; outside the latter, to the right, dancing-girls were painted. 
Not long ago three black granite statues were found here, with the names 
of Kings Pepi (6th Oyn.), Ra-kha-kheper (Usertesen II.), and Ra-en-mat 
(Amenemha III., 12th Dyn.). These are now in the museum at Gizeh. 
137.2 M. from el-Kab is Edfu, on the W. bank. 

23. Edfu. 

Edfu is a steamboat-station. The Mail fiieamers arriving on Tues. and 
Frid. at 830 am. halt here for '2^/'2 lirs. ; the Tourist Steamers spend a 
night here on their upward journey. Tourists on a three-weeks tour visit 
the temple on the evening of their arrival (11th day, Frid.); those on a 
four-weeks tour visit it the ne.xt morning. Steamers do not stop here 
on the downward voyage. The halt of the mail-steamers gives hardly 
time even for a hasty visit to the temple, especially as the latter lies 
20 min. from the landing-place. who travel in their own dhahabiyeh should spend two days at 
Edfu, bringing their provisions from the boat to the temple. Egyptologists, 
who may find material to occupy them here for days and weeks, will obtain, 
if necessary, poor lodging and scanty fare in the Post House, i/* M. to the 
E. of the temple. Insect-powder should in this case not be forgotten; 
and wine and preserved meat should be brought from Luxor. 

Donkeys and horses are to be had at the Landing-placf. Camels may 
also be obtained. Riders unaccustomed to the latter animals must be 
careful not to fall forward when the camel kneels dmvn. 

The way to tlie temple leads almost due W. from the landing- 
place, then, turning to the N. (right), skirts the Canal of Edfu and 
crosses it by a good new bridge. It then proceeds to the W. through 
several streets and finally turns N. again for a short distance. — 
Another route leads straight on from the landing-place, bends to 
the right thro\igh fields, and then traverses the streets of the town 
without crossing the canal. 

A flight of steps descends to the massive Pylons of the temple 
(p. 249). As at Esneh (p. 232) the accumulated rubbish of cen- 


244 Route 23. EDFU. Horus- 

turtes has heaped itself around the temple; and later dwellings 
have been erected on tlie top of earlier ones. This alone can explain 
how the temple is now at a much lower level than the surrounding 

The building presented a very different appearance only thirty years 
ago. Arab houses stood upon the temple itself and were built against 
its walls. The interior was lilled with rubbish almost up to the capitals 
of the columns, and the outside was equally deeply buried. A picture of 
the edilice as it then was may be seen in plates 19 and 05 in the first 
volume of the Antiquites in the IHserijiHon <I>' rEgypte. In the beginning 
of the sixties, however, the entire leinple was laid bare by Mariette under 
the auspices of the Khedive, and the buildings clustering upon and around 
it were removed. Now the temple of Edfu is seen in wonderful, almost 
perfect preservation, exceeding that of any other Kgyptian temple or even 
of any antique building in the world, in spite of the 2100 years that 
have passed over it. From top to bottom it is covered with represen- 
tations and remarkable inscriptions, the interpretation of which was 
reserved for the present century, so rich in discoveries of every kind. 

The •'• ^Temple of Edfu i s superior to the temple at Dendcrah in 
the much greater distinctness of its sculptured reliefs and inscrip- 
tions, due probably to the use of better sandstone than that of 
Denderah which contains more lime. It is also much more complete, 
for in addition to chambers corresponding to those found at Den- 
derah, there are at Edfu a passage running round the temple and 
a lofty wall enclosing the latter, besides a spacious fore-court and 
two massive pylons. (Comp. the accompanying Plan with that of 
Denderah at p. 80.) 

The inscriptions in the temple at Kdfu have been published in 
Piimichen's Alla(jyptische Tempe.lmschnflen (113 plates; lf^67J, the, geo- 
graphical inscriptions in his Recveil de nionnmcnts dffi/ptien^, and in J. de 
Kouge's Fdfii, from notes by his fatlu^r K. de Rouge (18S0}. The last- 
named work, however, has many errors. The important JSuil'ler.i^ In- 
scripiicms arc to be found in the Agiiptische Zeitschrift for 1870-71-73-75, 
and in Brugsch's Kalctiderinschriften (Thesaurus 11.). Mons. NavHle of 
Geneva has ]uiblished the te.\t of the battles of llorus at Edfu, and Lep- 
sius the first three of the field-te.xts. 

The modern Arabic name of the village of Edfu is derived from 
the Coptic e^T^ilu, formed in its turn from the old-Egyptian 

A W Te6u, the name given in the inscriptions to the metropolis 

of the second district of Upper Egypt. This district, named 7'e.s- 
Hor, i.e. the district of the raising of llorus,+ the ApoUinopolUes 
of Greek coins, Mas bounded on the S. by the Noinox Nubia, the 
capital of which was' Elephantine, and on the N. by LalopoHlex, 
the capital of which was Sent, the modern Esneh. In the great war 
of the gods waged by Ua-IIelios and his compaTiions against the 
evil Seth-Typhon and his allied demons, the principal champion is 
the great Horus-Apollo, who destroys the enemies of Ra. The 
scene of the first meeting of the hostile gods, of their first great 

t 'Because the goddess Isis has raised (tes) her Horns in the (own 
of the raising (tes), its chiel' name, lias become town of the raising of 
Horus (tes-her)'. — From au inscription on the N, girdle-wall. 


ozrxpli . Aiv£tkll von 

Wftgnrr A Deben.^e^sig- 

Temple. EDFTJ. 23. jtoule. 245 

battle, is traditionally laid in tlie nonie of Apollinopolis. An in- 
scription relating to the Ilorus myth, on the inside of the W. 
girdle-wall, states that 'they reached Seth-Typhon and his com- 
panions in the nome of Apollinopolis'. 

Ilorus emerged victorious from this battle, and the evil Seth- 
Typhon was pierced by him (tebu). 'Piercer thereupon became his 
name, and 'place of the piercing' the name of his district and town. 
This name is clearly preserved in the modern name Edfu. An- 
other name, that occurs most frequently next to this one and has 
also reference to the chief deity of the temple at Edfu, is Hut or 
Behut. Thus the winged sun-disc, which was placed over the en- 
trance to every Egyptian temple, was named 

^: ii °s IP ^ T .^ 

Behut nuter a neb pe.t ab su.ti per em khu.t 
'Hut, the great god, the lord of heaven, who, clad in bright plum- 
age, comes forth from the sun-mountain'. 

Another name for the winged sun-disc is Api^ which means 
'flying' and 'wings'. 

At the head of the gods worshipped at Edfu stood, as is appa- 
rent from what has already been said, 'Horus, who spreads his 
wings, the great god, the lord of heaven, who, clad in bright plum- 
age, comes forth out of tlie sun-mountain'. Ps'ext to him rank the 
Hatlior of Denderah, who undertook a special festal journey to Edfu, 
Ahi, son of Hathor, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, Shu, and Tefnut. 

History of the Temple. The representations and inscriptions 
that cover the walls of the great temple of Horus at Edfu place it 
beyond doubt that the building in its prcjcnt form dates from the 
period of the Ptolemies. Tet like the sanctuary of Hathor at Den- 
derah, it is not an architectonic creation of that period, but merely 
a splendid restoration of an earlier temple carried out under the 
Lagidae. The Temple proper, i.e. the sacred apartments exclu- 
sive of the later hypostyle with its 18 columns ( I'l. E) and of the 
fore-court witli its 32 columns (PI. F), as well as of the still later 
pylons and girdle-wall, was begun by Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. in 
the 10th year of his reign. It was finished 9") years later, in the 
28th year of the reign of Ptolemy IX. Euergetes J I., and the 18th 
Mcsori in that year was fixed by the priests for its consecration, 
as an important festival took place upon that day. The image of 
Horus was carried in solemn procession into the temple, and the 
author of the builders' inscriptions at Edfu, in describing this so- 
lemn entry, introduces the god as astonished by the magnificence 
that greeted him, and moved by joy, as addressing his surround- 
ings. In his speech the god expressly states that 'the halls were 
renewed in their building', and that 'commands went forth from 
their majesties to rebuild his house, an edifice of ancient times, and 

246 Route 23. EDFU. Ilorns- 

his sanctuary, whioli had been raised by their ancestors, and to 
make it more niajiniticent than before'. 

An inscription (on the outside of the E. girdle-wall) states that 
this beautiful monument (the present temple) lay behind (i.e. pro- 
bably to the S. of) the building of his father; another (on the in- 
side of the same wall) records that the foundation-stone was laid 
in the time of I'tali in the holy place of Tes Ilor for the God Ra; 
and a third (on the inside of the N. girdle-wall) informs us (on the 
left) that the building was carried out 'as it was in the plan of the 
great writing that fell from heaven to the N. of Memphis', and (on 
the right) that 'this great wall was built according to the book of 
the arrangement of temples, written by the Kherheb Imhotep, son of 
the god Ptah'. 

An inscription in one of the crypts at Denderali (Maxiette III, 78) men- 
tions a festal journey of Hatlior from Denderali (p. 80j to tbe temple of 
Hoius at Edfu. This festival, which was established by Tutmes III. 
(IGOO B.C.) took place at the new moon of the month Kpiphi. 

The Naos, still to be found in the holy of holies (p. 'li)'!), bears 
the name-rings of Nectanebus I. (378-3110 R.G.) an.d probably 
dates from the original temple. The document, inscribed on the 
outside of the E. wall of the temple, relating to the gifts of lands, 
mentions King Darius as well as Nectanebus I. and Nectanebus II. 
as benefactors of the temple. 

Two accounts of the building of the present temple have come 
down to us. The shorter of these occurs on the outside of the W. 
wall of the temple proper, in the second line of the lower marginal 
inscription, dating from the time of Ptolemy IX. I'.uergetes 11. ; 
the other, at greater detail, in the one-line lower Marginal In- 
scription, on the outside of the W. girdle-wall. In the second in- 
scription we read as follows : 

'On this beautiful day of the opening of the building in the iOth year 
(supplied frfini' the .shorter inscription), on the 7tli Epiphi (i.e. Aug. 23, 
237 B.(!.), in the time of King Vtolemy 111. Euergetes 1. It was a festival 
of the Sixth, when the interior of the ground was opened, the first of all 
the festivals of the Si.\th of the ceremony of laying the foundation. 

The king himself, along with the goddess Safekh, was engaged in ful- 
filling the ceremony of laying the foundation of the adytum, the starting- 
point for determining its hall.'. Its side-chambers (were erectedj in their 
places, carefully arranged by the wise (zasu). The sacred architects built 
with the lord of the papyrus-writing. The great hall of the tinnple was 
finished, the sanctuary (niesen) of the golden hawk was prepared, by the 
10th year, on the 7th Kpijdii, in the reign ot King I'tolcmij IV. Philo- 
palor' (a date corresponding to Aug. 17,212 15.0.). Thus 25 years (237 B.C. 
to 212 B.C.) were spent in erecting the walls of the temple. 

The decoration of the walls with hieroglyphics and reliefs and the 
completion of the great gateway and of the two doors to one of the halls 
arc noted as follows ; 

'The inscribing of its walls with well-executed sculpture of the 
names, the great ones, of His Majesty, and with the (Igures of the gods and 
goddesses, the dignilied ones of the shining city (one of the many names 
of Edfu), and the liiii.sliing of its great door, and of the two wings of the 
door (jf its hall (lasteil) till the lOlh vear of lli.s llaiesly. (The first year 
of I'tolemy IV. was the 103rd) of the Lagidie = 222 B.C., so that his 
16th year corresponds to 2U7 B.C.) Tliei\ a re.volution broke out, and it 

Temple. EDFU. 23. Route. 247 

came to pass that the instigator lof the rebels in the outlying lands had 
his secret retreiit from the city of the throne of the gods to the place 
.... in the S. (One of the chambers of the temple, viz. I'l. V, was 
called 'city of the throne of the gods', but the phrase is here used to 
describe the town of Edfu.) That ended (uefr) in the year 79 in the reign 
of the late King Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, after the king had suppressed the 
revolution in the land; behold, his name isofflcially placed in if (the 

The inscription continues: 'In the 5th year, 1/30 of the Shaftbet (('.c 
on the 1st of the month Tybi) of his beloved son , the late King Pto- 
lemy VII. Phllometor, were erected the great wooden door in the Hall of 
the Strong Victor (one of the names of the temple of Edfu), and the two 
wings of the door of the Hai hall (the name of Hall D, with the 12 co- 
lumns). Similarly what had been made in work in the interior of the 
Chamber of Victory (i.e. Room I, behind the adytum) in the 30th year 
of this king was restored. The finishing of the hieroglyphics , carved 
with the graving tool, the decoration of the walls with a covering of 
gold, the application of the colours, the finishing of the top -ornament 
of its wooden doors, the making of the door-stands of good brass , with 
the metal hinges and locks, the fi.xiug of gold plates on the wings of its 
doors, the finishing of the interior of the temple-proper with perfect work 
by the best artists of the time — these operations lasted until the 28th 
year, on the ISth day of the month Mesori, under the late King Ptole- 
my IX. Euergetes II. and his consort, the regent Cleopatra III. This makes 
a period of 95 years from the ceremony of the first hammer-stroke to the 
festal entry, the festival of the consecration of the ancestral abode by 
His Majesty to his divine lord, Horus of Edfu , god Ahi, the lord of 
heaven , which is the great festival of Tekliu, and has been equalled by 
nothing since the creation of the world to the present day'. 

The dates given above as to the progress of the work are as follows : — 

1. Ist Tybi, 5th year of Ptol. VII. Philom. - 3rd Feb. 176 B.C. 

2. The 3Uth year (if the same king — 152-151 B.C. 

3. 18th Mesori, 28th year of Ptol. IX. Euerg. = 10th Sept. 142 B.C. 
Finally from the foundation'- festival on 23rd Aug. 237 B.C. to the 

festal entry on 10th Sept. 142 B.C. is a period of 95 years. 

The inscription next devotes some space to the description of the 
festival of the solemn entry of the god, and then goes on : In this beau- 
tiful 30th year, month Payni, 9th day, festival of the union of the moon- 
god Osiris with the sun-god ila, again the festival of a 6th of Payni, the 
foundation was laid of the Khent Ball (PI. E, the 18-columned hypostyle), 
which has two side-chapels within it (referring probably to the small 
chambers to the right and left ol the portal, in the front wall), and the 
roof of the sun-god who commands in heaven was completed in the 
46th year, month Mesori, 18th day (i.e. Sept. 5, 122 B.C.), which is 16 years, 
2 months, 10 d^iys from the foundation of the hall ot the sun-mountain 
(another name for Hall h), which was laid on the 9th Payni in the 
30th year of Ptolemy IX. (i.e. July 2, 140 B.C.). Thus from the founding 
of the hall to the completion of the roof there elapsed, as the inscription 
correctly states, a space of 17 years, 2 months, 10 days, reckoning to the 
dedicatory festival of the noble Khent hall, which took place on the day 
of the Tekhu festival. 

Fifteen definite dates are given in this important inscription detailing 
the history of the temple of Edfu. beginning with the foundation-cere- 
mony on "the 7th Epiphi in the 10th year of Ptolemy III. (23rd Aug. 
237 B.C.), and ending with the year of Ptolemy X. Soter II. 's second 
assumption of the government, viz. the 236lh year of the Lagidfe = 89-88 
B.C. To these we may add a sixteenth, dating the final c nipletion of 
the huge building. From an inscription given thrice inside the portal of 
the pylons und the colonnade of the fore-court, we learn that the two 
brass-mounted wings of the door of the great pylons were erected on the 
1st Khoiak in the 25th year of Ptolemy XIII. Neos Dionysus, and of his 
sister and wile Cleopatra Tryphama, i.e. on December 5th, 57 B.C. Thus 

248 Route 23 EDFU. Horus- 

the complete rebuilding of the temple at Kdfu was accomplished within 
the period of 180 years, 3 months, and 14 days. 

As a kind of pendant or companion-piece to this long historical 
Inscription of the W. girdle-wall, there appears another no less in- 
teresting Inscription at the foot of the E. Girdle Wall (PI. k). This 
second inscription, which has a total length of 240 ancient Egyptian 
ells, contains a summary account of the whole temple, followed by 
a detailed description of each of its rooms. Like all dedicatory in- 
scriptions of the kind, it begins with the name of the monarch 
under whom the monument it refers to (in the present case, the 
girdle-wall) was completed. 

The inscription begins as follows: 'The golden Horus, who shows 
himself in heaven as the wing- spreading god of Edfu, clad in bright 
plumage, he has taken possession of his abode . . . prepared by . . . Pto- 
lemy XI. Alexander I.' 

'This beautiful large wall, behind his temple at the side of his father's 
building, its length 240 ells, its breadth 90 ells, its height to the summit 
20, the thickness of its foundation 5 ells. This monument, which was 
erected by His Majesty and his father, is formed like the sun-mountain 
of heaven.' These dimensions correspond with measurements made by 
the writer. The length of the girdle-wall to the pylons was found to be 
4141/2 ft., which reckoning the ancient Egvptian ell at V/t ft., is" equal to 
240.5S ells ; breadth ISS'A ft. = 89.72 ells ; height 33V2 ft- = 19.5 ells ; thick- 
ness 6V2 ft., i.e. not quite 4 (instead of 5) ells. 

We may now bestow a glance on the general arrangement of the 
temple as a whole. The main axis lies W. and S., as is repeatedly 
mentioned in the inscriptions referring to this point 

T 1 I. *=^^^^^ U\\ *^^=^' 'froDi Orion (the to the Groat 

Bear (the N. constellation)'. The early Egyptian architects seem to 
have been guided by these two constellations in determining the 
orientation of any new temple, as appears to be iniUcated with some 
certainty by inscriptions at Edfu. The laying of the foundation- 
stone of an early Egyptian temple was a ceremony of peculiar solem- 
nity, in which the king himself, as has been observed in the ac- 
count of Denderah (p. H6), took part; and even in the case of 
temples built at a time when the rulers of Egypt had ceased to 
share personally in these ceremonies (as e.g. under the Roman eni- 
perors who did not live in Egypt at all), the inscrijitions still some- 
times speak in the old-fashioned style as though the monarch had 
duly performed his part. An inscription along the foot of the wall 
in Hall I) states that 'His Majesty in his jiroper person, with his 
hand on tlie wooilen peg and holding the lino in his grasp, along 
with the goildess Safekh, is to be found beside his measuring-in- 
strument to determine the four corners of the temple at Edfu'. This 
N. and S. axis divides the entire building into a right and a left 
(or W. and E.) half, reckoned from Room I ( y. '252 ), which occupies 
the exact centre of the rear-wall of iho temple, and is named in 
the inscriptions 'divider of the middle'. All the walls and rooms 
to the right of this line (as we look S.) are described in the inscrip- 

Temple. EDFU 23. Route. 249 

tions as lying on the right or W. side, and all to the left as lying 
on the left or E. side. 

The Pylon-Portal (PI. G) forms a worthy introduction to the 
temple, flanked on either side by a tower with sloping walls, about 

100 ft. high. This is usually named "J? v\ ) { Mahet, 

i.e. 'portal-building', 'entrance-hall', in the inscriptions, a desig- 
nation which is not unfrequently employed to include the entire 
gatehouse and the two towers, though the most usual terra for the 

entire entrance -structure [was 1 / Vpy \ Bekhen, i.e. 

'tower', 'watch-tower'. 

This passage was formerly closed with a massive door with two 
wings. The entire lofty gatehouse is covered from top to bottom 
and on all sides with reliefs and inscriptions, amongst which, 
especially on the right and left, the colossal Ficiure of the Kino (Neos 
Dionysus) is conspicuous, smiting his foes, whom he holds by tlie 
hair, in presence of Horns and Hathor. In two rows, above, the 
king appears praying and offering sacrifices before the gods of Edfu. 
— Below, on the left (W.) pylon, the king and queen conduct a 
procession of representatives of the districts that yield gold, silver, 
other metals, precious stones, cosmetics, etc., and furnish them to 
the temple. On the front of the pylon towers are four wide incisions, 
two on each side of the central portal. These were intended to 
support the huge copper-mounted wooden poles with gilded tips, 
which are illustrated in Vol. I., p. 1B8. One of the lower marginal 
inscriptions states that these poles were intended at Edfu to avert 
the storms of heaven, and that they were adorned with gay flags at 
the top. 

The pitch-dark lower Pylon Chambers on each side are entered 
from the court by doors to the right and left of the portal, and from 
each of them an easy Slaircase of '242 steps in 14 flights ascends to 
the Plfitforms of the towers. One~of the towers should certainly bo 
ascended, in spite of the numerous steps. The view from the top 
is unusually attractive, commanding not only the most imposing 
survey of the temple-buildings, but also ranging over the surround- 
ing country. The plain through which the Mle ^flov.'s, with its 
verdant crops and its villages fringed with palms and mimosas, 
framed by the desert-mountains in the distance, presents a scene 
of surprising beauty, especially when seen under the evening light 
that renders the Egyptian landscape so wonderfully distinct. 

The Fore -Court (PI. F), which is bounded in front by the 
pylons, at the back by the hypostyle hall (PI. E), and on the right 
and left by the great girdle-wall, is a spacious court, paved with 
broad flags, and surrounded on its E., W., and S. sides with a cov- 
ered colonnade of 32 columns. The inscriptions call it variously 

250 Enute 23. EDFU Horus- 

^VsekJit ulen or court of the offerings, usekht kha en Sa-Hor or court 
of the appearance of the protecting Jlorus, usekht en bekhen or court 
of the pylons, and usekht en tesnefru Ra-Khuti or court of the sacred 
boat of the god of the sun-mountain. Ptolemy X. Soter 11. is named 
in the marginal inscriptions as the builder and finisher of this 
court, in harmony with the great inscription on the W. girdle-wall. 
The lower marginal inscription on Wall a of the court says of this 
king: 'He has built the Court of the Appearance of the protecting Horus 
(usekht kha en Sa-HorJ, the lord of the gods, as a copy of the building 
of the suu-mountain with the god of the sun-mountain, completed in his 
building in excellent work in good sandstone; otlerings are made to his 
divine imago in it\ An inscription on the opposite wall (PI. bj says of 
the same king, that he built the Court ofOlTerings (usekht utent) 'in order 
to sacrilice to the sun-god thrice a day'. 

Detailed information is given in the inscriptions as to the size 
of this fore-court, the height and thickness of its walls, the number 
and shape of the columns, and the side-doors and main-portal. The 
length is repeatedly given as 90 Egyptian ells, the breadth as 80, 
the height of the walls as 20, and their thickness as 5; measure- 
ments, which taking the ell as 1^/4 ft. correspond tolerably closely 
with measurements made on the spot flength ir)5 ft., breadth 
138 ft., height of wall ;!4V2 It., thickness 8V2 ft-)- ^'^e number of 
the 'columns, the great ones, erected in it' is correctly given as 32; 
their beauty anil strength is extolled; and the capitals and shafts 
minutely described. The doors are also described in order, details 
being sometimes given as to whether they had one or two wings, of 
what wood they were made, and whether they opened inwards or 
outwards. Besides the four side-doors of the court and the main 
portal between the pylons, the two doors leading from the court to 
the gate-towers are also desi;ribed, as well as tlio door (PI. d) in 
the N. half of the K. girdle-wall and another smaller door, nearer 
the N. end of the same wall, leading to the Temple-Well. 

The Back of this court, forms, as has already been remarked, 
the front of the Temple Proper, which differs but slightly from the 
temple of Denderah. TTero, as at Deiiderah, the first chamber is a — 

Hypostyle Hall (PI. 1'^), open in front. The roof is borne by 
18 columns, while at Denderah there are 24; and the two small 
chapels in front have nothing corresponding to them at Denderah. 
The chapel to the left as we enter is called '-^.-' Palua, i.e. 'in- 
cense-chamber', and was used by the monarch, in his capacity asj 
high-priest, when performing the ceremonies of purifying himself/ 
on his entrance into the temple, with holy water and incense. The) 
small room on the right was called i— _ ii -J ;^— 3, Pa-hotep (v), i.e. 
'room of the written rolls' and appears from the inscriptions to 
have been used to (;ontain all tlie written documents referring to 
the temple-service : 'many boxes with papyrus-rolls (hotepu) and 
great leather-rolls (aru-uru-en-mesek)'. A very interesting C'ata- 
loyue on the walls of this room gives the names of the books pre- 

Temple. EDFU. 23. Route. 251 

served here. — A Side-door (PI. c) in the E. wall of the hypostyle 
admits to the open passage between the temple and the girdle-wall. 

The Ceiling of this hall, which, like that at Denderah, is named 
Khent, 'the front room' or Khent ur, 'the great antechamber', is 
completely covered with astronomical representations. 

To the left are the lirst six Hours of Night, to the right tlie second 
six (ChampoUiou, Mon. H. pp. 123 seq.). Above the door to the following 
Hall i) is a curious representation. The Sun Disc appears with the llgure 
of a crowned beetle ascending from the horizon into a boat guided hy 
Hov mai and Hur khent khrud. Next the sun, on the left, is Thoth, on the 
right JVeilh, and also Apheru (Anubis), AJal, and JIathor. In an attitude 
of worship, at the sides, are }'our Senses ; to the right the eye and ear 
(i.e. sight and hearing), to the left taste (symbolized by a tongue) and 
reason. At the top of this wall is a long astronomical frieze. First 
appear figures of the 30 ^JJecani'', at the end of which are the chief con- 
stellations of the S. {U7-wn and the Sothis Cow or Sirius) and of the N. 
(the bull's leg fettered by Apa), then come the Planets, the Stair with the 
Fourteen Steps of the waxing moon, the gods corresponding to those lunar 
days, representatives of the ^o Days of the Mouth, the Gods of the 12 
Months, and finally three Female Figures with raised hands t- 

Un the S. Wall of this hall, on either side of the door to Hall D, 
are scenes from the Founding of the Temple by the king, similar to those 
at Denderah. They are continued along the VV. wall of the hall. 

Next, as at Denderah, follow three Prosekos Halls, with their 
side-chambers, and hero also the first of these, the Hai or Festal 
Hall (PI. D) is mxich the largest. This hall is tha only one of the 
three that has columns, of which there are 12 arranged in three 
rows, while the corresponding hall at Denderah had only 6 columns. 
The side-chambers, however, are more numerous atDenderah, where 
there were six, three on each side, while hero there are but foiir, 
viz. the Laboratory (PI. xvii) and a Fassage Room (PI. xviii) in 
front of it, on the VV. side, and on the E. side another i'a«.sa(;e Room 
(Fl. XI x), in the S. wall of which is a door leading to a Corner 
Room (PI. xxi). The next of the prosekos halls is the Hall of the 
Altar (PI. (J), with two side-chambers (PI. xtv on the W. and 
PI. XVI on the E.), whence we reach the two great staircases lead- 
ing to the roof of the temple. Both the structure of the staircases 
and their plastic adornment closely resemble those at Denderah. 
From the third and last Prosekos hall, the ^Hall of the Centre' or 
of the ^Repose of the Uods' {VI. JSJ, we enter on the right the two 
<;onnected ^ Rooms for the Offering of what is necessary (PL xii & xiii), 
and on the left the ^Rooni of Khcm' (PI. xi). We now reach the 
Sekos Kooms. The Sanctuary (PI. A) in the centre is, like the 
sanctuary at Denderah, surrounded on all sides but the front by a 
Corridor (PI. e), from which lU Side-Chambers open (PI. i-vi on the 
left or W., "vii-x on the right or E. side). On the inside wall of 
the corridor, i.e. on the outside of the sanctuary, are represented 
the gods of the districts or nomes. — All these rooms, their size 
and use, their plastic decorations, the painting , gilding, etc. are 
fully described in the inscriptions and in the reliefs. 

•i- See Brugsch, Monuments de I'Egyptc, plates vii-x. 

252 Route 23. EDFU. Horus- 

Two important and specially instructive Jnsrriplions describe the 
various rooms in order in the course of a summary review. t»ne of tliese 
forms the lower marginal inscription on tJie outside of the K. girdle-wall; t 
the other is on the outside of the \V. wall of the temple proper. tt 

The inscriptions at Kdfu begin their account of the dillerent rooms 
with Room I., at the centre of the rear-wall of the temple, which they 
name 'l>ivider of the Middle' (comp. p. 2i8j. Thence they proceed to the 
rooms lying to the right and left, and tlien to the Adytum (PI. A) and 
the Prosekos rooms in front of it. Those who desire to follow the 
descrijition in order begin at Room I. Of this e.g. it is said: 'The apart- 
ment Mesen (No. ij is in its (the temple'sj centre as the chief apartment, 
with the great throne of the dispenser of rays; the goddess Ma is with 
him, as Hathor the great, in his shrine, the very secret place, in it (i.e. 
the roomj, whose breadth is 8'/3 ells and its depth 0-/3. Its wall is 
painted with the cycle of the gods of the true Mesen-chamber, their 
forms according to their prototypes'. The word Mesen means here pro- 
bably dwelling of the lielpers of Horus. In the second inscription this 
room is named JJa ken, 'chamber of the victor', and it is stated that 
'the figure of the protecting Horus, in his noble shape as a perching 
hawk, an ell high, with the scourge (is there to be seen). The goddes.s 
3Ia is before him; she does not separate herself from him, who is ever 
united with her. As Hathor, the great, she is with him in tlie shrine 
within the mysterious cella of dark granite'. Room II. is named "lln^ 
right cliamber' and the 'west cliamber' or 'dedicated to the god of tlii- 
west' (Osiris); Room III, 'the chamber of the great' (Osiris); Room IV, 
'the inner-room of the tomb-chamber'. These three are the Osiris liooms. 
Room V is called the "room of the throne of the gods' ; Room VI, the 
'cloth-chamber'; then on the E. side, Room VII, 'the Sebek-cliamber' of 
the moon-god Khunsu; Woom VIII, the sanctuary of Hathor; and Room IX, 
the 'throne-room of Ra'. Of Room X we read: 'the iioom of the Uprewier 
of Wings (No. -xj contains on its E. wall the divine image of the liou- 
lieaded goddess of the north, and of the cycle of gods, that watch 
over Osiris. There is the god Shu as the representative of the N. wind, 
inflating his nostrils, as is his wont in the kingdom of eternity (i.e. the 
under-world), and the lion-headed goddess Tefnut, as the representative 
of devouring fire, in the act of burning his (Osiris's) enemies, as she does 
it in the place that is the goal of millions (another name for the under- 
world). There also are the goddess Ment, daughter of the sun, with lier 
backward glance, and the great Sekhet-Artemis, the mistress of the god- 
desses of vengeance'. 

The Adytum or Holy of Holies (PI. A) is next described : 'The room 
of the great throne (i.e. the adytum) in the centre, round which the 
passage runs, is in ells lO'-'/i 4- '/s by 10>/j. A door leading into the pas- 
sage is found on its right and on its left side, in order to reach the 
closed rooms lying round it. The sacred boat of Tesneferu the bright- 
coloured and his sacred shrine are placed tliere; his great cella, of dark 
granite, it is a wonder to behold it'. This Cellu of dark granite, erected 
by King Nectanebus, stands to this day in the adytum (p. 246). 

With reference to the staircases the inscription states that the E. stair 
was ascended on New Year's I'ay, in order to unite the god with his 
soul, and that the W. stair was ascended to oiler sacrilice in the morning. 
Of the Doors in Hall D the inscription says: 'Ihe door upon its W. side 
is for the bringing of refreshing water, and that on its E. side for the 
bringing of meat-offerings'. 

We now betake ourselves to the passage round the temple proper 
(Fl. 11). Special attention should be bestowed on the inscriptions 
and reliefs on the Inside of the W. Girdle-wall (PI. f f), representing 

t Published by Diimichen and Brugsch in the iKgvptische Zeitsclirift 
for 1,S73 and 18T5. 

tt Published by Diimichen in his Tempelinschriften, plates 91-94, and 
Do Rouge, in his Edfou, 74-77. 

Temple. EDFU. 23. Route. 253 

the contests of the god Horus with his enemies who are depicted 
as crocodiles and hippopotami. Perhaps the overthrow of the foes 
of King Ptolemy X. Soter II. is symbolically represented in these 
compositions. The cartouches on this wall probably belong to this 
king ; one of them contains the name of Ptulmis, while the other is 
vacant. The name of Ptolemy XI. Alexander I. does not appear 
until near the left extremity of the wall, towards the end of the 
list of nomes. 

The Representations, ranged in two registers, are 22 in mimber. The 
chief are the following: 1st Scene (below, to the right). The king, stand- { 
ins; rm shore, attempts to transfix a hippopotamus, that bends its head f 
aside. Horns, who is accompanied by his mother Isis, does the same: in > 
his left hand he holds a chain, and in his right a javelin ; beside the 
helm is a small Hoi-us. — 2nd Scene. The king appears on land, before 
two sliips, in each of which are a Horus and an assistant with a boar's ^ 
head. Jlorus holds the hippopotamus with a chain and pierces its head 
wilh a javelin; the assistant carries a javelin in his right hand and a 
knife in his left. — 5th Scene. The hippopotamus lies on its back, with 
a chain fastened to its hind feet. — Tth Scene fthe finest of all). Horus, 
in a .ship with expanded sail, aims a blow with his right Iiand at the 
head of a hippopotamus, whose hind foot is caught in a line held in the 
god's left hand. Isis kneeling in the bow of the boat holds the head of 
the animal by a cord. The king, standing on the bank with two atten- v 
dants armed with javelin and knife, seeks to pierce the skull of the < 

On the inside of the N. Girdlc-umll (PI. g g) are several long 7 
hymns to the god of Edfu. — The traveller is recommended to walk 
round the outside of the girdle-wall, which is also completely 
covered with representations and inscriptions. The above-mentioned 
important inscription relating to the history of the temple is to be 
seen on the outside of the W. Wall fPl. i), and the description of 
the various rooms outside the E. Wall (PI. k). The eight Records 
of Donations of Fields are also on the E. wall. These inscriptions 
and the decoration of the entire external face of the girdle-wall 
date from the reign of Ptolemy XI. Alexander I. (106-87 B.C.). 

The half-buried Birth House (Mameisi), lying to the left of the entrance 
to the great temple of Horus, is less worthy of a visit. It was built by 
Ptolemy IX. Euergetes II., while the interior decorations date from 
Soter li. In the Interior are seven representations of Hathor, who facili- 
tate the birth of the young Horus and nourish him. 

24. From Edfu to Gebel Silsileh. 

Comp. the Map, p. 98. 

26 M. Steamboat in 4 hrs. Only the four-weeks tourist steamer spends 
the night at Silsileh and affords time for a visit; the three-weeks steamer 
and the mail-steamer go on to Kom Ombo. 

On the E. bank, about 5 M. above Edfu, is the village of Redesiyeh, 
after which a Temiple of Seti I., lying 37 M. to the E., has been 
nanierl, because the ancient desert-route from Redi'-siyeh to the 
emerald-mines of Mt. Zaharah leads via the temple. 

The Arab name of the place is n^ddi 'Ahhds. The temple is in the 
district of the 'Abdbdeh Beduins, who are independent of the' dwellers in 
the Nile valley and assume a hostile attitude both towards them and to 

254 Route 2d. EL-HdSH. From Edfu 

the Egyptian government. TLuy also Lave a language of their own. 
Their dom.ain extends to the Red Sea. It is therefore necessary before 
beginning (his desert-expedition fl' -j day; camel and tent necessary) to 
secure the protection of theshekh of the 'Ahahdeh. — The route leads through 
a sandstone region, with many small seyal-acacias. Passing a (4 hrs.) 
Well and then the Tomh of a saint, we reach the (3 hrs.) Firsf ftafion 
on the desert-rdute, consisting of (wo reclanguhir spaces dS-.")!! ft. long 
surrounded by walls. The f^ecotid Station, on the route leading to the 
Eed Sea (comp. R. 6, p. 78), is 6 hrs. far(her on. Near it lies the temple, 
beautifully situated at the foot of an isolated hill. The road to Ko.«cr 
(p. 77) diverges to the N., at a valley planted with acacias. 

The Temple was discovered in 1.SJ6 by Cailliand, on his first journey 
to the mines of Jit. Zahdmli, where he found old emerald-mines instead 
of the sulphur (hat he expected. II is about 40 ft. long, and the front 
portion is occupied by a Vestibl'le, about 22 ft. wide, with 4 columns, 
of which the first pair form the entrance. The representations here 
are familiar to us from other Egyptian temples. King Seti J. appears 
before Ammon-Iia, who hands to him the sword of victory. 'He smites 
the princes of the miserable Kush' (E(hiopia). Hebind Ammi'n are 10 
names of fettered tribes. Amraon speaks: 'Keceive (he sword. Oh King, 
lord of (he peoples, to smite down the princes of Kush and (o cut oil' (heir 
heads. Fear of thee penetrates their limbs like Sckhet in her wrath.' On 
the other wall (he king appears before Horhe.he.t (Hut), once more smitiiit: 
his foes. — At the rear-wall of this vestibule and in two niches to the 
right and left of the entrance to the next hall are Osiris Statues. The next 
Hall, about 16i/i ft. square, is, like the back-wall of (he preceding, entirely 
hewn out of the rock. It contains 4 pillars. At the back are three niches 
each with a triad of gods; in the centre is Ramenmn (Seti I.) himself. 
The interesting Inscriptions here record, among nther things, that the king 
came hither in the Oth year of his reign on his way to the gold-mines, 
accompanied by a large retinue and by architects, and caused wells to be 
sunk, etc. — On an adjoining rock are three steles. On one of these is 
the goddess Aasit on liorseback, with a shield in her left hand ; the second 
is dedicated to the oflicial entrusted by Seti with the sinking of the well ; 
and on the third is the kneeling ligure of Ani, king's son of Kush and 
commander of the Blazai (police). Higher up on the rock are tigurcs 
of gazelles, Greek grafliti, and the pra'nomen of Amenhotep III. preceded 
by the statement: 'made by prince Mermes'. 

Farther aloiis the E. bank (12 M. from Edfu), on the mountain- 
slopes approaching close to the river near the hill es-Serdy.! are the 
picturesque remains of an ancient Arab fortress with a mosque. 
This is sometimes identified with the ancient Thinuis., which, 
however, more probably lay farther to tlie S. 

Near the village of el-H6sh beside the Gebel Ahu Sheyah, on the 
W. bank, a great number of insi;riptions and drawings of very 
various dates have been found scratched on the rocks. 

The oldest A'mj/'i Name met with is that of an Usertesen (12th l*yn.), 
but most of the devices are of a very much later date. Greek names 
are not wanting, and most of the inscriptions aiipear (o have been carved 
by masons wIkj worked in (he large quarries, which are still (o be found 
bi'side (lie village of el-H6sh. The signature of a builder's foreman, 

Amam, and numerous stonemasons' marks I , J j i Qt Xi 

seem to support this cfmclusion. 

We here find girades, horses, gazelles, boats, lighters, etc., closely 
resembling those at Wadi Mokatteb (Vol. I., p. 4'J3); and tliere is also 
the picture of a man with an ox, an elejihant, an ostricli, and a ca|>itally 
executed dog. Among Eyypliun Names are those of Amenhotep, Asarhotep, 

to Oebd SUsileh. GEBEL SILSILEH. ^24. liuule. 255 

a military colonel J%. L^ |, Kab Ranseneb, overseer of the temple of 

Koptos, and Kebtan, overseer of granaries. In few cases, unfortunately, 
are the reigns mentioned in which they were written. The Greeks generally 
wrote merely their n;inies, some of them suggesting a Christian date, e.y. 
ITAXOYMIO? (Pachumios), TTETR02 (Petros). We also find a 
(t>IL"'iMON (Philemon), EYENOS (Euenos), and other names, besids 
which not more than the common to 7tpocxuvr)|xa, an act of reverence or 
worship, stood. The inscriptions are found for miles, scratched on the 
rocks and crags of the low hills skirting the river; they are most 
numerous to the N. of the village. + 

A little to the N. are several Greek Inscriptions, first discovered by 
A. C. Harris. These date from the 11th year of the emperor Antoninus 
Pius (U9 A.D.), and record that a master-engineer (apX'!J'-''iZ<'''"''^^^ quarried 
huge blocks of 11 ells (16 ft.) for the gate iwlrj) of Apollo (at EdfuV). 

On the W. bank, 1/4 hr. above el-IIosh and about ^4^1. below 
SilsileL, is a gorge known as Shatt er-Reg&l, 'Shore of the Men', 
or es- sdb'a regal, 'the seven men'. On the left side of a cliff liere, 
a few paces from the river-bank, is a most interesting relief (also 
discovered by Harris) representing the Homage of an inferior king 

( l\ ) J^ntef before Mentuhotep III. [ ''^n^ f ) Ba neb 


kher, tlie UTiiter of the two lands, and before the king's mother 
Aah fmoon). Behind Entef is a chamberlain named Kheti. 

This Mentuhotep, with the staff of empire in his hand, was an im- 
portant king at the close of the llthDyn., and his name is mentioned in 
all the extant lists of kings. A stele (now at Turin) dating from the 46th 
year of his reign attests his long and prosperous rule. He seems to have 
been the first monarch after a long interval (6th-llth I^yn.) to unite the 
whole kingdom under a single sceptre,, and he is thus a worthy predecessor 
of the Amenemhas and Xlsertesens of the 12th Dynasty. 

On the right site of the cliff is the name of Penati, an architect 
who worked under Amenhotep I., Tutmesl., andTutmesII. Farther 
up in the same valley occur the signatures of other royal officials, 
and also (according to Petrie) the joint cartouches of Hatasu 
and Tutmes III., with another mention of Penati below them. 

A second Scene of Homage before King Rasankhha ( © 

the successor ofRanebkher or Mentuhotep, is reported by Petrie, 
who also discovered other kings' names, some hitherto unknown, on 
these rocks. 

26 M. Gebel Silsileh (Mountain of the Chain). Though we land 
on the W. bank on which the most interesting monuments lie, we 
should not omit to visit also the E. bank, where there are larger 
quarries than on the Libyan side. 

At Oebel SiUileh begins the Sandstone Zove of the Nile valley (Vol I., 
d. 56). The rocky hills which here confine the bed of the river supplied 
the materiiil for most of the gigantic buildings we have already visited, 
for where monuments exposed to the air were to be erected the Egyptians 

+ They are published in Flinders Petrie's 'A Season in Egypt' (Lon- 
don, 1888). 


256 Route 24. GEBEL SILSILEH. From Edfu 

preferred sandstone to limestone and even to tlie harder but more easily 
disintegrating granite. For substructures, Lowever, and for walls 
surrounded with earth "they wisely gave the preference to limestone. 
— The hills on the two bauks of the river approach so close together 
at Oebel Silsileh that they have Justly been compared to the pillars of a 
gigantic 'gateway. The legend of the chain that once bam-d the passage 
of the river here is probably pure invention, taking its rise from the 
Coptic name of the city of quarries, which in the hieroglyphics isuamed 
Pa IChennu. The later Egyptians named the town TSio'\ 'S.o'K '.<-'. sac- 
pes, daustrum, barrier, probably in reference to the gorge of the river. 
The Romans, who maintained a garrison here, converted the T'el t'el of 
the Egyptians into iSilsili , which was confounded by the Arabs with 
Silsileh, the Arabic for 'chain'. The people, seeking meanings for every 
name and preferring those that come in the guise of a legend, thereui)on 
invented the story of a chain, that once barred the gorge at Gebel Silsileh. 
By and by the very place where this mythical chain had been fastened 
came to be pointed out. 

The dhahabtyeLs generally halt in the very midst of the mon- 
uments. We turn lirst to the N., ascend a well-beaten track, and 
then gradually descend the rocky hill. On the slope beside the river 
are some tomb-like Recesses, belonging to officials of the 18th 
Dyn., with the names of Tutmes III. aiul his sister Hatasu over the 
entrance. In one of these, the surface of which is divided into 
squares, some of the figures are sketched but left unfinished. 
Farther on is a cave with a painted ceiling. l?eside it are in- 
scriptions of the time of Kanises III., builder of Medinet Habu, 
who is represented before Amnion, Muth, and Khunsu. There is 
also a larger memorial tablet of the 21st year of Sheshenk I. 
(22nd Dyn.}. Sheshenk had commanded his architect Horemsat to 
quarry stones at Silsileh for tlie gateway erected by the king on 
the S. side of the first court of the temple of Amnion at Karnak. 
Immediately to the N. is a Stele bearing various conventional phrases 

and datiiisr from Itamscs V. I I {li I, whose name seldom occurs 

\ A^/^A^^y 

on the monuments. Finally we reach the broad facade of the 
shallow — 

'■■Rock Chapel (Speos), which may be reckoned among the most 
important nioniuiieiits in the Nile valley, on account of its reliefs 
and inscriptions. 'J'his chapel, hewn in the rock close to the sum- 
mit of a hill, dates from the 18lh Dyn. In front are five doorways, 
separated from each other by pillars at var\iiig distance, and<Towned 
with the astragal and concave cornice. Numerous goils are named 
in it. Sebek, who forms a triad with Aniinon-Ha and Muth, takes 
the first place; Ptah of -Memphis is also mentioned. King Horus is 
here spoken of as the beloved of the Anka-t (Onka), '.Mistress of 
Asia', and this Egyptian-riiicnirian goddess is represented with a 
head-dress, elsewhere only I'ound on the heads of Asiatic warriors. 
The Inferior consi.sts of a broad but shallow vaulted chamber, at the 
b:irk of which is an oblong mom. .Ml Die walls are covered with carving 
and inscriptions, dn the S. wall is the I'raus uodiless, odering the breast 
to the infant king llorus, while above her head hovers the vulture of 

to G'ebel SUsileh. GEBEL SILSILEH. 24. Route. 257 

Hebent. On the back-wall, to our left as we enter, King Horus is depicted 
returning in triumph from his campaign in Ethiopia. 

This "Belief , of great artistic value, shows the Pharaoh seated on 
his throne which is borne by 12 nobles adorned with feathers. The throne 
has lions' feet and its back also consists of lions. The king wears the 
war-helmet and carries the stall' of empire in his left hand. Behind 
and before him are court-oflicials, warding oil' the sun's rays with the 
long-handled flabellum. The Kherheb precedes the litter, otlering incense, 
and a train of captured Ethiopians is led along by the victor. Vanquished 
blacks are lying on the ground and others are being rapidly marched olf 
by Egyptian soldiers. Above the captives are the words: 'Leading of the 
captives of the miserable Kush by Horus, king of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, etc. His majesty came out of the land of Kush (Ethiopia) with 
the booty which his sword had made, as his father Ammon had com- 
manded him'. Before the priests, who stand in a reverential attitude, is 
written: 'The good god approaches, he celebrates his victory over the great 
ones of all lands. When he grasps the bow in his right hand he is like 
the lord of Thebes (i.e. Month, the god of war), as king of the strength 
of heroes. Above the prisoners is the inscription : 'Hail to thee, king of 
Egypt, sun of the barbarians ! Thy n;ime is extolled in the land of the 
Ethiopians. Thy battle-cry resounds over their seats. Thy heroic strength, 
U thou perfect prince, converts the alien lands into tombs. Pharaoh, long 
life and health, <) my sun-god' (Shu). 

tarther to the right and also on the back-wall is a recess with King 
Siptali Khuenra before Ammon, with Bai , an ofiicial {overseer of the 
whole land). Next is a Stele of Paiiehesi., of the second year of Meren- 
ptah \. and his consort Astnefert; then a stele of the time of Ramses 1., 
and upon it the tirst tablet of the Festival instituted by the king's son 
Khaemus in honour of his father Ramses U. The first tablet dates from 
the MOth vear, the second from the yith, the third from the 37th, and the 
fourth from the 40th. 

Beside the pillar is the small Sanctuary of Ramses II. To the left of 
the entrance is King Horus (who built the sanctuary), before Harmachis 
and the goddess Jusas, and the same king before Ammon-Ra and Muth. 
At the back of the very dark recess is a god, with three forms on each 
side. Numerous figures of gods. To the right of the entrance to the 
sanctuary is a reproduction of the Festival Stele mentioned above. Ad- 
joining is the stele of the high-priest i/b/, who instituted a festival in 
the third year of Merenptah I. Farther on is another Festival Stele, with 
Kamses II. before Harmachis and Muth, Ptah, and Sebek. The date is 
the same as on the preceding, but the marshal of the festival is here the 
Erpa Ha (prince) and mayor Shai. The same ofiicial appears also in the 
same stele of the 46th year of Ramses II. as marshal of the Gth festival 
in the whole land (Khaemus had probably died in the interval). 

The numerous reliefs above and below the five doors and in the re- 
cesses outside should also be noticed. Over the central door : King Horus, 
here called the beloved of Ammon and Muth, of Khnum, of Abu, and of 
Ank, mistress of Sati (Asia). Over the second door (from the left): 
Ramses 111. with the commander of his cavalry. Between the fourth and 
fifth this king presents Ma to Anhur. Last relief on the right: Ramses II. 
brings Ma to Ptah in his shrine and to Sebek. Within the adjacent fifth 

door is the small chapel of Pa war I /y~\ HV li iu which Ramses II. 

\L/yx^ \i\J 

appears with his consort Astnefcrt and a princess (Bainut aant) before 
Ptah <and Nefertura. There is also a small ^figure of Khaemus. On the 
inside of the front wall is a Uieratii; Inscription of the 5th year of Ram- 
ses III., containing a command to Setem.heb, overseer of the palace, to 
build in the house of eternity in the W. of Thebes (i.e. the tomb of 
Ramses III. in Bibiin el-3Ii;liik. The number of workmen under him 
(2000), ships (40), and boats (4) are detailed. Two other hieratic Inscrip- 
tions, of a similar purport, are to be found on the central doorway, to the 
right and left. 

Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 17 

258 Route 24. GEBEL SILSTLEH. From Edfa 

The *MoNUMENTs TO TiiK SouTH aro as interestinp; as those just 
described, from which they are reached in about 1/4 hr. The route 
leads to the S., sometimes skirting tlie river-b;uik, sometimes lead- 
ing through the ancient quarries. We lirst reach Two Chambers, 
with the opcninirs facing the river, and recesses at the back. At 
the first are two, and at the second are tliree unnamed sitting sta- 
tues, hewn out of the rock. Tlio chambers belonged to officials of 
Tutmes III., wliose name occurs over the entrance along with those 
of Ammon Harmachis and Sebek. The first cave belonged to Khem 
nekht, overseer of granaries, who is here represented along with his 
wife. The second, to the N., belonged to the mayor Anidtu and his 
wife, and contains a series of figures. To the S. occurs the name of 

Amenhotep II. A ^^^ ^'^ kheperu; with two small Steles in 

bad preservation on the left, and two others, better preserved, on 
the right. Farther to the S. near the river is a brightly painted Cave, 
with painted ceiling. A relief here depicts Amonemhat, a high 
priest of Ammon (probably, from his name, under the 12th Dyn.) 
sacrificing to his parents and those of his wife Mimi. 

The guides point out large square holes in the lofty rocks as 
having been used to fasten the above-mentioned mythical chain of 
Silsileh. Skirting the bushy river-bank we presently reach three 
Inscribed Tablets, offering a picturesque appearance as seen from 
the Nile. Two of them, adorned with concave cornices and with 
doors, lie close bCside each other. The architrave is borne by sculp- 
tured bud-columns, the shafts of which represented stems of plants 
bound together by a band. Both of these brightly painted facades 
act as frames for large Steles, placed at the back of small chapels 
about 6 ft. deep. That to the S. (left) was erected by Ramses II. 
in the first year of his reign, that to the N. (right) by Merenptah I. 
(Hotep-hi-ma) in his first year. Each is formed of three parts. At 
the top is the triad to which it was dedicated, next is a Hymn to 
the Nile, and below is a list of sacrifices. In the one case the divine 
triad consists of Ammon, Muth, and Kluuisu, the chief triad of 
Upper Egypt, in the other ot'lla Ilarmadiis, Ptah, and llapi, recall- 
ing Lower Egypt. A third, similar Stele, dating from the (3th year 
of Ramses III., is to be seen on an isolated rock to the right. All 
are more or less damaged; but a restoration of the text, which is 
the same on all tlirco, with a few trilliii,:: variations, is rendered 
possible by collation. 

L. stern has published a Gtirman Tranthttitm of the corrected in- 
scription on the, .stele of the first year of II. (tlie oldest and best 
given preserved), with a collation of the other two. A few extracts are liei-e 
from this thrice-repealed Ilmnn to the A'ile, the {;od to whom Ejjypt owed 
her very origin, and iijion whom she was dependent for the, conditions of 
continued e.vistence from year to year. Similar liymns to (he same nod 
have come down t(j us in a papyrus from (he hand of AntM, one of the 
most famous authors of the period of the I'liaraohs ; and these are rlearly 
connected with the hymn now before us. Tlie inscrijition begins: 'In the 

to Oehel Silsileh. GEBEL SILSILEH. 24. Route. 259 

1st year, on the lOlb Epiphi, in the reign of His Majesty etc. . . . Ramses- 
Mianiun, who loves the Nile, the father of the gods, his creator. Long 
may he live, possessing lirraness and might, eternally. Long live the 
beneficent god, the Nile that loves the primajval waters (Nun\ the father 
of the gods, who form the cycle of the nine deities, which belong to the 
(loods, the blessing, the abundance, the support of Egypt, who blesses 
all the world with life by his rich abundance, who is dignified in his 
course and distributes blessings with his fingers. The elect are rejoiced 
at his approach. Thou art one that hast created thyself, and no man 
knows whence thou art. On the day that thou coniest out of thy sur- 
roundings, all the world rejoices. Thou art a lord of many fishes and 
gifts, who bestowest nourishment upon Egypt. Even the nine deities 
know not whence thou art. Thou art their life. Therefore when thou 
approachest they redouble their ofl'erings; they furnish the altars richly 
and raise their voices in exultation when thou appearest. Thou metest 
rich measure to us, to nourish the elect, like Ua when he ruled this land. 
Strong and wakeful is he at all times, to seek nourishment for the living, 
to make the corn abundant like the sand of the seashore, and to load 
the granaries with gifts. Behold, therefore His Majesty sought how he 
might exalt the father of all gods, the prince and ruler of the flood, and 
meditated like the god Tehuti (Thoth) to find out what was adequate to 
his love (i.e. how he might give most adequate expression to his love). 
No king has done so since thy time. Oh Ra I And His Majesty spoke : 
'Whereas the Nile nourishes the world , and blessing and abundancfe 
follow upon his rising, and behold each one lives in his dwelling, enriched 
through his command ; and seeing that I know what stands in the book- 
store that is preserved in the library; therefore when the Nile comes 
forth from his two sources, then let the offerings to the gods be in- 

creased; but if the holy stream is at Silsileh ( \j Khennu-t), I 

V ^ D (9 / 

at the right time. King Ramses H. will redouble the offerings to it there'. 

This king appointed two festivals to be kept at Silsileh in honour 
of the Nile, as the following portion of the inscription records. One was 
to be observed at the beginning of its gradual rise (the 16th Epiphi), the 
other on the 15th Thoth, when the rapid rise set in. L. Stern compares 
these appropriately to the two main festivals of the modern Egyptians, 
the Night of the Drop, and the Cutting of the Dam, which are also two months 
apart (Vol. I., p. 239). Merenptah I. and Ramses III. confirmed the grants 
made by Ramses II. for the purposes of these festivals, and erected the above- 
mentioned steles in commemoration of the fact. The jiature of the grants 
(sacrificial bread and cakes, antelopes, beef, veal , six kinds of wine, 
honey, oil, beer, milk, essences, etc.) is recorded in the lists below the 
inscriptions, from which we also learn that the king offered fowls to the 
river-gods and as much corn as a granary could contain to Ammcn of 
Thebes. — The side -walls of the two chapels are also occupied with 
scenes of sacrifice and worship. 

Various opinions have been expressed as to tlio reason of the 
special reverence paid to tbe Nile at this particular defile. The 
narrows of Silsileh were perhaps difficiiU or even impossible to 
pass in earliest antiquity, and so probably came to be regarded as 
the second entrance of the river into Egypt, the first being at the 
cataract at Assuan. This is the more probable as Koni Ombo was 
certainly reckoned as belonging to Nubia. 

Between the above-mentioned chapels of i\amscs 11. and Meren- 
ptah, is a small Stele erected by the mayor Panehe^l (p. '257j, who 
appears here along with a son of the king accompanying the king 
before Amnion. The prayer is addressed not only to Amnion, but 
also to the 'holy water' (mu ab, see above) and to the god Sebek. 


2(50 Roule25. KOMO.MHO. 

A few paces farther to tlie S., and at a lower level than the 
steles, is a small Chapel, which in spite of its very ruinous condi- 
tion, we can recognize as having been founded by the great builder 
Seti I. The inscriptions on the stele are completely obliterated. — 
To the right of tliis chapel is a carefully hewn but empty Recess, and 
in the same cliff but facing N. in the direction of the two steles, is 
a Tablet of a chief-priest of Ammon named Roi, who here appears 
with Merenptah I. before the god. 

The Quarries on the W. bank of the Nile are of enormous size, 
but few traces of inscriptions are now to be found. An Inscription 
of Amenhotep HI., however, records the transport of stones by the 
Nile for a temple of Ptah (at Memphis?). There are two Posts of 
the time of .Setil., a.ud Demotic Inscriptions from Roman times. 
An unfinished colossal Sphinc, nearly opposite the usual landing- 
place of the dliahabiyehs, is also not without interest. Even if all 
the monuments of Egypt had disappeared , these liuge nuarrics 
would serve as a proof tliat building operations of unsurpassed ex- 
tent had once been carried on here. The town of Khennu appears 
to have stood here, not on the E. bank. A few unimportant ruins 
may be traced. 

According to papyri now in Turin, the. residence of the kings of tlic 
12th Dyn., the Amenemhas and Uscrlesons, was transferred to Kkennii. 
Under "the 19th and 2uth Dyn. this town possessed a Universitij. A papy- 
rus, now in the British Museum, contains a warning to the students of 
this institution against excessive heer-drinliing and idleness. 

25. From Gebel Silsileh to Kom Ombo. 

('imp. the Map ttl }>■ •'''■ 
15 M. (391/-J BI. from lidfu). Kom Ombo is a Steamer Station, at which 
the three-weeks tourist-steamer halts • -2 hr., the four-weeks steamer 1 hr., 
both on the upward voyage; while the mail-steamer a night here 
on the downward voyage. 

The mountains recede from the river immediately above the 
defile of Gebel Silsileh (p. 265), giving space to the desert which 
appears grey on the Arabian side and yellow on the Libyan side. 
The narrow cultivable strip is tilled by peasants of a distinctly darker 
complexion than tlie fellahin of the Thcbaid. Both land and people 
approach gradually nearer to the Nubian type. At the village of 
Menhjeh (E. bank) we enter the E. branch of the stream, whicli hero 
forms the island of Maniurlyth, with a village of the same name. 
<ln the W. bank of tlie Nile, opposite the lower end of this island, lies 
Abu Manyar, where Arcelin claims to have discovered stone imple- 
ments in a deposit of gravel containing marine mussels, which was 
overlaid by more recent deposits of the river. 

On a hill on the E. bank next appears the beautiful *Temple of 
Edm Ombo, conspicuous from a considerable distance. Somewhat 
nearer the river is another temple, now almost entirely destroyed. 
The double door of the hypostylo of the higher temple presents an 

KOM OMBO. 25. Route. 261 

imposing appearance; but tlio nearer we approach tlie temple, tlie 
more clearly Ave perceive that the stream has already washed away 
the pylons and colonnade, and that in no long time the whole of 
the handsome building will be undermined, like the temple of Kau 
el-Kebir (p. 48). Large fragments of the building are even now to 
be seen sunk beneath the stream, near its edge. On one of these is 
the dedication inscriptioi!, recording that the building had been 
founded as 'a work to endure for eternity'. The liigh-lying ruins 
of Kom Ombo are especially picturesque by the light of the 
full moon. 

A single glance is enough to reveal to the practised eye that a 
comparatively late monument lies before the traveller. Ptolemy VII. 
Philonietor founded the temple : 

' 5Tt Wi W ] ^" neteru pir 

I W\/\/W ^^ /N VV WWW \ ll / I V 1 / I 

pldh klieper sotep en amon ar ma ra, Epiphanes son of the gods, 
begotten by Ptah, chosen by Ammon, making the truth of Ra. 
EuergetesII., Ptolemy XIII. Neos Dionysus, his wife Cleopatra V., 
and at a later date Tiberius enlarged the building. It belonged to 

the Egyptian town p>m«(^ (I (1 Nuhi (Coptic Mbo), called by the 

Greeks Ombos, as capital of the district Ombites, which formerly 
was part of the Nubian nomos, while from the Egyptian Nubi they 
formed the names Unbi-Ombi and Omboi ("Of^.jiioi). 

It would be a great error to dispute, in face of the present building, 
the existence of an earlier temple on this site. A gateway which existed 
on the E. side of the girdle-wall down to 1870 showed on its jambs the 
ligure of Tutmes III., builder of the temple, which was named Pa Sebek 
(temple of the crocodile-headed Sebek) in the inscription of Ramaka be- 
neath. According to Champollion the door-posts were provided by one 
of the Ptolemies with a new lintel ; the old lintel, dating from Tutmes III., 
was found on the river-bank in 1883 by Maspero, along with a door-posl 
beuring the name of Amenhotep I., and a block of stone with the car- 
touche of Earases the Great. The old temple of Tutmes III. probably faced 
the east. 

Corresponding to the double division of this temple, two different 
triads were especially worshipped within it. The chief of the first 
was Sebek-Ra with the crocodile-head, along with whom were Ha- 
thor and Khunsu ; at the head of the second was Har-war, the elder 
Uorus (Arueris), with whom were associated Tascntnefert (the good 
sister) and her son Pinebtati, lord of both lands. The entire left 
half of the temple was dedicated to the triad of Arueris, the right 
half to that of Sebek. The coins of Ombos display a warrior, with 
a lance in one hand ami a crocodile in the other ; figures which re- 
present Horus and Sebek in the Roman style. The 'memory of the 
worship of the two divine brothers in the same temple seems to have 
lingered in the following legend, related to the writer by a boat- 
man at Kom Ombo. 

Once upon a time two brothers reigned as princes of Ombo. One 
was wicked and strong, the other was good. The latter, who loved his 

262 Route 25. KOM OMBO. 

fellow-mon, was cxjielloil liy liis wickeil brntluT, ami wln'ii lie departed 
towards tlie N., all the inliabitaiits uf Onilxi went wjtli liiiii as liis coui- 
jianions, leavinf; tlic town by ni^'lit. It was tlien flic season fur sowing. 
When the wicked prince awoke, his vizier said to him, 'All thy suhjects 
have left the country alonf; with thy brother; who will now idou^h the 
fields V The wicked prince was very an{;ry when he heard that; but as 
he was a great uiafiician he saiil, 'Tlien the dead must help iiie\ So he 
summoned the dead from their graves; and in the morninfr he beheld from 
his castle (the temple) the dead at work, iiloughinR and sowing. 15ut 
when the harvest came, not a blade prew in the fields, for the dead had 
carried the ploughs in the air above the earth, and had sowed sand in- 
stead of grain. Then the wicked prince once mfire was angry and de- 
scended from his castle to convince himself with his own eyes of the 
failure of the harvest. When he saw not only that no blade of corn grew 
green, but also that the former fields were now covered with sand, he 
uttered a terrilile curse, so fearful that liis castle fell to the earth, and a 
block of stone crushed him to death'. 

The temple of Koni Ombo is a Double Temple, and it is tbo 
only one in Egypt tliat is dividecl along its longer axis into two di.«- 
tinctly defined parts. Even the entrance has two portals. In the interior 
the various chambers are not approached as usual by one door each; 
everywhere two doorways are seen, separated by broad pillars each of 
which is a point in the imaginary line indl(;atiiigthe division between 
tlio two portions of the temple. The plan of the whole may be made 
out with perfect certainty, though many of the rooms, especially 
those towards the rear, are largely sanded tip. The temple moreover 
contained two sanctuaries, a fact which is scarcely surprising after 
what has been said of th(( two chief deities, Arueris and Sebek. 

The Hypostyle Pronaos, — The Douhle Portnl of the main 
temple consists of two doors, framed by three columns and each 
displaying a concave cornice and a winged sun-disc. The floor of 
the hypostyle is encumbered with sand. Thirteen columns arc still 
standing , each of which measures no less tlinn 20 ft. round the 
middle of the shaft. The two corner columns in front are apparently 
wanting; there wore in all three rows of five or perhaps three rows 
of seven. The capitals, of great variety of form, belong to the 
Ptolemaic-Egyptian order; but tliey differ in various poitits from 
those to be seen atDenderah, Ksneh, ami Edfu. The middle column 
in the back rOAv lias a calyx-capital, with a foliage-cup displaying 
a uni(iue ornamentation, with three flowers and three buds spring- 
ing from it. The unfinished calyx-capital of the most northerly 
column in tlio same (rear) row has, at its base, a wreath of flowers 
with serrated edges, between whicli are arranged pairs of buds, each 
pair surmounted by a six-pointed star, though elsewhere the Egyp- 
tian star is always five-pointed ^. j^ 

This hypostyle was built by Ptolemy Xlll. Neos Dionysus and 
his wife Cleopatra V., whose surname Tryphaena is of frequent oc- 
currence among the Ptolemies. The name of the builder 

( n I ^^AAAA ^ ) Aa n pi neler nti nehtm, sou of Soter, is to be 

V lo^W^ a/ 

found on the abacus beueath the two-lino entrance-inscription, part 

'^ ^ ^ r>x >r :^ ^ 

>< y^ 

KOM OMBO. 25. Route. 263 

of which lies on (he giouiid, and also on the interior (•olunins. The 
rear-wall of the liypostyle, i.e. the entrance-wall of the adjoining 
hall with ten columns, dates from Ptolemy IX. Euergetes II. and his 
two wives, Cleopatra II. and Cleopatra III. — Above the door of 
the right (Sebek) side of the temple this king appears with his first 
wife and sister, presenting the figure of Ma to Sebek, Hathor, and 
Khunsu ; above the left door he appears with his second wife, 
before Arueris, Tasentnefert, and Pinebtati. Between the cornice 
and frieze are the dedicatory inscriptions, on the left to Harwar, on 
tli(! right to Sebek. To the right and left of the two doors to the next 
(first) room in the direction of the Pronaos, are other two rows of 
Dedication Scenes. To the right (Sebek side) : in the lower row, 
is Kinir Euergetes II. presenting wine to Shu and Tefnut, farther 
to the right, the king with two nosegays before Seb, the first born 
of the gods, and Sebek Nubti; then the king before the celestial 
goddess Nut, mother of the gods, and Ilathor, mistress of Nubt; 
and finally before Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys (partly broken). In 
the upper row, the king presents Sebek with two wine -vessels, 

upon which is a basket °^3 . In a third scene, the king appears 

before the wife (Tasentnefert) and son (Pinebtati) of Sebek. — To 
the left ( Arueris side) : in the upper row, to the left, is the king 
before Sebek, Ilathor, and Khunsu, liar neb fuab (Horus , the 

broad-liearted), and then the same with two Uza eyes be- 

fore a moon-god (called Harwar by Champollion) and another god 
(Pinebtati?). The presentation of the two eyes (Uza) refers to the 
united lands of Lower and Upper Egypt, or perhaps to Nubia and 
Egypt, of which the temple of Ombos was a representation. The 
name oi City of the two Uza, moreover, is frequently bestowed upon 
Ombos, and was perhaps its sacred name. — In a third scene, in 
the upper row, the king presents two vessels to Harwar and Hathor. 
— In the lower row, the king presents the seated figure of Ma to 
Harwar, Tasentnefert, and Pinebtati. 

The traveller's attention may now be directed to the Astro- 
nomical, Representations, some of which are only outlined in red 
and left unfinished. The constellations in boats floating over the 
heavens, on the ceiling-side of the architrave, are the most impor- 
tant. The squares into which the surfaces were divided to guide 
the artist in drawing the figures are still visible, and prove that the 
recognized proportions of the various parts of the human body to 
each other were here not identical with those regarded by the artists 
of earlier epochs. 

LepsiKs, who had already established the existence of two canons of 
proportion, here discovered a third, and demonstrated that in the epoch 
of the Ptolemies the human body was no longer divided into 18 parts 
from the crown of the head to the soles of the feet, but into 'il'/i, 
as Diodorus slates. 'The central point between brow and sole falls in 

264 Route 25. KOM OMBO. 

all three divisions beneath the hips. Thence downwards the proportions 
according to the second and third canons are the same; but those 
of the upper part of tlic body difFer very essentially. The head is larger, 
the cliest recedes farther, the abdomen is hi^'hcr. The contours be- 
come in general fuller, and abandon that early beautiful simplicity and 
tenderness of form , on which de])i'ndcd their imposing and specially 
Egyptian character, in favour of an imperfect imitation of an unassimi- 
latcd style of art. The jjruportion of the foot to the total length of the 
body still remain?, but the foot is no longer the fundamental unit of 

The smallei- Colonnaded Hall (two rows of 4 and 1 central co- 
lumns), lyiiiR behind the hypostyle, is filled with sand, but access 
maybe gained by creepiris: througli one of the lialf-choked doorways. 
"Within is the liieroglyphic Dedication Inscription of Euergetes II. 

and of his two consorts, one of whom is called his sister g Oithe 

second his wife ^^ (5- On the back-wall of this hall, beneath the 

cornice, is the hieroglyphic dedication of Ptolemy XIII. Neos 
Dionysus to the two chief deities of the temple, and beneath it the 
Greek Dedication Inscription , written in unusually fine uncial 
characters. + 

The translation is a.s follovv's ; — 'In lionour of King Ptolemy and 
(Jueen Cleopatra, his sister, the godlike Pliilometores and their children, 
the foot-soldiers, cavalry, and others stationed In the Onibilian district 
(erected) this temple to Aroeris, the great god, Apollo, and the gods wor- 
shipped with him in the same temple (xotl xoT; o'jvvaoi? SsoT?), in con- 
sequence of their (the gods') goodwill towards them'. l""rom this inscrip- 
tion it appears that the garrison and officials of the Nubian district, which 
included <>nibos, undertook an adornment of the temple of the gods, to 
whom they applied the E:-'yptian name Aroeris (llarvvar) and the Greek 
name -Apollo, in gratitude for some special mark of favour shown to them 
by the goda. 

Beside the door of the next room, the second in the direction 
of the Pronaos, is a seven-lined Culendnr of Festivals. The hall 
itself was built by Kuergetes 11. The third room is the first that 
shows Ptolemy VII. Philometor oU'erinR homage (cartouche see 
p. 261). Here we see 'that king before Ilarwar and Tascntiiofert, 
and before Sebek and Hathor. A fallen block of stone exhibits all 
the cartouches of the king. The entrance to the last Double Cham- 
ber or Sanctuary, and the reliefs within it (including astronomical 
scenes), also date from Pliilometer. 

The Small Temple in front of the larger one is now largely 
overwhelmed by the Nile, but the Pylon on the S., a few columns, 

t The following copy, discriminating tlie words and showing the ac- 
cents, will assist the traveller 1o decipher this line inscription. 
'T-ip fJocii).^(o? lltoXefj.alo'j xal [■iaai).(cifi7)<: KXeoKci- 
Tpo? TTj; ctOE/.cfTJ; \)zm'i <I>i).o[XTjTO(>tuv, xal Tujv 
TO'JTIUV T^XVIUV ApOTjpEl &E(i) \i.Z-^ilt.U), 

'AtcoXXujvi xal Tol? a'jvvaoi? ftsol? xov otjXOv 
ot dv Tu,) 'OnfiiTTj xajaonEvoi keCoI xal 
tnitEic xal cil a).).fji, sJvoto? Evexev tt,? et? 

DARAWI. 2(1. Route. 265 

and some fragments of the walls of the temple proper still remain. 
The temple stood from N. to S. On the pylon appears Ptolemy XIII. 
Neos Dionysus sacrificing to the gods of Ombos. The same families 
of gods are found here as in the larger temple .■ Horus on one side, 
Sebek and Ilathor on the other. There is also an altar. From the 
frequently repeated figures of Ape, goddess of births, the remaining 
walls of the temple proper seem to have belonged to a Pa mes or 

Birth-house f M '• Dates are recorded, including the 5 P'pago- 

menie or Intercalated days, as the birth-day of Osiris and Horus. 
On the wall facing the N. are Euergetes II. and his wife fowling in 
presence of Khem Ammon-Ra. Remains of topographical maps of 
the nomes are also distinguishable. 

The names of Tiberius and several other Roman emperors may 
be read on the scattered columns and fragments of walls. 

Many blocks bearing interesting inscriptions may be found 
between the temple and the Nile. Among them is one, unfortu- 
nately damaged, with a Sacred Inscription, specially composed for 
Ombos, commencing : 'Beginning of the chapter of the book of 
sacred knowledge, composed for the house of the venerable god, the 

lord of Ombos rssi^O ,' etc. 

26. From Kom Ombo to Assuan. 

Comp. the Mai), P- ^*- 

26V2 M. Steamboat in about 6 hours. 

The W. side of the narrow river-channel is barren, while on the 
E. side there is only a narrow strip of cultivated land. Dark-skinned, 
nude Arabs of the tribe of the 'Ababdeh (p. 253) here and there 
work a water-wheel. Occasionally a crocodile may be seen on the 
bank; but travellers who ascend only to Phila are rarely gratified 
with a sight of one of these reptiles. — Dardwi, a station of the 
mail-steamer, on the E. bank, marks the limit of Arabic. Here 
begins the Ethiopian dialect known as Kenils, which differs essen- 
tially from the dialects spoken farther to the S. by the Mahas and 
the Dongoiah (comp. p. 304). Even in ancient Egypt, as we learn 
from a papyrus, the inhabitants of the Delta did not understand the 
speech of Elephantine. 

The scenery becomes tamer after the village of Kuhanhieh, on 
the W. bank. At el-'AtCirah, opposite, granite appears for the first 
time. Before we reach Assuan the scenery assumes entirely new 
aspects. As we approach the city, the scene presented to xis is one 
of great and peculiar beauty. In front of us lies the'S. extremity 
of the island of Elephantine (p. 271), with its houses shining from 
between the palm trees; the scarlet uniforms of British soldiers and 
their white tents, conspicuous at a considerable distance, form a 

260 Route 'Jfl. ASSUAN. Trade. 

strange feature in the landscape; and sandstone now gives place to 
masses of graiiite on the banks and in the channel of the stream. 
Farther towards the S. this rock forms the natural fortress known 
as the first cataract, which consists of innumerable cliffs of dark 
parti- coloured granite, among whidi the Nile pursues its rapid 
course towards Egypt by means of many narrow channels. 
261/2 M. (58U M. from Cairo) Assudn. 

When the stream is low the steamers are compelled to anchor below 
Assuan, hut at other times they touch near the bazaar. Uliahabiyehs anchor 
at various jioints, sometimes beside the island of (Elephantine opposite. 

— The mail-steamers remain here from Sun. or Wed. morning till Mon. 
or Tliurs. al'lernoon at 3 p.m.; the three-weeks steamer halts 2 days (Sun. 
and Mon.) for a visit to Assufin and I'hila' ; and the four-weeks steamer 
2V2 days. Those] .wId wish to proceed to Wildi Halfah (p. 29'J) must 
quit the steamer on Mon. morning and take the train to Shellal (Philre). 

— In 1890 a dhahabiyeh belonging to Messrs. Cook and Son, near the 
station, provided board and lodging for II. per day. 

Assuan, Coptic <Suf/n (Arabic, with the article, Al-Sudn, A-^sudn), 
the steamboat terminus for the lower Nile, with a post and telegraph 
office, lies on the E. bank, partly on the plain and partly on a hill, 
lu N. lat. 24° 5' 30". The fertile strip here is narrow, but supports 
numerous date-palms, the fruit of which still enjoys a high repu- 
tation. The native inhabitants have increased umler the British 
occupation to about 10,000; but that number is only a fraction of 
its former population, when according to Arabian authors, no less 
than 20,000 died of the plague at one time. Some of the houses 
are elegant, but the mosques do not repay a visit. The howling 
dervishes have a house here in which they meet on Fridays for 
prayer. A considerable trade is carried on in the products of the 
Sudan and .Vbyssinia, brought hither on camels, and shipped north- 
wards by the Nile to Kench, Assiut, or Cairo. Among the chief ex- 
ports are ostrich featliers, ivory, india-rubber, senna, tamarinds, 
wax, skins, horns, and dried dates. The steamers and dhahabiyehs 
are here boarded by negroes, Nubians, and handsome Beduins, 
with artistically dressed curly hair, who offer for sale ostrich feathers 
and fans, silver rings and armlets, ivory hoops, weapons from Cen- 
tral Africa, small monkeys, amulets, beautiful basket-work, and 
aprons of leather fringe, the costume of the women of the Sudan, 
wliich they oddly call 'Madaina Nubia'. Grey and black ostrich 
feathers are comparatively cheap ( <S piastres = 2 fr. each), larger 
and perfect white feathers cost 10-20 fr. apiece and upward. Trav- 
ellers who desire to buy in quantity should betake themselves to 
one of the wholesale dealers in the town. The bazaar is like the 
bazaars of all Nile towns, buti> distinguished for its excellent local 
pottery of great beauty of form. Candles, porter, ale, and even 
tolerable Dutch cigars may be obtained at a Turkish 'bakNal'. — 
Copper money is, curiously enough, accepteil very unwillingly in 
Assuan and the rest of Nubia; the traveller should provide himself 
beforehand with silver piastres. 

History. ASSUAN. 26. Route. 267 

HisTor.T. The ancient Egvptiau name of the town of Assuan was Hun 
I \,-<:ii) ^ j|jg^|. ^jf jjjg ,v],oie cataract-district was Seiiem 

I WAA/W ® ^5 - 

The name .!>'«« means 'the place afTording an opening or entrance', because 
here the threshold of Egypt was crossed. The name seldom occuris in 
hieroglyphic inscriptions, because the metropolis or chief town of the 
nome to which Sun belonged, was Elephantine , on the island of that 
name. The place, however, is very ancient, for even under the 6th iJyn., 
the granite required by the builders of Lower Egypt was furnished by the 
quarries in its neighbourhood. In later times the city of the cataracts 
was frequently referred to by Greek and Roman writers under the name 
of Syene. It acquired special fame on account of its well (see below), 
aud as the place of banishment of Jtwenal in his old age. 

The Well of Syene, in which there was no shadow at midday, and which 
thus seemed to prove that Syene was situated under the tri>pic, has disap- 
peared. The reportlof its existence led the learned Athenian Eratosthenes (276- 
190 B.C.), attached to the Museum at Alexandria, to the discovery of the 
method of measuring the size of the earth that is still employed. 'He 
selected the arc of the earth between Alexandria and Syene (Assuan) en 
the Kile, of which place he assumed that it was in the same meridian. 
Since he knew that the midday sun at the summer solstice cast no shadow 
within a radius of 300 stadia from Syene, and that in Alexandria at the 
same time the angle determined by the shadow of the sun-gnoraou was 
equal to one-fiftieth of a circle, he correctly concluded that the distance 
between Alexandria and Syene must equal the fiftieth part of a meridian 
circle, or 7° 12'. + The distance from Alexandria to Syene was taken by 
Eratosthenes simply at the popular estimate of 5300 stadia, equal to 
593 BI. (Lepsius) or 518 M. (Hultsch). Peschel. — A glance at the map 
shows that Assuan no longer lies under the tropic of Cancer, but somewhat 
to the N. of it, so that no shadowless well can exist there at present; 
but it has been calculated that in the 4th cent. B.C. Syene actually laij 
exactly under the tropic, whence we may gather that the Egyptians must 
havennticed the shadowless well long before Eratosthenes and must have 
known the true situation of the tropic. 

Juvenrtl was still living under Hadrian ; but it is not quite certain 
whether, as is usually assumed, he was sent to Egypt by Domitian. The 
rhetorician and satirist, while living in Eome, had fiercely attacked the 
actor Paris, who was a court-favourite, and he was on that account removed 
from the capital. He was not exactly banished but appointed prefect of 
the garrison at Syene, on the most remote frontier of the empire. His 
trenchant muse found abundant material on the banks of the Nile. His 
15th Satire describes the contest between the inhabitants of Ombos and 
Tentyra (Denderah) at a festival at Koptos. The two hostile nomes, whom 
he erroneously calls neighbours ('vicinos''), had long cherished a mutual 
enmity on account of the gods they worshipped. At Tentyra the crocodile 
was persecuted, while it was held sacred at Tentyra for the sake of Sebek 
who was worshipped there. Thus arose a strife resembling that mentioned 
on p. 7. The Tentyritians even slew a man of Ombos and devoured him. 
Juvenal is indignant, and indicates that his residence on the Nile had by 
no means taught him to love the Egyptians. If he (composed the 15th 
satire at Syene, tliat town has the honour of being the birth-place of the 
following fine verses: — 

'That nature gave the noble man a feeling heart' 
'She proves herself, by giving him tears !' 
'This is the noblest part of all human nature'. 
The 16th Satire, in which Egypt is again mentioned, seems to be errone- 
ously ascribed to Juvenal. Doubts also attach to the authenticity of a 
frequently quoted edict of the emperor Diocletian, ordering the Christian 

t The actual difference between Alexandria (31' 12') and Assuan (2i* 
5' 30") is only 7° 6' 30". 

268 Route 26. ASSUAN. Inscriptions. 

churches on the Nile as far as Syene lo be torn flowii and the temples to 
be restored. 

The place sufl'ered greatly at the hands of the lilenunyes , but be- 
came the seat of a Christian bishop, and appears to have rapidly regained 
its prosperity under the Khalifs. Leo A/ricanvs (14lh cent.) saw here some 
towers of unusual height, which can only ;be regardj;d as the pyliins of 
some large temple, as they were named Jiarha by the natives, a name 
easily traced from tlie Egyptian '■pa erpe' i.e. the temple. 

After the close of the I'ith cent. Assuan suffered still more severely 
from the incursi<jns of plundering Arab tribes, finally put a stop to by a 
Turkish garrison stationed here by the sultan Selim, after the conquest 
of Egypt in 1517. Slany of the present inhabitants claim descent from 
these Turks. 

To tlie S. and N. of the landing-place, at which various craft 
are always lying, two edifices project into the river. One of these 
is a ruined Arabian fort, the other a ruined building, probably a 
bath, for which stones of earlier buildings have been u.sed, and 
dating more probably from the Khalifs than from Roman times. 
The upper part of the town presents large clay walls with few win- 
dows towards the stream; the lower part is screened by palm- 
groves, through whose green foliage gleam the outlines of crag.*, 
heaps of rubbish, a dark gray clay wall, and a pure white minaret. 
Huge granite cliff's rise from the stream. To the W. lies the green 
and fertile island of Elephantine, shaped like the head of a lance, 
and still farther to the W., on the Libyan bank, rises a ruined Arab 
castle, projecting darkly from the yellow sand-slopes of the range 
of hills across which the telegraph-wires are conducted. To the ii. 
the pro,spect is bounded by the Arabian hills, in which, more to 
the S., are some huge empty graves of saints. Everywhere the eye 
finds rest. The jS'ile, with its divided channel, appears small; but 
it still preserves its venerable aspect, for everywhere, even on the 
rocks by the stream, are inscriptions and numerous memorials of 
the grand old times, especially as we look towards the island. 

In Anti'^uitiet) , Assuan is not very rich. Hesides the small 
Ptolemaic I'emple beside the land-ioute to Philre (p. '274), only 
a few Rock Inscriptions on the river-bank call for mention. + One 
dates from Kameren of the 6th Dyn.; several from the 12th Dyn., 
from Usertesen I., from the 35th year of Amenemha II. coinciding 
with the 3rd year of his adopted successor Usertesen II., and one 
from the :')th year of the same king. In both the latter a certain 
Mentuhotcp is mentioned. There is also a stele of the 10th year of 
Usertesen III. and one with the name Neferhotep, of the 13th Dy- 
nasty. Another important stele, dating from the first year of Tut- 

contains a detailed report of the conquest 

t The remains of two other temples are described in the Description 
dc I'Epypte, but both have now disappeared. One was a tetrastyle Por- 
tico, the other a //all, dedicated by the emperor Nerva to the gods of 
Assiian, Klinum, Sati, Anuke, and Nephthys, and to Osiris, Isis, Sebek, 
and Halhor. Champollion saw the latter in IS'29. 

Tombs. ASSUAN. 2(1. Route. 269 

of some rebellious S. tribes in the land of Kush and the district 
of Kenes. Some inscriptions of a certain Senmut before Hatasu 
and her daughter Raneferu record the quarrying and despatch of 
two large obelisks j^nother is from the 9th year of Seti I.; others 
are by a Mes ( Mos^) under Merenptah I.; and another is by a certain 
Seti, a loyal son of Kush and president of the gold-land of Siptali, 
and his minister Bai. 

In 1885-86 some important Tombs of the 6th and 12th Dyn. 
were opened on the hills {^Mount GrenfelV) lying to the W. oppo- 
site Assuan, first by Mustafah Shakir, British consular agent at As- 
suan, and then by Major-general Sir F. Grenfell. They lie about 
Y4 hr. to the N. of the W. convent [Der el-gharhlyeli) . We cross 
the river in the small boat and land at a ruined stone quay, whence 
an ancient staircase, hewn in the rock, ascends for about 150 ft., 
flanked on either side by a wall of more recent date. The stairs 
are in three flights, from the top of each of which inclined planes 
lead towards the tombs, evidently intended for the transport of the 
sarcophagi. At the summit of the staircase is a platform with 
tombs of the 6th and 12th Dynasties.t Tomb No. 2G, with a curious 
door placed one-third up the height of another door, belongs to a 

court-official named Saben IT Jj , who flourished under Ne- 


fcrkara Pepi II. (6th Dyn.) and was employed on the pyramid of 

that king ' ' •¥" A Men-ankh (see Plan, Vol. I., p. 378). 

AAAAAA 1 © r— n 
The tomb consists of an oblong hall (69 ft. by 26 ft.), with a ceil- 
ing supported by 14 square pillars. Close to the entrance, beside 
the first pillar on the right, is the standing figure of Saben, with 
red complexion and black hair. On the back-wall the deceased 
appears spearing fish from a boat, with a companion engaged in 
catching birds that rise from a bed of papyrus-plants. To the left 
is a passage, leading to a winding mummy-shaft. On the left side 
of this tomb, and not separated from it by any partition wall, lies 

Tomb. No. 25, belonging to a certain Mekhu ( ^^^ ® >^)' '^^^^ 

contains eighteen columns in three rows , resembling the so-called 
proto-Uoric columns in the tombs at Benihasan (p. 12). Be- 
twecTi the first two rows stands a square stone, probably used as an 
altar. To the right of the entrance are a few paintings. Mekhu 
leans upon a staff, being perhaps lame, while offerings are pre- 
sented to him (one of his sons was also named Mekhu , his wife 
Aba was a priestess of Hathor, while another son, called Saben, was 
possibly the owner of tomb 26). In the adjoining paintings Mekhu 
is shown making an offering himself and ploughing with oxen and 

+ Described by Budtje in tbe Proceedings of the Soc. for Bibl. Arch, 
for November 1887, and by Bowiant in the Recueil X, p. 181. 

270 Route '26. ASSUAN. 

reaping. Good representations of Egyptian donkeys. From the 
point where the two tombs touch, another passage leads to a 
mummy-shaft, at tlie back of wliich is a square chamber. 

Climbing up to the riglit from this double tomb we find several 
other tombs, most of which have no inscriptions. One belongs to 

I i^'O'l Hek-ab , son of Apt and of Penatmai. A four-line in- 
scription over the entrance mentions festivals of the dead. 

Another important tomb is No. 31, belonging to Kanub- 

kaunekht ( P""*^ i )\ '•~='~^ , who appears from his name 

\ U / I® ^ 

to have been a liigh official under Amenemha I. It seems also to 
be the sepulchre of his son (V) Si Renput (son of Satihotep^, whose 
portrait is of frequent occurrence in this tomb and who is named 
commander of the light troops in the S. frontier districts. IJeycnid 
a narrow passage follows a hall with 6 square columns, and then 
another pas.sage with three recesses on eacli side, the first on the 
left containing a bearded figure of Osiris. At the end of the second 
passage is a small chamber with four columns, whence a long 
passage leads to the right to a quadruple shaft. 

Farther on, at the top of another ascent, is a tomb, named after 
the Prince of Naples who was present at its opening, and belong- 
ing to Biiikhenu, a priest at the pyramid of Pepi 11. (p.'2()9). Then 
the large sepulclires of h'huncs and Semnes. Finally on tlie N. side 
of the same hill is the interesting tomb (No. 3'2) of anotlier Si 
Renput (son of Tena), who served under Usertesen I., and was 
grand fatlier or great-grandfatlier of the above-named Si Renput 
tlirough his daugliter Sutihotep. To the riglit and left of the en- 
trance are some half-defaced inscriptions. The antechamber has 
seven pillars, on one of which (to tlie right) reference is made to 
a campaign undertaken by the king for the subjection of a hostile 
tribe (Kat?). Another important inscription (unfortunately dam- 
aged), over the entrance to the rock-tomb proper, treats of the 
influential position enjoyed by Si llenput under tlie king and in 
the (atnpaign against Knsh (Ethiopia). To the left scenes (if flsli- 
spearing anil fowling, and cattle. In the interior are a small tetra- 
style hall, a long passage, and then another tetrastyle hall, at the 
back of which is a recess. Wo may descend direct from tliis tomb 
to the bank of llu^ river. 

Among the other points to be visite<l hence arc Elcphnnline^ 
tlie small Temple of the Ptolemies, the olil Cemeteries, and tlie Qunr- 
rir.n on (lie way In Pliila'. 


27. The Island of Elephantine. 

This island is reached by small boat in a few minutes fi-om the landing- 
place. Cook\s tourist? are first transported in comfortable boats to Ele- 
phantine and then to the bazaar at Assuan (small gratuity). A row round 
the island is recommended (1/2 hr.). The entire visit takes barely an hour. 

Elephantine was a place of great sanctity from a very early pe- 
riod among the ancient Egyptians. It formed a nome by itself 

.6. n p( 
with a capital, named like the entire island /T\ .T ^^ ^"<i ^^^^ 

Ab was the Egyptian for elephant, so that Elephantine 

lue caicii'acLfc 

is merely the Greek translation of a native name. The Arabs call 
it simply Geztreh, i.e. island, or Gezlret Ansuan; and it is also said 
to be named ez-Zdhir or 'the blooming'. Though the vegetation is 
luxuriant in many spots, the writer never heard the last-given name 
applied to it. 

The Egyptian priests described the Source of the Nile as a mystery, 
that would only be revealed to the soul at the twelfth gate of the under- 
world; yet at the same time, they pointed out the 'symbolical sources of 
the Nile', so to speak, in the eddies among tlie rocks of the cataracts 

Zl ^ O ■ ""^ ^ 
to the S. of Elephantine. They named, these 

t.«. the Kerti or sources of Elephantine. Herodotus heard of these from 
a scribe in the treasury of the temple of Athena at Sais. The Halicar- 
nassian thought that the priest was but jesting when he told him that 
between Syenc and Elephantine lay two lofty peaked mountains, Krophi 
and Mophi, from the midst of which gushed the bottomless sources of the 
Kile, one half of which flowed to the K. to Egypt, the other half to the S. 
to Ethiopia. — However foolish this opinion, which Seneca also reports, 
may appear, it was not pure invention, for the monuments inform us that 
the people were really taught to believe that the Egyptian Nile had his 
abode among the rapids to the S. of Elephantine. Some located it to the 
N. of the island of Bigeh-Senem (p. 297). Khnum , the god of cataracts, 
was revered before all other gods on this island; and next to him ranked 
Sati (a form of Isis-Sothis), because the beginning of the inundation coin- 
cided with the early rising of this constellation, and the cataract may be 
regarded as the threshold of the swollen Nile entering Egypt. 

In the year 1822 Mohammed 'Ali, in order to build a palace for 
himself at Assuan, caused the destruction of the Temple of Khnum., 
built under Amenhotep III. of the 18. Dyn. near the S. end of the 
island, and also of a smaller Temple of Tutmef^ III., lying more to 
the N.W., and known as the N. temple. Travellers pass the latter 
on their way to the city, in whose N. outskirts it lay. The savants 
of the French Expedition saw this temple before its destruction and 
published views of it. Now all that is to be seen on the island are 
some huge heaps of ruins, a granite doorway of the time of Alexan- 
der I., and a granite Statue of Merenptah I. Blocks of stone and 
sculptured fragments lie aiound. 

The inhabitants of the two villages on the island, many of whom 
understand nothing but Nubian, offer coins, small antiquities (many imi- 
tations), and fragments of pottery with inscriptions (ostraca) for sale. 
The last-named are sometimes valuable ; the inscriptions are written with 

272 Route 27. ELEPHANTINE. 

ink in Demotic, Greek, or Coptic characters. A roll containing poems by 
Homer was also discovered here. 

By far tlie most interesting object on the island is the *Nilo- 
meter, on tlie W. side facing Assuan, known to the Arabs as 
Milcym. Tlie loarneci court-astronomer of tho Khedive , Mahmud 
Bey, restored this well-preserved monument to use in 1870. Strabo 
gives the following excellent description, which is interesting to 
compare with the monument as it now exists. 'The Nilometer is a 
well built of regular hewn stones, on the bank of the Nile, in which 
is recorded the rise of the stream, not only the maximum but also 
the minimum and average rise, for the water in the well rises and 
falls with the stream. On the side of the well are marks, measur- 
ing the complete rise of the water and all the other degrees of its 
rising. These are observed and published for general information'. 
Readers are referred to our account of the Mikyas at Cairo (Vol. 1., 
p. 319). The Nilometer at Elephantine consists of a narrow roofless 
chamber, connected with the stream, and is reached by 52 steps in 

6 flights. The lowest landing is re(;koned as 4 Arabian ells or about 

7 ft. above the lowest water level (the dir'a or Arabian ell being 
equal to 54 centimetres or about 21 1/3 inches). Above that point 
13 ells are marked, so that the highest point marked is 30 ft. 
(17 Arab, ells) above the minimum water-level. Each ell is divided 
on the side of the well into 6 parts and 24 kirat. The 13 old Egyp- 
tian ells, each divided into 7 spans and 28 fingers, have a total 
length of 6,895 metres (about 20 ft.), from which Mahmud Bey 
obtained 53 centimetres as the equivalent for an ell instead of 
the previously accepted 521/2 centimetres. The water-level fluc- 
tuates actually between the top of the first ell and the seventeenth, 
i.e. has a range at Assuan of 16 ells of 54 centimetres each. The 
old and new marks are placed on every third step. From the sur- 
face of the water upwards are 11 marks, of which, however, only 
tiie half are necessary, as the Nile no longer rises higher. 

Close beside the river, farther to the N., lies a massive Roman 
Slruciure, built of hewn blocks from earlier edifices. Many of 
these blocks are covered with inscriptions of different dates, in- 
cluding fragmentary lists of offerings and festival calendars and 
a portion of a Nilometer. Tlie rock-inscriptions close to the stream 
should also bo noticed. They include inscriptions by Neferkara 
(Pepi), Unas, Antef aa, witii one by Amenemha on the other side. 

The higher parts of the island I'Oiniiiand a fine *Viewofthe 
black and brown, rough and smooth rocks of the cataract, among 
which the Nile, split up into many small branches, sometimes 
dashes in fo.iiniiig energy, sometimes flows in unrulTled calmness. 


28. From Assuan to Philae. 
a, Passage of the First Cataract. 

The First Cataract (Arab. Shelldl, from flie earlier form Djindat) lies 
between Assuan and Philre. It must be passed by all who desire to 
proceed in their own dhahabiyeh to Wadi Halfali and the second cataract. 
When the river is high the passage is quite without danger, and though 
it is more difficult at later periods of the year, nothing more serious 
need be feared than some slight damage to the boat. A considerable amount 
of time, however, is consumed by the passage, except under favourable 
circumstances and when the river is at its highest. Including the necessary 
preparations, 2-3 days must be set aside for the passage; and a carefully 
drawn-up contract (p. xxii) will be found here especially useful. Tra- 
vellers who have previously arranged with their dragoman to be con- 
veyed to and from Wadi Halfah for a fixed sum including the passage of 
the cataract, will come olT best. Those who have no such arrangement 
must come to terms with one of the shekhs of the Shellal or chiefs of the 
cataracts. With a reliable dragoman the matter may be arranged in ten 
minutes, but otherwise (too frequently the case) difficulties are sure to 
arise. The boat will be objected to as too high, too weak, or two large, 
the water will be described as too low, or the wind (which must certainly 
be taken into the calculation) as too gentle; but none of these objections 
should be listened to, if the dhahabiyeh has been originally hired to 
ascend beyond the cataract. Energy and bakshish will overcome difiiculties. 
If the dragoman prove too recalcitrant, the traveller should threaten to 
proceed to Wadi Halfah by camel or by a dhahabiyeh from Phila?, and to 
bring an action for damages against the dragoman on his return to Cairo. 
That will generally produce an effect; but the action for damages should 
not, in the interest of future travellers, be allowed to remain an empty 
threat. Dhahabiyehs may be hired above the cataract, but they are in- 
ferior and dear. The cost of ascending the rapids varies from 4 to 6J., 
according to the size of the boat, to which a bakshish of at least 2-3?. must 
be added. This amount of bakshish must be paid because as many as 
50 or 60, or even, when the vessel is large and the water low, 100 men 
are required to tow a dhahabiyeh up the rapids. Travellers may remain 
on board during the operation if they choose, but as the passage takes 
several hours, they lose much time. 

Since the construction of the railway from Assuan tg Phila?, and 
owing to the disturbances caused by the Bcdnins, the journey between 
the cataracts is now very seldom made by dhahabiyeh ; and the ascent of 
the rapids by a passenger-boat is quite exceptional. 

The descent of the foaming rapids is much more interesting. Those 
who arc very cautions may perhaps cause their more precious possessions 
to be transported past the cataract by land; but serious accidents almost 
never occur, thuugh the wrecks of some dhahabiyehs on the banks prove 
that the descent is not absolutely without danger. An excellent view of _the 
passage may be obtained from a rock on the bank (Bab esh-Shelldl, p. 278). 

Passengers by Cook's steamers are conveyed down the rapids to 
Assuan in a rowing-boat for is. a head, an interesting trip, not wholly 
devoid of danger. A halt is made before the chief rapid, in order to view 
the natives descending it on trunks of trees. As usual the visitor is 
harassed by demands for bakshish. The voyage is then continued through 
smaller channels, and at dangerous points, the boat is secured by ropes. 
See description of a trip of this kind on p. 279. 

The dhaliabiyeli ascends in untroubled water as far as the island 
of Sehtl. There it is surrounded by the dark, sinewy, and generally 
most symmetrical forms of the Arabs who are to tow it through the 
rapids. Some come on board under the direction of a shekh, while 
others remain on the bank. At first the dhahabiyeh passes the be- 
ginning of the rapids comparatively easily, but by-and-by, ropes 

Baedeker's Upper Egypt. 18 

21i Route -JS. FIRST CATARACT. From Assiian 

are fastened to the mast, and the severe struggle with the descend- 
ing current begins. Some haul on the ropes from tlie bank, others 
guide tlie course of the vessel witli poles from on board, and others 
in the water keep it upright or ward it off from striking on sharp 
rocks in the river-bed. Old men, young men, and boys rival each 
other in the most exhausting activity, that seems almost frantic, 
from its never-ceasing accompaniment of shouts, cries, and chants. 
Every saint in the calendar is invoked, especially the beneficent 
Sa'id, who is believed to render especially effective aid in sudden 
dangers. At the most difficult point, the Bab el-Kehir (p. 278) 
boys, for a small fee, will plunge head-first into the stream, to 
reappear astride pieces of wood below the boiling surf, through 
which they swim with marvellous skill. If the work is not accom- 
plished before sun-set, it is left unfinished till next morning. — 
It may be remarked that the Egyptian government contemplates 
widening the channel and introducing fixed regulatioiis for the 
passage. — The time occupied in taking the dhahabiyeh througli the 
rapids may be advantageously turned to account by the traveller by 
first inspecting the cataract from the bank and then, by proceeding 
by land to Philae, where he should pitch his tent or take up his 
abode in the Osiris room (p. 295j. The most necessary articles can 
easily be transported through the rapids by a few of the sailors 
in the small boat. The dragoman will arrange the new household 
with the assistance of the cook and the camp-servant. A few days 
spent at Philae, especially at full moon, will not easily be forgotten. 
— It is not advisable to bring the dhahabiyeh as far as the island 
of Sehel and to visit Philae thence, because there are no donkeys 
to be there obtained. 

b. From Assu&n to Philae by land. 

liailway in '/'.; l^r., fare 5 piastres; one train daily (1891) to Shellal 
at 8.30 a.m., returning at 11 a.m. — The Ride to Phila; takes I'/z l»r. ; 
excellent donkeys at the landing-place. Rich inhabitants of Assuan spend 
large sums upon their riding-asses; spirited j\bys.sinian donkeys, if they 
are also handsome, cost from 30i. upwards. — The inspection of the ob- 
jects of interest of Assuan occupies 3-4 hrs. 

The route leads past the Post Office into the town, then turns to the 
right (leaving the IJazaar on the left) and follows the telegraph-wires 
across a (5 inin.) bridge over the railway to Philffi (Shellal). The Ptole- 
maic Temple lies a few minutes to the left, below (see belowj. Thence we 
proceed straight on to the Mohammedan Tombs, passing on the way the 
graves of an Austrian and of a sailor of the British ship 'Monarch' (Dawe; 
d. 1884). The Quarries are reached from the Ptolemaic temple by con- 
tinuing straight un for a few minutes, then turning abruptly into the 
desert path, which soon brings us in sight of tall blocks of stone, behind 
which is the cjuarry (p. 276). The obelisk lies 10 min. to the right of the 
above-mentioned European graves. 

1. The Ptolkmaic Temple. 
The attentive observer will notice many blocks and slabs with 
hieroglyphic inscriptions built into the houses of Assuan. In the 

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Wagner A Debes, Leipzig. 

to Philae. ASSUAN. 28. Route. 275 

station also there is a block of granite with the name of TutmesIII., 
possibly dating from a temple atSyene, on which Khnum, lordof^efcu 

1 v\ , within ^&u (Elephantine) is named. Several 

attractive houses, one belonging to a wealthy Jew, form a kind of 
suburb here. 

To the left of the road lies the small Temple, founded by Pto- 
lemy III. Euergetes and adorned by Ptolemy IV. Philopator, but 
never entirely completed. On the left of the Facade is Euergetes I. 
and his wife Berenice II., before Isis in Sun (Syene). Isis is named 
conductress of the soldiers, because the frontier-town and its neigh- 
bourhood were strongly garrisoned from very early times as well as 
under the Romans. (Under the Romans the Cohors Quinta Suenen- 
sium was stationed at Contra Syene, the Cohors Sexta Saginarum in 
the Casira Laphlariorum, on the E. bank to the S. of Syene, the 
Cohors Prima Felix Theodosiana on Elephnntine, and the Legio 
Prima Maximiana on Philce.) Next appears Ptulmis, son of Euer- 
getes, otherwise Philopator, before Khnum, Sati, and Anuke, who 
each wears his special head-dress. On the right side of the facade Is 
Euergetes I., before Sebek and Hathor, and offering Incense before 
Osiris Unnofer (the good), Isis, and the child Horus. 

On the Inner sides of the two doors leading to the antechamber 
with its two square columns, and on the inner side of the door to 
the adytvim, are Inscribed stirring Hymns to Isis-Sothis^ to whom 
apparently the little temple was dedicated. To the left, on the lat- 
ter door, are e.g. the words: 'Thou hurlest forth (sati) the Nile, 
that he may fertilize the land in thy name of Sothis, thou em- 
bracest (ank) the fields to make them fertile in thy name of Ankht. 
All beings on earth exist through thee, through thy name of Ankht 
('the living'). 

Unusually thick pillars in the first and largest chamber of the 
temple support flat Greek abaci, upon which rests a broad but flat 
architrave. Completed inscriptions are to be found only on the 
partition-wall between the sanctuary and the preceding hall, on the 
entrance door, and at a few points on the inner walls. 

Near the temple is a rock-inscription of the time of Khu-en-aten. To 
the left appears the sculptor J/«n, before a sitting figure of Amenhotep III. 
perhaps carved by himself, to the right is a son of Men named Bek, mak- 
ing an oflering. Bek is also a master-sculptor of the sun, whose heams 
radiate in the" form of hands. The cartouches of Khu-en-aten are defaced. 

2. The Arab Cemeteries. 
A brief ride brings us to an Immense number of Arab graves, 
lying in the midst of the desert, each marked by a rectangle of 
unhewn stones, and a slab bearing an engraved inscription. Many 
are covered with a pall of yellow sand. The earliest of the hundreds 
of Epitaphs exhibit the venerable Cufic character and date mostly 
from the 9th and 10th cent. A.D. A few are older and many are 


276 Boute 28. ASSUAN. From Assudn 

more recent. The inscriptions usually give the name of the deceased 
and the date of death. Texts from the Koran are not uncommon, 
in spite of the Prophet's express command that the name of God and 
passages from the Koran should never be placed upon tombstones. 
The tombs of the richer dead are small domed erections. On the 
summit of the hill to the right of the road are some large mosque- 
like Cenotaphs, dedicated to famous saints, such as the Shekh .Nlah- 
mtad, the ShOkh 'Ali, our lady (sitte) Zeinab, etc., whose memory 
is celebrated by festivals on their birthdays, etc. 

3. The Quaueies (Arabic Ma'adtn). 

About ^/4 hr. beyond Assuan we quit the road and turn to the 
E. (left). In a few minutes more we reach the verge of a hill, on 
which blocks of granite are scattered both singly and in heaps. A 
moderately lofty cliff beyond shows manifold traces of the industry 
of the ancient builders, who, from the eret tion of the pyramids to 
the time of the Ptolemies, drew their supplies of granite from the 
quarries of Syene. Almost all the granite pillars, columns, archi- 
traves, roof-slabs, obelisks, and statues that we have hitherto seen 
in Egypt, hail from this spot. 

Syenite owes its name to the early Greek form of the name of Assuan 
(Syene), although the stone here found is far too poor in hornblende to 
be reckoned true syenite at all. i Hartmann describes it as follows : — 
The granite, which interrupts the sandstone at the cataracts of Assuan, 
is of a reddish hue , caused hy bright rose-coloured orthoclase. It con- 
tains a large proportion of translucent quartz, yellow, brownish, pink, and 
black mica, and only a little hornblende. Huge coarse-grained masses of 
this composition are here found and :ilso hard /ine-grained masses, con- 
taining much red felspar, but little quartz and very little mica. Veins 
also occur rich in dark mica and greenish oligoclase, and containing a 
little pinitc; and finally veins of a dark green diorite, in which the pro- 
portion of hornblende is much greater than that of albite\ The glaze 
on the rocks of the cataracts is noticed on p. 279. 

The diligent hands of the stone-cutters of the Pharaohs have left 
distinct traces behind them. The method in which the blocks were 
quarried in tiers may still be distinctly seen on a cliff facing the 
N., about 8min. to the N.E. of the town. The skill with which huge 
masses were handled and detached without injury from the cliff to 
which they belonged, is absolutely marvellous. The certainty of the 
process adopted is amply vouched for by the fact that obelisks were 
completely finished on three sides before they were linally detached 

t This curious fact is explained by Prof. Zirkel as follows. The term 
Syenite, which occurs in Pliny, was first employed in a scientific sense 
by Werner in 17S8, who applied it to the characteristic stone formed of 
orthoclase felspar and black hornblende, found in the Plauensche (.irund, 
in Saxony. Thencel'orth that mineral was accepted as the typical syenite. 
Wad subsequently jiroved that the stone quarried at Syene was not 
syenite at all, i.e. that its formation was quite dill'erent from that of the 
rocks in the Plau nsche Grund. When Roziere discovered true syenite on 
Mount Sinai he proposed to alter its name slightly and to call it Sinaite, 
a suggestion, however, which has never been adopted. 

to Philcf. ASSUAN. 25. Route. 277 

from their native rock, this final operation being probably accom- 
plished with the aid of ■net wedges. Such an Obelisk, still attached 
to the rock, may be seen about l 2 M. to the S. of the town and 
abovit as far to the E. of the Nile. It is not easily found, as it is 
frequently more than half-covered with sand. At its broadest part 
this obelisk measures 10' '2 ft. ; its length is 92 ft. (72 ft. cut out), 
not reckoning the pyramidal top, which has already been hewn. The 
economy of material on the part of the stone-cutters is noteworthy. 
In the quarry near the road and visited by all travellers, is a huge 
Block of Rock, from which the mason has begun to hew both a 
roofiug-slab and a column. Here we clearly perceive that the ancients 
well understood how to disintegrate the granite with borers and to 
split it with wedges. Numerous holes were made in a fixed line 
(probably with the help of draw-boring), the damp wooden wedges 
were driven in, and in this manner tolerably even fractures were ob- 
tained. The art of splitting the stone by heat was also understood. 
The Chapel transported from Elephantine (i.e. Assuan) to Sais by 
Aahmes (2(ith Dyn.) was especially celebrated, and is mentioned by Hero- 
dotus (U, 175). It consisted of a single block and its transport occupied 
2OC0 men for 3 years. It is said to have been '21 ells long, 14 broad, and 
S high, outside measurement ; and IS^/g ells long, 12 broad, and 5 high, 
inside measurement. It had to remain outside the temple at Sais, on 
account of its size and weight. Still more striking, in point of weight at 
least, were the Statue of Ramses II. transported hence to the Eamesseum 
fp. 162), and a stone Chapel, seen by Herodotus (I, 155) at Buto. The 
latter was cubical in form and measured 40 ells each way; and it has 
been estimated that its weight must have been ahout 7O0O shipping-tons, 
or more than twice the burden of a large East Indiaman. 

4. The Ancient Road and the Brick "Wall. 

"We turn to the right (W.) from the quarries and follow the broad 
sandy road leading S. to Phihe. The desert has a wonderful pre- 
serving virtue. If the road along which the traveller now rides were 
practicable for carriages, Strabo's description would still fit it in 
every point. 'We drove', writes the ancient geographer, 'from Syene 
(Assuan) to Phils, through a very flat plain about 50 stadia long. 
At many points all along the road, and on both sides, we saw the 
rounded, smooth, and almost conical blocks of dark, hard rock, re- 
sembling Hermes-towers, from which mortars are made. Smaller 
blocks lie upon larger ones, and support others in their turn ; here 
and there were isolated blocks', etc. — To this we need only add 
that pious pilgrims and wayfarers have chiselled their ISames and 
short Inscriptions on many of the above-mentioned blocks. Princes, 
dignified priests, and warriors, have travelled this way, as far back 
as the times of the Amenemhas and Usertesens. Down to a late 
period pilgrims were in the habit of placing inscriptions on these 
stones, accompanied with the representation of the soles of the feet. 

Among the more noteworthy of these Inscriptions are a short one of 

the fourth year of Usertesen I. ( © jrf LJ J, and a longer one of the 

278 Route -28. lUBAN KSII -SHELL AL. From Asauan 

fifth year of Amenhotep III., in which the king is likened to a fierce lion 
that seizes the Kushites in his claws. A Stele also, of the second year of 
Bamses t